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Edmund Grind Al was born about the year of our Lord 1519, at Hensingham, in the parish of St. Begh's, in the county of Cumberland. He was addicted to stud) in his tender years: even while he was a child, books were his delight and recreation, so much so, that he carried them about with him; which, as it shewed the pleasure he took in learning, so it fell out once very fortunately to him. Fur when he was a boy, walking somewhere in the fields, and having his book in his bosom, an arrow accidentally came, that lighted witli its point just in the place where the book was, which, if the book had not been there, must have certainly slain him.
In his boyhood also, going a jour, ney with his father on foot, after some violent rains, God made use of him to save the old man's life. For attempting to go over a rotten bridge, (over which their way lay,) the youth, perceiving the danger, called suddenly to his father, and withal pulled him back with his hand; upon which the bridge, by the force of the waters, presently brake down. And thus God making him the instrument of preserving his father from such a sudden death; no question, the blessing of his father, accompanied with God's blessing, descended on him.
He was sent up to the University of Cambridge, where he entered at Magdalen College, afterwards removed to Christ's College, and subsequently, as soon as he was eligible to a fellowship, being Bachelor of Arts in the year 1538, was
chosen, in consequence of his learning and abil'ty, Fellow of Pembroke Hall. la the year 1540, being yet but Bachelor of Arts, he was appointed Junior Treasurer of 'tis College. Tbe next yeav he commenced Master of Arts. Already he was considered as one of the ripest wits and most learned men in Cambridge. He obtained, July 4, 1544, the title of the CoMege, coder Ridley, then Master, to John Bird, Bishop of Winchester, who was then looked upon as a great favourer of reformation; receiving, as it seems, his orders from him. In 1648 he was declared Proctor of the University. In 1549 he became President of his College, being often mentioned in the acts of the University, as " assisteus Vice-caacellarii in judiciis." And being then Bachelor in Divinity, he was unanimously elected Lady Margaret's Preacher. This year also he was distinguished as one of tbe four selected out of the whole University, at an extraordinary Act commenced for the entertainment of King Edward's Visitors, to maintain. the negative of the doctrine of traiisubstantiation.
The next year he removed to London, to be Chaplain to Ridley, who was then Bishop of London. Here the first preferment which be obtained was that of the Chantership of St. Paul's.
He was now President of his College, Bishop Ridley being still Matter. In the year 1551 he was concerned in two amicable private conferences upon the sense of the words, "This is my body," in which there assisted on the Protestant side, besides himself, Choke, Horn, and Whitehead—on the other, Feckenham, Young, and Watson.
• This life is compiled from " The History of the Life and Acts of the Most Reverend Father in God, Edmund Grindal, the first Bishop of London, anittue second Archbishop of York and Canterbury, successively, in tiie reign of Queen Elizabeth,' by John Strype, M. A. 8vo. Oxford, at the Clarendon Preas, 1821.
In December, this year, a resolution was taken by the King's Council that the King should retain six Cbaplains, two to be always with the King in waiting, the other four to be sent over the kingdom, especially the remoter counties, to preach to the common people, and to instruct them in the principles of true religion and obedience to their Prince. These six were afterwards reduced to four, and Grindal, by means of his patron Bishop Ridley, was one of these, with a salary of 40/. a year.
In the month of June, the sixth year of Edward VI. for his greater countenance, he obtained a royal license to preach; and in July follow* ing the grant of a Prebend in Westminster, which he resigned afterwards to Bonner, Bishop of London.
In the month of November, 1552, he was nominated for a bishopric in the North, being then not above thirty-three years of age ; such public notice had been already taken of his abilities. What this uorthcrn bishopric was we are left to conjecture; but as it was then determined by the King and his Council to divide the Bishopric of Durham, now void by the deprivation of Ton ,tal, into two, it is probable that he was intended for one of these.
This appointment, however, did not take place; and he continued still in possession of his Prebend of St. Paul's, laying out his talent in a diligent and faithful preaching of the Gospel in different parts of the realm, as well as at the Court, until the death of King Edward the Sixth: when we find him flying his native country,—to avoid the persecution and cruelty that the Popish religion directed to be used to replant itself, and especially towards the most eminent of the preachers and instruments of the Reformation. He made Strasbourg his ttanctuRembmbrancer, No. 70.
ary; the magistrates of which towu freely and Christianly gave harbour to several English Protestants of the best rank, both of the laity and the clergy, and allowed them a church for the exercise of their religion, according as they professed it in England. Thither he came in very honourable company, viz. with Sir Anthony Cook, Sir Richard Morison, Sir John Cheke, Sir Thomas Wroth, and Mr. Hales; all persons of very great learning, and extraordinary worth and goodness.
