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dation of supplying nutriment, which in these arid places* could not be derived from the Cow (though worshipped on this very account in the more fertile plains of Egypt); and was therefore most probably preferred for the saddle, as that both of ABRAHAM (Gen. xxii. 3.) and of BALAAM is rendered by the Ixx ή ογος. * That the asinine species bore not then its present despised character, will appear if we recollect that they carried, in the heathen idea, their Bacchus and their SILENUS, as well as the sacred vessels in the mysteries of Ceres; that the first of those deities indeed placed them in the celestial sphere, as having saved him from a inighty deluge, with their Palun or crib (a distant adumbration of the ark) and that both these constellations are reckoned ominous of serenity+ (Theocr. xxii. 2.) it proves nothing hostile to this observation, that the Greeks and quore modern nations, by their proverbs and their treatment of this unfortunate animal haye evinced a different opinion; or that Balaam treated that, on which he rode, with so much severity: as the imputed sancțity, in countries where the onolatria and similar superstitions were established, vas confined to the enshrined individual.
The inference then, from the whole above'stated, is as follows: · I. BALAAM, a man highly gifted, but devoted to the foulest idolatries, and persevering in his infatuated determination to serve BALAK, notwithstanding the denun. ciations of the Almighty, was reproved by his own oracle, which he then found to be invested with faculties higher than even he had suspected; and reluctantly constrained in deliquium, with words not his own, to bless those whom the LORD had blessed (Numb, xxiii. 20.) which, extorted froin the mouth of an enemy, must have great weight.
* So in Job's stock, which is probably adapted to the barrenness of his situation whether Ur was an Arabiun province in the neighbourhood of Midian, or actually a part of the latter country,--She-asses are exclusively mentioned, as best suiting a sandy soil; for Epom's dwelling wus of the dew of Heaven from above (Gen, xxvii. 39.) whereas to ABRA HAM, who was going to a lund of brooks of water (Dent. viii, 7.) PHARAON gives He Asses, as well as She Asses, (Gen. xii. 16.)
f They were perhaps actually placed in the Heavens hy the Edomites, their votaries; as the wisdom and understanding inputed to that people (Jer. xlix. 7. Obad, 8.) doubtless included astronomy. Dion. Neeiny 109. I ovos rigos aupar, one oxid, ove Savatos, x, T. A. Sce Jerom. xxi. 19.,
In reference to this obstinacy, if we adopt the idea (favoured by เลข๒๑
II. A further effect of the miracle would be that ISRAEL, seeing a might exhibited beyond that of the Gods of Edom and Midian, would despise the superstitions of these their future neighbours, by which they might have otherwise been seduced, and own their JEHOvan superior to the powers of darkness,
III. A third and principal consequence is the substan tiating of the prophecy delivered, received and recorded by an enemy; referring to events, many of which did not take place for several ages, till versions of the Sacred History, precluding all interpolation, had been long in general currency. One part of it in particular, demands remark: He (i. e. CuRIST) shall smite the corners (nord) of MoAB, where the Ixx translation ηγεμονας, αρχηγές is probably the best, meaning Magi or priests of the first order; and destroy all the children of Seth; whom PluTARCH (in his Isis and Osiris) expressly identifies with TYPHON or PEQR-Apis i. e. Pror or Baal-PEOR, in whose temple the Onolatria was practised by the Egyptians.
It remains only to add, that BALAAM, having taught BALAK to cast a stumbling-block before the children of ISRAEL, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication, (Rev. ii. 14.) returned home, Numb. xxiv. xxiv. 25 and was there slain, xxxi. 7,8.
The Orp, the mountains of Kiddim, or the East, would ill apply to countries beyond the Euphrates, which lay. nearly north of Moab; and much more probably means some eastern eminency, as distinguished from others in the west. Such were Hor, and Seir, with respect to the Ereb, or western ridges; both described by JOSEPHUS, (B. J, IV. viii) These ran parallel in a direction north and south, and the valley of salt lay between them.
P.S. Upon this subject the late Rev.and learned HUGH FARMER wrote an essay, but the extract from his MS.(since destroyed) by the late Michael Dodson, Esq. has never fallen in the abstracter's way. To such, as can be amused with flippant levity on a text of Scripture, he récommends the perusal of Geddes's “ Critical Remarks!” many of the versions) that the ass only bent to the earth, or bowed down in reverence to the angel, we find a proverbial maxim in the East, subsequently introduced by PYTHAGORAS** into his institutions," not to proceed in any road ep ov ovos oxhaon, where an ass hadbent its knees."
+ So POTI-PHERA, priest of Phar, or the Sacred Ox or Cow; PETA PHKEE, of Ree the Sun; PETASACVS, of the deified crocodile; PetosiRIS, of Osiris, &c. &c.
* Tas twr Iadowy (often confounded with the Idumæans) došas Helme jarjeros (HERMIPP.)
on Numb, xxii, &c. which he sets out with pronouncing “to have all the air of a legendary tale.” His commentary on ver. 23. is grossly profane. His version of bone “(hot baths”) in the story of ANAH, and his first elaborate notes immane quantum discrepant from the reverential and profound observations of BRYANT.
P ETER TE
pas studio intes F. R. S. is .
Different Degrees of Glory in the Life to Come.
