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ARCHBISHOP GRINDAL *
EDMUND GRINDAL was born about chosen, in consequence of his learnthe year of our Lord 1519, at Hen- ing and ability, Fellow of Pembroke singham, in the parish of St. Begh's, Hall. In the year 1540, being yet in the county of Cumberland. He but Bachelor of Arts, he was apwas addicted to study in his tender pointed Jurio: Treasurer of bis Col. years: even while he was a child, lege. The next year he commenced books were his delight and recrea- Master of Arts. Already he was tion, so much so, that be carried considered as one of the ripest wits them about with hin ; whichi, as it and most learned men in Camshewed the pleasure he took in bridge. He obtained, July 4, 1544, learning, so it fell out once very the title of the Cu'lege, under Rid. fortunately to him. For when he ley, then Master, to John Bird, was a boy, walking somewhere in Bishop of Winchester, who was the fields, and having his book in then looked upon as a great fahis bosom, an arrow accidentally vourer of reformation; receiving, came, that lighted with its point as it seems, his orders from him. just in the place where the book In 1548 he was declared Proctor of was, wbich, if the book had not the University. In 1549 he became been there, must have certainly slain President of his College, being him.:
often mentioned in the acts of the In his boyhood also, going a jour. University, as “ assisteus Vice-caoney with his father on foot, after, cellarii in judiciis.” And being some violent rains, God made use then Bachelor iu Divinity, he was of him to save the old man's life. unanimously elected Lady MargaFor attempting to go over a rotten ret's Preacher. This year also he bridge, (over which their way lay,) was distinguished as one of the four the youth, perceiving the danger, selected out of the whole Univercalled suddenly to his father, and sity, at an extraordinary Act comwithal pulled him back with his menced for the entertainment of hand; upon which the bridge, by King Edward's Visitors, to maintain the force of the waters, présently the negative of the doctrine of tranbrake down. And thus God making substantiation. him the instrument of preserving his The next year be removed to father froin such a sudden death; no London, to be Chaplain to Ridley, question, the blessing of his father, who was then Bishop of London. accompanied with God's blessing. Here the first prefermeut which he descended on him.
obtained was that of the ChanferHe was sent up to the University ship of St. Paul's. of Cambridge, where he entered at He was now President of his ColMagdalen College, afterwards re- lege, Bishop Ridley being still Masmoved to Christ's College, and suh. ter. In the year 1551 he was con. sequently, as soon as he was eli- cerned in two amicable private con. gible to ä fellowship, being Bache- ferences upon the sense of the words, lor of Arts in the year 1538, was “ This is my body," in which
• This life is compiled from “ The History of the Life and Acts of the Most Reverend Father in God, Edmund Grindal, the first Bishop of London, and the second Archbishop of York and Canterbury, successively, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by John Strype, M.A. 8vo. Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1821.
there assisted on the Protestant ary; the magistrates of which side, besides himself, Cheke, Horn, town freely and Christianly gave and Whitehead-on the other, Fec- harbour to several English Proteskenham, Young, and Watson. tants of the best rank, both of the
In December, this year, a resolu: laity and the clergy, and allowed tion was taken by the King's Coun- them a church for the exercise of cil that the King should retain six their religion, according as they Chaplains, two to be always with professed it in England. Thither the King in waiting, the other four he came in very honourable comto be sent over the kingdom, espe- pany, viz. with Sir Anthony Cook, cially the remoter counties, to preach Sir Richard Morison, Sir Joha to the common people, and to in- Cheke, Sir Thomas Wroth, and Mr. struct them in the principles of true Hales; all persons of very great religion and obedience to their learning, and extraordinary worth Prince. These six were afterwards and goodness. reduced to four, and Grindal, by Of this his departure, Ridley, means of his patron Bishop Ridley, now prisoner, had intelligence, and was one of these, with a salary of in a letter to Augustin Beroher, 401, a year.
relating how Grindal's two fel. In the month of June, the sixth low chaplains, Rogers and Bradyear of Edward VI. for his greater ford, one was offered up to God in countenance, he obtained a royal li- martyrdom, and the other ready to cense to preach ; and in July follow- be offered, used these words of him : ing the grant of a Prebend in West- -" Grindal is gone. The Lord, I minster, which he resigned after. doubt not, hath (seeth) and knowwards to Bonner, Bishop of London, eth wherein he will bestow him”.
