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S'arvilaka's speech, which is entirely made up of aspersions on the character of women generally. Cf. Euripides—

A3j\on ta; yvvrl xaxoi fiiyu.Hippol. 627. j

Also . . . J£g5j> yaj uXKo&iv noQtv /3jorou;
llaioa; rixvovetlai, 6r,\v b'ovx thai yho;'
Xoura; av oux %* oii8iv uvDounoi; xaxov.Med. 573.

Tiiof yuo ovrt co'uro; Outs yri rgifai
Toimbt.Hec. 1181.

11. This stanza is one containing a play upon words throughout. The epithets which are used in a complimentary sense referring to a woman's external form may also, together with the substantives which they qualify, be used in a bad sense as applied to mental characteristics. From this point of view the stanza might mean—" Hardness of heart, eyes not looking straightforward, a deceitful face, a stupid look, sluggishness, cowardice, crafty behaviour;—such qualities may be subjects of boasting, but are really evil, and wise men avoid women of this kind." The wise man does not judge women merely by their external appearance; such want of discrimination is only worthy of the beasts; he looks within.

Cf. Vairdgya Sataka, sloka 62.

13. Prahasana, translated "comedy," is one of the ten Bdpakas or forms of dramatic representation.

"Hair grey with age." Palita-kamaka-bhajam, lit. " having grey ears," i.e., grey hairs round your ears.

Cf. Raghuv., xii. 2—

"Tarn karnamulamagatya

palitachchhadmana jara\"

"Old age under the guise of grey hairs
Creeping to the bottom of his ear."

18. Jdtah, "born indeed," i.e., born to some good purpose. Cf. Vairdgya Sataka, sloka 29. Dhruva, " the pole-star," that which is fixed or permanent. The tortoise below the earth and the pole-star above it are probably chosen as examples of two things at the extreme limits of the universe. "Neither above nor below" may be explained as referring to men who are no profit to others, either from a high position, as the pole-star, or from a low one, as the tortoise: they have no share in any useful work. They are like gnats, aimlessly buzzing about. For the fig-tree as symbolising the world of sense and passion, cf. Bhagavad., xv.

23. Men find no pleasure in hunting, in war, or in love, because their minds are always set on some extraneous object. Cf. Vairdgya §ataka, slokas 5 and 48.

26. Bali was a virtuous Daitya king, who by means of devotion and penance gained the mastery over the three worlds. Vishnu, on being appealed to by the deities, became manifest in his Avatara of the Dwarf for the purpose of overthrowing Bali's power. In this form he begged from Bali as much ground as he could cover in three steps, and his boon being granted, stepped over heaven and earth in two strides. Out of respect, however, for Bali's virtues, he left him the lower region or Patala.

29. Cf. Vairagya Sataka, sloka 74, and also Bhaghavad., vi. 8—

"Jnana vijnana triptatma, kutastho vijitendriyah
yukta ity uchyate yogi samaloshtasmakanchanah."

"The man whose soul is satiated with spiritual knowledge and discernment, who is unchangeable, who looks upon a stone, a clod of earth, or gold as having exactly the same value—he indeed is called a devotee."

34. What penance, it is asked, has the deer practised that he is able to pass his life in peace and contentment.

38. The well used by Chandalas, a tribe of outcasts, is distinguished by a piece of bone suspended over it



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