By the learned Joseph Mede, B.D.
THAT there shall be differing degrees of Reward in
the life to come, is evident, by sundry places of Scripture : As first, from that so often iterated passage, wherein God is said to reward every man according to his works; which is not to be understood only of the differing quality of our works, good and evil, which God rewards accordingly, the one with everlasting bliss, the other with eternal fire, (as some here except) but also of the differing works of just men.compared together, as is inanifest by that ) Cor. 3.8. where the Apostle comparing his own and Apollos's work together, saying,. He had planted, and Apollos watered ; adds, That both should recrire their reward, according to their work; that is, as their work differed, so should their reward do. In the second place the same is represented by that Parable, Luke 19. of the ten servants who received of their Lord, being to go into a far country, ten pounds to trade with till his return, `At what time he that bad increaser his pound to ten pounds, was made ruler over ten cities : he that had gained but five pounds, over five cities, and so the sesi, accordingly as they had improved the stock given them. A third place is that 1 Cor. 15. 42. There is one glory of the Sun, unother of the Moon, and another of the Stars, for one star differeth from another in glory. So also is the Resurrection of the dead. Here is the full stop, and not the words to be referred to that which follows, to wit, that the body is soun in corruption, and riseth again in
Gran incorruption, incorruption, as some would have them. For the Apostle speaks here of the difference of things heavenly and glorious ;) and not of the difference between glorious, and inglorious, corruptible and incorruptible : For this belongs to his other similitude; There are celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial, but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another. A fourth place is that 2 Cor. 9.6. where tbe Apostle speaking of the rewárd of beneficence, avouchetlı, that he which soweth sparingly, shall reap sparingly, and he that soweth bountifully, shult reap bountifully. Fifthly, that speech of our Saviour to the twelve, Matt. 19, imports as much; Behold we, saith St. Peter, have forsaken all and followed thee : To ape 5505 npelo ;, what shall we have therefore? Verily I say unto you, that ye which have followed me, Ev TH Tanszy nuecia, in the Regeneration, or Resurrection, when the Son of Man shall sit upon the throne of his Glory, ye also shult sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve Tribes of Israel. *St. Luke relates it upon another occasion; whereby it appears our Saviour uttered it more than once, You (saith he to the Twelve) are they which have continued with me in my temptations. Therefore I appoint you a kingdom, as my Futher hath appointed unto me, that ye may eat and drink at my Table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones, judging the twelve Tribes of Israel. Luke. 22, 28, &c. Whatsoever is meant by the reward intimated in this expression, for the quality thereof, 'tis plain there is some peculiar and more eminent degree of glory bere promised The Apostles, which shall not be cominon to others with them: first, because it is the reward of their proper and peculiar service unto Christ, as the text shews. Secondly, because these twelve thrones in regard of thejr number, can benefit no more but these twelve: Thirdly, supposing the twelve tribes of Israel here mentioned, to be likewise in a condition of bliss and happiness; it must needs be, that those who sit upon troelve thrones to judge, that is, to govern them, must be in a bigher degree of dignity, than those over whom they shall be set : Whatsoever therefore the meaning of the reward be, thus much may be gathered from the description thereof, that there shall be differing degrees of glory in the kingdom of Christ to come. To conclude, it hath been the ancient and constant tradition of the charch, testified by the unanimous consent of all the fathers, was never ques tioned by any, until that Peter Martyr in this last age. first began to doubt thereof, and others since more boldly adventured to contradict it.
Their main reasons or objections are these two : first, that the reward to come depends not upon the virtue or dignity of our works, but only upon the merit and satisfaction of Christ : Bui his inerits and satisfaction is uniform and the same to all : Ergo, the reward also which is to be given by virtue thereof shall be so. This oljection proceeds from that scrupulosity, which many of ours have to admit of any relation or connexion between our works and the reward to come: Whence also is that, that they should not be done intuitui mercedis; which is an assertion repugnant to the tenour of the Scripture, where the Holy Ghost is wont to ground his exhortations upon the hope and promise of reward. Now what an unreasonable conceit is it to think that where wages is promised for the encouragement of the labourer, the labourer should be bound to work without having any eye or respect to his wages. But to the objection 1 answer thus; That it is true, the merits and satifaction of Christ is the foundation of our reward, namely, that alone which makes our works capable thereof, without which they were not: nevertheless it is true also, that our works are the subject of reward ; and the same merit of Christ, makes differing works capable of a different reward.
Their other objection hath a little more likelihood, and, seems thereof somewhat more difficult to answer : It is taken from the parable, Matt. 20, where the kingdom of heaven is compared to a vineyard, the master whereof went out in the morning to hire labourers, and agreed with them for a penny a day : three hours after, or at the third hour, and so again at the sixth and ninth hours; yea at the eleventh, but an hour before sun went down, he did likewise. And when they came all to receive their wages, he gave the last hired as much as he had agreed with the first, to wit, every one a penny, neither more nor less : whence it seems to follow, that the reward to come, signified by the penny, shall not be proportioned according to the difference of work, but be one and the same to all.
I answer; first, the parable proves no more but this; that ihe sooner or later coming of men into the vineyard of the cburch, (for all were not to be called at one time, nor in one age) shall not make their reward greater or