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former" king,”) because “ the spirit of God was in him," Gen, xli. 38. His conduct, therefore, was irrational as well as impious; he resembled the sons of Eli, in after ages," who were sons of Belial, they knew not tax LORD," and hearkened not unto the warning] voice of their Father, because ThE LORD willed to slay them;" after they had long provoked him to anger, by their wil. ful obstinacy and repeated transgressions. 1 Sam. ii. 12-25.
Quos Deus vult perdere, prius dementat. And in this sense it was, that the Lord foretold to Moses, both before and at the commencement of his embassy, “ I will harden Pharaoh's heart." Exod. iv.21. vii. 3. not immediately, but ultimately, after he should obstinately and wilfully rejecț abundant evidence of “God's multiplied signs and wonders in the land of Egypt."-. and after he had repeatedly hardened his own heart.
Not adverting to this natural and necessary distinction, by a most unfortunate and mischievous mistake, the author of the Remarks, implicitly following the established translation, attributes, in the first instance, that obdu. racy, to God, which wae the sole act of Pharaoh himself: for when he had required from Moses and Aaron a siga or proof of their divine cominission; " Shew a miracle for yourselves," and that his wise men had imitated the first miracle, of the transformation of Aaron's rod into a serpent; although - Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods," thus annihilating them; "yet Pharaoh hardened his heart, so that he hearkened not unto them; as the Lord had said." Exod. vii. 13. That this is, indeed, the correct rendering of the ori
, ; , HE (THE LORD) hardened his heart,” may justly appear from the following considerations :
1. All the ancient versions, the Greek Septuagint, the Syriac, the Latin vulgate, the Arabic, the Samaritan version, and the Chaldee paraphrase, unite, without exception, in rendering it, " And the heart of Pharaoh tas hardened;” and are followed by the earlier translation of Coverdale, and the Geneva Bible. But unfortupalely the Bishop's Bible, (to reconcile it, I presume, with the prediction, Exod. iv. 21.) introduced the mistranslation,
,not ;ויחזק לב פרעת ,ginal phrase
which has been copied injudiciously by our last translators.
2. And that “ the heart of Pharaoh was hurdened,” in this case by himself, and not by God, is evident from the subsequent cases: for the very same phrase recurring, after the first plague turning the waters of the river Nile into blood, Exod.vii. 22. and after the third plague of lice, Exod. viii. 19. and again after the fifth plague of murrain, Exod. ix. 7. is correctly rendered by our variable translation,'" and the heart of Pharaoh was hardened,” where the context manifestly decides—by himself, not by God.
3. In the corresponding phrase, after the second plague of frogs, 125 ng 73301 “ And he hardened his heart," as in our translation, Exod. viii. 15. the context also decides, that Pharaoh is the nominative case understood; while the synonimous verb hyphil, signifies," he made heary," i. e. ei dull, stupid, or slow of understanding:" and the same phrase recurs after the fourth plague of flies, with the true nominative, actually expressed, “ and Pharaoh hardened his heart, at this time also; neither would he let the people go:” Exod. viii. 32. thus plainly intimating, that at the foregoing times, it was Pharaoh's act and deed, and his alone; and it was so understood and expressed by the prophet Samuel, in his account of the restoration of the ark of the God of Israel, by the Philistines, accompanied by trespass offerings to deprecate his vengeance, in consequence of this sage admonition of their councellors:- Wherefore, then, do ye harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts; was it not after He had wrought wonderfully among them, that they let the people go; and they departed?” Sam. vi. 6.
II. But how is the obduracy of Pharaoh to be accouuted for, in the first instance; or his rejection of “the miraculous sign” of transforming Aaron's rod into a serpent?
The author of the remarks supposes, that “ God suffered or permitted the magicians to perform a like miracle, by their incantations, or “ diabolical arts:" and that “ Pharaoh thereby considered himself to be furnished with a plausible excuse for refusing to comply with Jehovah's demand.”
But is it to be imagined, that God would suffer or permit a procedure, by “diabolical arts” (or the agency of the Devil) hostile to the grand end of this dispensation,
which was by mighty signs and wonders to prove his sole. and exclusive sovereignty ? --That He" alone" was Lord in the midst of the earth ;" Exod. viii. 29; ix. 99, and that all others were nullities? Would it not be highly injurious to the character of the Deity to suppose that he would permit the magicians, or their master, the Devil, to counteract and oppose the mission of Moses by open. miracles of the same kind ? And if their miracles were true, would not'Pharaoh be furnished with more than “ a plausible excuse?” Might he not have been justified in considering the magicians as having the advantage over Moses, in the number of their miracles, at least, in producing several serpents, when he only produced one? And might he not have accounted this circumstance sufficient to counterbalance the apparent“ superiority” of Aaron's rod swallowing all theirs ?
