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writer; and, we must confess, that affirmed, either that the words were syna: he seems to us to have decided the gynous, or that Bede was not aware of question as far as argument is con
their difference ; for, besides that, in his
works at large, he observes the common cerned. He has shewn, in a man- distinction between presbyter and bishop, ner to us the most convincing, that he marks it with particular emphasis, in the Culdees, in doctrine dissented regard to Iona itself; telling his reader not from the received opinions of that the head of that establishment was al. the Church, and in discipline va. ways a presbyter, and not a bishop; and ried not in any material point from conveying, too, with considerable empla, other monasteries, both in Europe
sis, and no small surprise, tlie additional
information, that the bishop there was held and Africa, except in this one pe
ne per under a species of subjection to the abbot culiarity, that the abbot was supe- of the monastery--that the presbyter rior to the bishop; and this superi- monks should have acknowledged the sq. ority appears to have been only in periority of their presbyter-abbot, was matters of monastic 'rule. The regarded quite as a matter of course, and chief argument by which Dr. Jamies could excite no astonishment in a Church
historian. The office bearer, therefore, son expects to prove the Presbyte
who is called a bishop, and who is said to rianism of the monks of lona, is be subject in an unusual manner (more Bede's account of the mission of inusitato) to the rector of the monastery, Aidan to Oswald, King of North- must necessarily have been of diferent umberland, and the observation of and bigher order than that of presbyter. the same historian, that the island If this be admitted, it may then be rea. of lona " is always wont to have sonably asked, how could a college of
presbyters consecrate a bishop? On what for its governor a Presbyter abs
principle could they confer upon one of bot, to whose authority both the
their brethren a rank, a power, and an whole province and even the bishops authority, which they themselves did not themselves, by an unusual consti- possess? Is it possible to view sach a tution, ought to be subject." Now transaction in any other light than that of Dr. Jamieson takes it for granted, a piece of solemn mockery? Tucy knew that such being the constitution of the difference between bishop and pres
? byter. The bistorian who'relates the oce the monastery, Aidan received Press
currence was equally well acquainted with byterial ordination, because there that distinction : on what ground, then, is not“ a vestige of proof from the shall we explain the conduct of these record, that so much as one bishop monks, which is apparently so inconsist. was present.” We shall give Dr. ent with the leading principles of their inRussel's answer to this argument,
stitution ; or by wlat means shall we re. as a good specimen of his contro
concile the use of terms, which involve us
in such direct contradiction? There is only versial powers, first observing, that
one way of restoring probability to the Bede says, “ the council of seniors narrative of Bede, and consistency to the elected Aidan, one of their own proceedings of the Columban convent, number, as being worthy of the wliich is, to admit that the bishop, who episcopate, and having ordained appears to have had sone connection with him, sent him forth to preach." the monastic establishment at Iona, to
wliose abbot he was in certain respects - " The inference, indeed, has a very subordinate, had also some band in the plausible reasoning, and will satisfy those ordination of the episcopal missionaries readers who have covfined their inquiries who were sent into Northumberland from to the volume in which it is to be found. that famous seminary." P. lxxxvii. But the most unreflecting of the author's admirers will naturally be induced to ask, After bringing satisfactory proofs why should the monks of fona give the from Lloyd, that bishops were contitle of bishop to the brother whom they stantly employed to perform epissend forth ; and why should they go copal offices in all other monasteries, through the form of declaring him worthy. whence the presumption certainly of the episcopate? Did the words bishop is, that the practice was similar in and presbyter mean the same thing in those days, or was the venerabie Bede, who tells Tona, Dr. K. proceeds: the story, igoorant of the distinction usil- " The history of Finan, who succeeded ally implied in these terpis? It cannot be Aidan iu the see of Lindisfaru; atforis tlie strongest, the most direct, and the Mother Church, we cannot here conclude most upimpeachable evidence that buman that he viewed the office of a bishop as testimony could supply, that the persons essentially distinct from that of a presby, whom the monks of lona pronounced wor- ter. That he viewed the office of a bishop thy of the episcopate were, in fact, bishops as essentially distinct from that of a pres. in the proper and ordinary sense of the býter, cannot, I think, be doubted by any térm. Having arrived in his diocese, man who has read with candour the fore(says Bede) he built a church fit for an going paragraphs; and, taking this con-' episcopal see; and having shortly after- clusion in connection with all that Bede wards baptized Peada, the king of the relates concerning him, during the ten. Middle Angles, with all his court, he gave years that he presided over the Northumhim four priests, one Scotch and three brian Church, the natural conclusion is, English, to instruct