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water, and peace in the world, are wantonly pursued by huntsmen, fishermen, and envious people.

The Character of the Good. 62. Desire for the companionship of the good, love for the virtues of others, reverence for spiritual teachers, diligence in acquiring wisdom, love for their own wives, fear of the world's blame, reverence for Siva, self-restraint, freedom from the acquaintance with evil men—wherever men dwell endowed with virtues like these, they are always reverenced.

63. Firmness in adversity, restraint in prosperity, eloquence in the assembly, boldness in war, the desire of glory, study in the Scriptures—these are the natural characteristics of the virtuous.

64. Secret generosity, cheerful hospitality to strangers, not speaking in public about one's own good deeds, proclaiming the benefits received from others, freedom from pride in prosperity, due respect in speaking of othersthis is the vow of exceeding difficulty, taught by the good.

65. Liberality is the fitting virtue for the hand, reverence towards spiritual teachers for the head, true speech for the mouth, surpassing power for the arms of a mighty man, content for the heart, the holy Veda rightly understood for the ears; the man of noble mind who is the possessor of these adornments has no need of outward pomp.

66. The heart of the wise is soft as a lotus flower in prosperity, but in adversity it is as firm as a mountain rock.

67. Water will not remain on hot iron, but standing on a lotus leaf it shines with the beauty of a pearl; and if a drop of water fall under a favourable star into the middle of an oyster in the sea, it straightway becomes a pearl. So is the disposition of men, good, tolerable, or bad, according to the society in which they live.

68. The son who delights his father by his good actions, the wife who seeks only her husband's good, the friend who is the same in prosperity and in adversity—these three things are the reward of virtue.

69. Those who are ennobled by humility: those who display their own virtues by relating the virtues of other men: those who in their own business always consider the interests of others: those who hate the evil speaker, and the mouth that continually utters harsh and impatient words :—good men whose admirable behaviour is shown in virtues like these are always held in reverence. Who would not respect them ?

The Way of Liberality. 70. Trees loaded with fruit are bent down; the clouds when charged with fresh rain hang down near the earth : even so good men are not uplifted through prosperity. Such is the natural character of the liberal.

71. The ears of such men as these are adorned with hearing revelation, not with earrings; their hands with liberality, not with bracelets; their bodies shine through doing kind deeds to others, not with ointment of sandalwood.

72. The good man shuns evil and follows good: he keeps secret that which ought to be hidden: he makes his virtues manifest to all: he does not forsake one in adversity: he gives in season. Such (according to the wise) are the marks of a worthy friend.

73. The sun opens the lotuses; the moon illuminates the beds of water-lilies; the cloud pours forth its water unasked: even so the liberal of their own accord are occupied in benefiting others.

74. Those men are good men who study the good of others without regarding themselves. Those men are ordinary men who, while they benefit others, do not neglect their own interests. Those men are demons who


destroy another's good for their own profit. What shall we call those who aimlessly destroy that which is another's ?

75. The milk that has been joined to the water has long since given over to it its own innate qualities. The water has seen the milk growing hot, and has immediately made an offering of itself in the fire. The milk was eager to rush into the fire, but having seen its friend's distress, remains still, being joined to the water. Even so is the friendship of the good.

76. The ocean endures the sleep of Késava, and is a refuge for the mountains in their flight from the demons; moreover, it is filled with devouring flames within. Surely the ocean can endure anything!

77. Restrain desire, cultivate patience, conquer illusion, do not lust after evil, speak the truth, follow that which is good, seek the company of the virtuous, honour the wise, be reconciled even with enemies, conceal your own virtues, guard your good name, show pity for the unfortunate—these are the acts of the good.

78. How many noble men are there whose thoughts, words, and deeds are, as it were, filled with nectar-by whom the three worlds are loaded with blessings—who exalt even the very smallest virtues of another to the size of a mountain—whose hearts are constantly expanding ?

79. What profit is there in Meru, the mountain of gold, or of the hill of silver, where the trees that grow remain the same trees without any change? We honour the hills of Malaya, for by contact with them common trees like the Trophis Aspera, the bitter Nimba, and the Karaya become themselves even as sandal trees.

The Praise of Constancy. 80. The gods rested not until they had gained possession of the nectar: they were not turned aside from the search by pearls of great price, nor by fear of terrible poison. Even so men of constant mind do not rest until they have completely accomplished their object.

81. At one time a man may lie on the ground, at another he may sleep on a couch; at one time he may live on herbs, at another on boiled rice; at one time he may wear rags, at another a magnificent robe. The man of constant mind, bent on his purpose, counts neither state as pleasure nor pain.

82. Courtesy is the ornament of a noble man, gentleness of speech that of a hero ; calmness the ornament of knowledge, reverence that of sacred learning; liberality towards worthy objects is the ornament of wealth, freedom from wrath that of the ascetic; clemency is the ornament of princes, freedom from corruption that of justice. The natural disposition, which is the parent of the virtues in each, is their highest ornament.

83. The constant man may be blamed or praised by those skilled in discerning character; fortune may come to him or may leave him; he may die to-day or in ten thousand years' time; but for all that he does not turn aside from the path of righteousness.

The Power of Fate. 84. A rat fell by night into the jaws of a serpent whose body had been squeezed into a basket, and who was halfdead with hunger. The serpent, revived by his meal, went forth, and immediately meeting with the same fate as the rat, perished. Be content, O my friends, with your lot! The success or failure of men is in the hands of fate.

85. A ball, though it fall to the ground, flies up again by the strokes of the hand. Even so the misfortunes of good men are not often lasting.

86. Idleness is a great enemy to mankind: there is no friend like energy ; for if you cultivate that it will never fail.

87. The tree that is cut down grows again; the moon that wanes waxes again after a time. Thus do wise men reflect, and, though distressed, are not overwhelmed.

88. Indra, though guided by Vțihaspati, and armed with the thunderbolt; though the deities were his soldiers, and Vishnu his ally; though Svarga was his citadel, and the elephant Airasvata his steed, was defeated. How resistless is the power of fate! How vain are human efforts !

89. Discernment is the fruit of men's actions, and is the result produced by deeds performed in another state: this must be carefully considered by the wise man who gives heed to all things.

90. A bald-headed man was scorched by the rays of the sun on his head, and seeking a shady place, went, under the guidance of fate, to the foot of a palm tree. While resting there, the fruit of the tree fell with a loud noise on his head and broke it. Even so, wherever the unfortunate man goes, he generally meets with disaster.

91. When I see the sun and moon exposed in the eclipse to the assaults of the demon; when I behold the bonds which hold a serpent or an elephant; when I behold the wise man in poverty, then the thought strikes me, “ How mighty is the power of fate!”

92. Fate brings forth an excellent man—a very mine of virtue—and in a moment works his ruin. Alas! how unreasoning is the action of fate!

93. It is not the fault of the spring that the leafless tree does not produce leaves; it is not the fault of the sun that the owl cannot see by day; it is not the fault of the raincloud that the drops do not fall into the cuckoo's mouth. Who shall reverse that which fate has written on the forehead of each?

The Praise of Action. 94. We worship the gods, but are they not in the power of fate? Destiny must be worshipped, for that is the sole giver of rewards to man proportioned to the acts of their former state. But the fruit of those acts depends upon the

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