Of this his departure, Ridley, now prisoner, had intelligence, and in a letter to Augustin Bernher, relating how Griudal's two fellow chaplains, Rogers and Bradford, one was offered up to God in martyrdom, and the other ready to be offered, used these words of him: —" Grindal is gone. The Lord, I doubt not, bath (seeth) and knoweth wherein be will bestow him"— prophetically spoken it would seem, of those high places in the Church, to which God afterwards called him.
Being almost in despair of the restoration of religion in England, and consequently of his return thither again, he resolved to make himself master of the German tongue, that his talent might not lie unoccupied, but that he might be able to preach God'swordin the German churches; and for this purpose retired to a town called Wasselheim, where he attained to such great perfection in the language, that a learned German addressed him thus—" Ut vox tua etiam in Germanicis ecclesiis audiri potuisset." He also made some residence at Spires, where he was courteously entertained by one Leach, a Scotchman.
During his exile he was employed with Chambers, as his colleague, to settle the disturbances which Knox and Whittingham were the chief instruments in raising at Frankfort, about a new model and form of worship, varying from the last corrected
Book of Edward the Sixth. Finding, however, little likelihood of agreement, he determined at first to continue his residence at Strasbourg. He however returned to Frankfort afterwards, in April or May, 1555, with Cox, Chambers, and some others of chief account, and succeeded in restoring quiet, so that henceforth the chief conflux of students and other exiles was to that place.
His other principal employment in his exile was in collecting the writings and stories of the learned and pious sufferers in England: for which purpose he engaged in an extensive correspondence;—acting as the great counsellor and assistant of Fox, the martyrologist; to whose History of the Martyrs he supplied materials;—much of that work being drawn up and methodized by him in English, so that it only remained for Fox to translate such parts into Latin.
It pleased God, however, to bring him home sooner than he thought, to exercise his talent in his own country. Upon the accession of Elizabeth he was required to assist in the work of the restitution and government of the Church of England, lately so defaced by Popery; and accordingly he hastened back to England in December, 1558, the very next month after Queen Mary's death.
His first public service was, in conjunction with other learned and wise men, in drawing up and preparing a form of prayer and public worship, against the meeting of Parliament. Their deliberations on this subject were held in Sir Thomas Smith's lodgings, in Cannonrow, Westminster, from time to time, during that first winter. In these conferences he gave proof of a prudent and grave advice and conduct in matters relating to the reformation of religion.
Next, at a solemn conference in March following, held publicly at
Westminster, at which were present the Lord Keeper, and many others of the nobility and gentry, Grindal was one of the eight Protestant Divines selected to enter the lists against White, Bishop of Winchester, Watson of Lincoln, Abbot Feckenham, and some few more Popish Bishops, who undertook to defend some doctrines of the Church of Rome. He was also upon occasion called forth to preach; and in the Queen's first Lent, on the 23d of February, preached before her Majesty.
The English Service Book, that had been enacted in the late Parliament to be used throughout the churches of England, began on Sunday, May 12, 1550, in the Queen's Chapel. On Wednesday after it began to be read in St. Paul's Church: and for the more solemn introducing of it, there was a sermon, which Grindal was appointed to preach, together with a very august assembly of the Court present.
In the summer of 1559, the Queen having instituted a visitation throughout England, he was appointed one of the Royal Commissioners for visiting the north; when, among other acts, he deprived the Governor of Sherborn Hospital, for holding Popish principles.
Dr. Young being removed that year, by the Queen's Visitors, from the Mastership of PembrokeHall, for his refusal of the oath of supremacy, Grindal, at the earnest solicitation of the Fellows, was appointed Master of the College in his room: and at the same time leave of absence from the College was granted to him.
He held, however, the Mastership but a little time, his other weighty affairs in the Church hindering his residence in the University, and resigned it in May, 1562, if not before.
The deposition of Bonner from the Bishopric of Loudon, under King Edward, being declared to have been valid, the Queen thought none so fit to succeed him as Grindal, whose behaviour and doctrine had been so well known in that diocese, and who was likely to be the more acceptable to the citizens, as having been dear to their late holy Bishop Dr. Ridley.
But he was not without his scruples in accepting the Bishopric: these scruples related to (he matter of tithes and impropriations,which the Queen, in order to gratify some of her courtiers, made a practice of assigning to her Bishops in lieu of their manors and lordships; and to the use of certain peculiar garments by the Clergy, whether extra sacra or in sacris. Upon these points he determined to consult Peter Martyr, formerly the King's Professor of Divinity at Oxford, and at this time Public Professor at Zuric; and accordingly entered into a correspondence with him. The result was, that he accepted the Bishopric upou the plea of necessity, which was also urged by Martyr, in consequence of the " great need of ministers."
While bishop elect, he concurred with the archbishop elect, and the three other bishops elect, in preferring a secret address to the Queen, praying, "that she would stay the exchange of bishops lands for great tithes and impropriations in theCrown ;" offering her an equivalent, viz. a thousand marks a year "during their lives. In the same address they urged a request in behalf of the small bishoprics and of the inferior clergy. But while by this act he and his fellow bishops discharged their consciences, yet little was effected by it.