In the month of November, 1552, prophetically spoken it would seem, he was nominated for a bishopric in of those high places in the Church, the North, being then not above to which God afterwards called thirty-three years of age ; such pub him. lic notice had been already taken of Being almost in despair of the rehis abilities. What this northern storation of religion in England, and bishopric was we are left to conjec. consequently of his return thither ture; but as it was then determined again, he resolved to make himself by the King and his Council to master of the German tongue, that divide the Bishopric of Durham, his talent might not lie unoccupied, now void by the deprivation of Ton- but that he might be able to preach stal, into two, it is probable that God's word in the German churches; he was intended for one of these and for this purpose retired to a
This appointment, however, did town called Wasselheim, where he not take place; and he continued attained to such great perfection still in possession of his Prebend of in the language, that a learned GerSt. Paul's, laying out his talent in man addressed him thus-" Ut vox a diligent and faithful preaching of tua etiam in Germanicis ecclesiis the Gospel in different parts of the audiri potuisset.” He also made realm, as well as at the Court, until some residence at Spires, where he the death of King Edward the Sixth: was courteously entertained by one when we find him flying his native Leach, a Scotchman.. : country,--to avoid the persecution During his exile he was employed and cruelty that the Popish reli- with Chambers, as his colleague, to gion directed to be used to replant settle the disturbances which Knox itself, and especially towards the and Whittingham were the chief inmost eminent of the preachers and struments in raising at Frankfort, instruments of the Reformation about a new model and form of wore He made Strasbourg his sanctu- ship, varying from the last corrected REMEMBRANCER, No. 70.
Book of Edward the Sixth. Find- Westminster, at which were present ing, however, little likelihood of the Lord Keeper, and many others agreement, he determined at first to of the nobility and gentry, Grindal continue his residence at Stras- was one of the eight Protestant bourg. He however returned to Divines selected to enter the lists Frankfort afterwards, in April or against White, Bishop of Winches. May, 1555, with Cox, Chambers, ter, Watson of Lincoln, Abbot and some others of chief account, Feckenham, and some few more and succeeded in restoring quiet, Popish Bishops, who undertook to so that henceforth the chief conflux defend some doctrines of the Church of students and other exiles was to of Rome. He was also upon occathat place.
sion called forth to preach; and in His other principal employment the Queen's first Lent, on the 23d of in his exile was in collecting the February, preached before her Mawritings and stories of the learned jesty. and pious sufferers in England: for The English Service Book, that which purpose he engaged in an ex- had been enacted in the late Parliatensive correspondence ;--acting as ment to be used throughout the the great counsellor and assistant of churches of England, began on SunFox, the martyrologist ; to whose day, May 12, 1559, in the Queen's History of the Martyrs he supplied Chapel. On Wednesday after it materials;-much of that work being began to be read in St. Paul's drawn up and methodized by him Church : and for the more solemn in English, so that it only remained introducing of it, there was a serfor Fox to translate such parts into mon, which Grindal was appointed Latin.
to preach, together with a very It pleased God, however, to bring august assembly of the Court pre. him home sooner than he thought, sent. to exercise his talent in his own In the summer of 1559, the Queen country. Upon the accession of having instituted a visitation throughElizabeth he was required to assist out England, he was appointed one in the work of the restitution and of the Royal Commissioners for government of the Church of Eng- visiting the north; when, among land, lately so defaced by Popery; other acts, he deprived the Gover, and accordingly he hastened back to nor of Sherborn Hospital, for holdEngland in December, 1558, the ing Popish principles. very next month after Queen Mary's Dr. Young being removed that death.
year, by the Queen's Visitors, His first public service was, in from the Mastership of Pembrokeconjunction with other learned and Hall, for his refusal of the oath of wise men, in drawing up and pre- supremacy, Grindal, at the earnest paring a form of prayer and public solicitation of the Fellows, was apworship, against the meeting of Par- pointed Master of the College in his liament. Their deliberations on room : and at the same time leave this subject were held in Sir Tho- of absence from the College was mas Smith's lodgings, in Cannon- granted to him. row, Westminster, from time to He held, however, the Mastership time, during that first winter. In but a little time, his other weighty these conferences he gave proof of affairs in the Church hindering his a prudent and grave advice and residence in the University, and reconduct in matters relating to the signed it in May, 1562, if not before, reformation of religion.
The deposition of Bonner from Next, at a solemn conference in the Bishopric of London, under March following, held publicly at King Edward, being declared to
have been valid, the Queen thought the Holy Ghost hath made you overnone so fit to succeed him as Grin- seers *. dal, whose behaviour aud doctrine An exchange of lands, which was had been so well known in that in process between the Queen and diocese, and who was likely to be himself, being as yet not completed, the more acceptable to the citizens, he was unable finally to compound as having been dear to their late holy for his first.fruits; nor could be Bishop Dr. Ridley.