(To be continued.)
ON THE DUTIES OF PARENTS, TEACHERS, AND
of his trust, will carefully endeavour to “ bring up his children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.” This he will esteem, above all other considerations, the first and most important part of his duty. Every other acquisition, with respect to literature or science, he will look upon as a secondary object, which serves only to em-, bellish and improve human nature, after a more substantial foundation has been laudably established. He will be constantly solicitous to make his rising offspring understand the great fundamental doctrines of christianity, and no less anxious to render them useful members of the community. The precepts of the christian religion, and the maxims of truth, he will deeply implant in their minds; and check, with watchful circumspection, every evil inclination. He will teach them piety to Ciod, and love to man. He will inculcate every inodest virtue. Ile will instruct them in useful knowledge, in obedience
Vol. VIII. Churchn. Mag. Jan. 1805. D and 4
and submission to parental authority ; in-simplicity of manners, in gratitude, in charity, in temperance, in prudence, in justice, in sincerity, in diligence, in benevolence, and, above all, in the ineek and humble religion of the blessed Saviour of the world; a religion of all others the most mild and beneficent, and the best calculated for the happiness of mankind.
From such conduct in a parent, it is but reasonable to expect, that his children will live to bless him, and that the Omniscient Father of the Universe will look down upon him with a peculiar regard; while his own conscience will be at peace, and all his thoughts serene and happy. A parent ought constantly to aim at gaining the affectionate confidence of his children; and winning them to emulate his good example, by a line of duty at once attractive and conciliating. « Let hjm train them up,” says a judicious and accurate writer,* “ to a habit of examining the various works of the creation, and of thence raising their thoughts to the great Creator. Let him impress on their hearts, and cherish from their childhood, a warm and active sense of religion, and an invariable reference to God and their duty, in every part of their conduct. Let him watch over their
in learning, and direct their attention, at fit seasons, to modern history, geography, and other useful studies. At the same time, he will point out their comparatively low importance among the great and genuine objects of education; always bearing in mind that, instead of elegant attainments, and trivial accomplishments, which; although innocent, and perhaps requisite, as assimilated with modern manners, a medium similar to that which Agar is applauded in seripture for desiring, with respect: to poverty and riches, would prove the happiest, both in the case of accomplishments, and of personal beauty.”
Teachers. You who have the care and instruction of youth, reflect, for a moment, on the importance of the high office with which you are entrustel. It belongs to you in a peculiar manner to inculcate, with all possible industry, the lessons of useful learning, and to instil into the youthful mind the love of virtue and religion. It belongs to you to set your pupils the best examples, and to observe, in your own con
duct and conversation, the directions you give them. Let the rules which you prescribe be observed by yourself. And let your own actions be a faithful illustration of your precepts. This, if you are faithfully and conscientiously inclined, you will always esteem a prominent part of your professional duty, and adhere to it with that scrupulous attention which any object of great moment uniformly merits.
But it is not sufficient that you possess a moral and irreproachable character: you must also be gifted with endowments, and possessed of attainments, proper to constitute you an able instructor. Your abilities, if not shining, must, at least, be pregnant with information, for education is confessedly a work of no small importance. Let your conduct, therefore, be in every respect exemplary. Let your mind be stored with valuable knowledge; and endeavour to impart it to your little audience in the most engaging and persuasive manner that human means can devise. Let your manners be pleasing, polite, courteous, and affable. Cultivate a mild and humane disposition, and a heart alive to the little wants, and forgiving to the little failings, of children. Indulge not in yourself any irregularity of behaviour ; but, as far as in you lies, be invariably mild, steady, punctual, moral, industrious, contented, and discreetly authoritative. Add to your virtue knowledge, to knowledge temperance, to temperance brotherly kindness, to brotherly kindness charity, which is the very bond of peace, and of every virtue, whether in great or in small societies.
Yours is a profession highly useful to society, however it
may be contemned by the unthinking, or ill-requited by the ungenerous. Respect certainly belongs to those who are engaged in it. And the task of instructing youth is certainly pleasurable, where children are of a docible and amiable disposition ; but, if obstinate, peevish, stupid, and ungrateful, nothing can be more irksome, nothing more repugnant to the feelings of a benevolent mind. Those, therefore, who are engaged in the school professions, may be said to be linked to a chain of difficulties, in the midst of thorns, where there are few flowers; and exposed to the shafts of ignorance, malice, falsehood, and ingratitude, in a thousand different shapes, and they, let me add, who acquit themselves well, and discharge their never-ending duty with fidelity, are de