He was consecrated to the See of London, December 21,1659, being then forty years of age, in the archbishop's chapel at Lambeth, by Archbishop Parker, assisted by Barlow, Scory, and Suffragan Hodgson: and a sermon was then preached by Alexander Nowell, his chaplain,upon that suitable text; Take heed to yourselves, and to all the flack, over which
the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers •.
An exchange of lands, which was in process between the Queen and himself, being as yet not completed, he was unable finally to compound for his first-fruits; nor could he therefore enter on his duties, as Bishop of the diocese, until he obtained a warrant from the Queen, dispensing, in his case, with the customary requisition.
On January the nth, the Bishop preached his first sermon at St. Paul's, after his consecration. March the 3d he again preached at Paul's Cross, in his rochet and chimere, and so continued to wear them as often as he preached. A large audience was assembled on this occasion—the people being eager to hear the Gospel—and, the sermon being ended, a Psalm was set, and sung by the congregation (for now it became commonly practised in Churches) with the organ.
The Rogation time drawing on, when many superstitious processions were wont to be used in London, and other places, the Bishop took care, while he allowed the practice of perambulation, for the purpose of asserting the bounds of each parish, to check all superstitions connected with it, and accordingly issued instructions to his Archdeacons to that effect.
In the year 1560, he was appoint, ed one of the Queen's ecclesiastical Commissioners, for inspecting the manners of the clergy, and regulating all matters of the Church. He was also appointed a Commissioner
* At his installation, the Dean of St. Paul's made this prayer in English:—
"O Lord, Almighty God, we beseech thee to grant to thy servant Edmund, onr Bishop, that by preaching and doing those things which be godly, he may both instinct the minds of the diocesans with true faith and example of good works, and finally receive of the most merciful Pastor, the reward of eternal life; who liveth with thee and the Holy Ghost, world without end. Amen."
for changing some of the chapters used for lessons—for making a new Calendar for the Book of Common Prayer—for adorning chancels which had been neglected and profaned— and, lastly, for prescribing some good order for the Collegiate Churches, that the Queen's permission of using Latin prayers in them might not be corrupted and abused.
This year also Bishop Grindal, with the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishop of Ely, wrote a secret letter to the Queen, to persuade her to marry; shewing her how the safety and welfare of the Church and kingdom depended upon her having issue : concluding, " that until they should see that fortunate day, they should never repose themselves to minister in their offices comfortably, in perfect joy, and quiet of heart."
His attention was early directed to the foreign Churches now established in London—those of the Dutch aud French, under which were, comprised the Spanish and Italian Congregations—of which he acted as Superintendent. He also interceded with the people of Frankfort in behalf of the Dutch Church of that town, which was threatened with ejection.
The visitation of his diocese, together with the repair of his Cathedral, which had suffered greatly by a conflagration, attributed to lightning, then occupied the attention of the Bishop. His visitation commenced on Thursday, A pril 17,1561, and lasted, by adjournments, until Nov. 16, 1562. In the mean time, contributions were sent in to him from the Bishops and the wealthier Clergy, for the restoration of St. Paul's Cathedral; which at length, through his care, was recovered from the damages which it had sus. tahied: excepting the spire, which, owing to the pressure of state mattiers, as well as to the charge, remained in the condition in which the fire had left it.
In the year 1502, he was employed
with Alderman Bond, one of the sheriffs, according to instructions from the Council, in suppressing the celebration of private masses in houses. This year also, he was much engaged in giving instructions for a synod to be convened for the settlement of religiou, and in preparing and adjusting the matters which were to be debated in it.
On the llth day of January following the Convocation met, wherein accordingly the respective Clergy convened, and framed the Thirtynine Articles, and debated other weighty matters of religion and discipline.
The plague then having been brought into London by some soldiers who had returned from New Haven in France, a general fast was appointed to be held on certain days of the week, and a form of prayer was composed by Bishop Grindal for the particular occasion. For the same occasion he also printed a short meditation (on the shortness and uncertainty of human life, and the great sins of the nation calling down God's judgments), proper to be used in private houses.
The distemper increasing much this summer, the Bishop was much concerned for the Queen's safety, and urged to the Secretary, Sir William Cecil, her removal—the air, now in July, being very hot, and infectious. To the Secretary himself, then suffering much, both in body mill mind, from the state of affairs at that moment, be gave this seasonable and pious exhortation —" praying him not to hurt his health with too much cogitation of evil successes of things, which were in God's hand, and without our compass : and that He knew how to direct them to the best end."
In the course of this year, an opportunity offered itself to him of shewing his gratitude to one who had befriended him in his exile. Leach, the Scotchman, who had been his host at Spires, happening to come over to Ireland, was seized