therefore enter on his duties, as But he was not without his scruples Bishop of the diocese, until he obin accepting the Bishopric : these tained a warrant from the Queen, scruples related to the matter of tithes dispensing, in his case, with the and impropriations, which the Queen, customary requisition. in order to gratify some of her cour- On January the 8th, the Bishop tiers, made a practice of assigning preached his first sermon at St. to her Bishops in lieu of their Paul's, after his consecration. March manors and lordships; and to the the 3d he again preached at Paul's use of certain peculiar garments by Cross, in his rochet and chimere, the Clergy, whether extra sacra or and so continued to wear them as in sacris. Upon these points he often as be preached. A large audetermined to consult Peter Mar- dience was assembled on this occatyr, formerly the King's Professor of sion--the people being eager to hear Divinity at Oxford, and at this time the Gospel-and, the sermon being Public Professor at Zuric; and ac- ended, a Psalm was set, and sung cordingly entered into a correspond- by the congregation (for now it ence with him. The result was, that became commonly practised in he accepted the Bishopric upon the Churches) with the organ. plea of necessity, which was also The Rogation time drawing on, urged by Martyr, in consequence of when maoy superstitious procesthe “ great need of ministers." sions were wont to be used in Lon. , While bishop elect, he concur- don, and other places, the Bishop red with the archbishop elect, and took care, while he allowed the the three other bishops elect, in practice of perambulation, for the preferring a secret address to the purpose of asserting the bounds of Queen, praying, " that she would each parish, to check all superstistay the exchange of bishops lands tions connected with it, and accordfor great tithes and impropriations ingly issued instructions to his Archin the Crown;" offering her an equi- deacons to that effect. valent, viz. a thousand marks a lo the year 1560, he was appoint. year during their lives. In the same ed one of the Queen's ecclesiastical address they urged a request in be- Commissioners, for inspecting the balf of the small bishoprics and of manners of the clergy, and regulatthe inferior clergy. But while bying all matters of the Church. He this act he and his fellow bishops was also appointed a Commissioner discharged their consciences, yet little was effected by it.
* At his installation, the Dean of St. He was consecrated to the See of Paul's made this prayer in Englisb:London, December 21, 1559, being “O Lord, Almighty God, we beseech then forty years of age, in the arch. thee to grant to thy servant Edmund, our bishop's chapel at Lambeth, by Arch- Bishop, that by preaching and doing those bishop Parker, assisted by Barlow, things which be godly, he may both in
struct the minds of the diocesans with true Scory, and Suffragan Hodgson : and a sermon was then preached by Alex
faith and example of good works, and
finally receive of the most merciful Pastor, ander Nowell, his chaplain, upon that the reward of eternal life ; who liveth with suitable text; Take heed to your- thee and the Holy Ghost, world without selves, and to all the flock, over which end. Amen."
for changing some of the chapters with Alderman Bond, one of the sheused for lessons for making a new riffs, according to instructions from Calendar for the Book of Common the Council, in suppressing the celePrayer-for adorning chancels which bration of private masses in houses. had been neglected and profaned- This year also, he was much engaged and, lastly, for prescribing some in giving instructions for a synod to good order for the Collegiate be convened for the settlement of reliChurches, that the Queen's permis- giou, and in preparing and adjusting sion of using Latin prayers in them the matters which were to be demight not be corrupted and abused. bated in it.
This year also Bishop Grindal, On the 1lih day of January folwith the Archbishop of Canterbury, lowing the Convocation met, whereand the Bishop of Ely, wrote a se- in accordingly the respective Clergy cret letter to the Queen, to per- convened, and framed the Thirtysuade her to marry; shewing her nine Articles, and debated other how the safety and welfare of the weighty matters of religion and disChurch and kingdoin depended upon cipline. ber having issue : concluding, “that The plague then having been until they should see that fortunate brought into London by some soldiers day, they should never repose them- who bad returned from New Haven selves to minister in their offices in France, a general fast was appointcomfortably, in perfect joy, and ed to be held on certain days of quiet of heart."
the week, and a form of prayer was His attention was early directed composed by Bishop Grindal for the to the foreign Churches now es- particular occasion. For the same tablished in London—those of the occasion he also printed a short Dutch and French, under which meditation on the shortness and were comprised the Spanish and uncertainty of human life, and the Italian Congregations of which he great sins of the nation calling acted as Superintendent. He also down God's judgments), proper to interceded with the people of Frank- be used in private houses. fort in behalf of the Dutch Church The distemper increasing much of that town, which was threatened this summer, the Bishop was much with ejection.
concerned for the Queen's safety, The visitation of his diocese, to- and urged to the Secretary, Sir Wil gether with the repair of his Cathe- liam Cecil, her removal.- the air, dral, which had suffered greatly by vow in July, being very hot, and a conflagration, attributed to light infectious. To the Secretary himning, then occupied the attention of self, then suffering much, both in the Bishop. His visitation com. body and mind, from the state of menced on Thursday, April 17,1561, affairs at that moment, he gave this and lasted, by adjournments, until seasonable and pious exhortation Nov. 16, 1562. In the mean time, " praying him not to hurt his contributions were sent in to him health with too much cogitation of from the Bishops and the wealthier evil successes of things, which were Clergy, for the restoration of St. in God's hand, and without our Paul's Cathedral; which at length, compass : and that He knew how to through his care, was recovered direct them to the best end." from the damages which it had sus. In the course of this year, an op- tained : excepting the spire, which, portunity offered itself to him of owing to the pressure of state mat. shewing his gratitude to one who ters, as well as to the charge, re- had befriended him in bis exile. mained in the condition in which the Leach, the Scotchman, who had fire had left it.
been his host at Spires, bappening In the year 1562, he was employed to come over to Ireland, was seized