and baptize his people, that he did not renounce the tenets of his In the process of time, the Scottish priest, Mother Church; but, on the contrary, who was called Diuma, was ordained by that those tenets were in direct accordFinan to be bishop of that Aation, as well ance with the principles upon which his as of the provioce of Mercia, The words whole public conduct proceeded. It is of the venerable historian are as follow: allowed that Finan requested the attends : Factus est Diuma, unus ex præfatis qua: ance of two other bishops to join with him, tnor sacerdotibus, episcopns Mediterra- in giving canonical consecration to the neorum Anglorum, simul et Merciorum, presbyter Cedd; and moreover, that this ordinatus a Finano episcopo.' At a sub presbyter, when raised to the episcopate, sequent period, Sigebert, king of the East returned to his district with greater authoAngles, with his friends, was baptized by rity, and forth with proceeded to ordain the same bisliop; and received, at the priests and deacons to assist him in the same time, two priests to convert and bap, word of faith and ministry of baptism ; tize his subjects. One of these, whose from which facts, the inference forces itname was Cedd, baving, with the assist. self upon our acceptance with an irresistánce of his colleague, gathered together a ible degree of conviction, that the tenets great church to the Lord, returned to the held at Iona, in regard to Church govern-' establishment at Lindisfarn, to inforın li- ment, were decidedly Episcopal, and, cone nan of their remarkable success in evange. sequently, that Aidan, Finan, and Colman, lizing the Saxons; with which account the were episcopally ordained," p. XCV. Northambrian prelate was so much gratified, that in order to enable him to prose- In this dissertation, Dr. Russel secute his pious objects with still greater shews that he is intimately versed advantage, he resolved to raise the priests in ecclesiastical antiquities, and that to the order of bishops. Finan,' says the he can bring the stores of his mind historian,'seeing his success in the further
into full and effective use; he treats ance of the Gospel, and having called to him two other bishops for the ministry of the lame conclusions of his antagoordination, made him bishop over the na- nist with much pleasantry, but never tion of the East Angles ;' adding, 'that he departs from the respect due to a having received the degree of the episco- man, venerable by age, and eminent. pate, (accepto gradu episcopatus) returned for learning and virtue-there seems to the province; and with greater autho
to be little bitterness in Dr, Ri's rity (majore auctoritate) fulfilled the work which he had begun, erected churches in composition: he may occasionally different places, ordained presbyters and provoke his adversary by the playdracons, who might assist him in the word fulness of his wit, but it inflicts no of faith and in the ministry of baptism.' wound; while he overturns Dr. JaDr. Jamieson, aś might be expected, is a mieson's theory to its foundation, it good deal puzzled with the episcopal tran- is with some tenderness towards the sactions of Finan, which look so much like
amiable author, who had employed those of a real diocesan bishop. It must be admitted,' he observes,' that according so much research and ingenuity in to Bede's narrative, there is something in rearing it, the conduct of Finan, winich does not We wish it were in our power to seem entirely consonant to the view given devote a larger space to the historiof the ordination of Iona. Whether this cal sketch of Scottish Episcopacy, shonld be ascribed to some greater attach- which is subjoined to his volume. ment, on the part of the Saxons, to the model of the Romish Church, I shall not
There is an interest throwo around, presently inquire. But unless we suppose me Episcopal Church; by the eml. that' Fiñan renounced the tenets of his nent place it once held among the
institutions of the country, by its Queen Mary. It is quite erident, long and steady attachment to the that that Prince was tot guided in unfortunate family of Stuart, and his choice by any regard to theolo. by its sufferings, for what was es. gical principle, but merely by teemed the sake of conscience. It considerations of political interest, is not easy to account for the odiumn This is placed beyond a doubt, by which has always prevailed against a letter from the Bishop of EdinEpiscopacy in Scotland : it has ge- burgh, (at p. 65 of this volume) nerally been attributed to the into. wlio was deputed by his brethren to lerance of that Church when it was plead the cause of the Church with vested with power. We do not be the influential characters in Williese this, because we do not believe liam's court. It is well known, that that any Church was disliked at that the Scottish bishops, to a man, ad. period merely on account of its in- hered to the cause of the abdicat. tolerance. Toleration was as much ed monarch, and strictly subjected beyond the view of Presbyterians as themselves and their Church to a of Episcopalians. In those days it long period of suffering and perse. was reckoned both the privilege and cution. The spirit in which these the duty of the true religion to per evils were endured, is certainly bighsecute all those of a different opic ly honourable to that religious body; nion; and perhaps even the moody and we regret that an ampler record Covenanter was sustained in his wild has not been preserved of those inretreat with the hope of a day of dividuals, whose counsels inspired retribution, to the full use of which and maintained that patient endurhe thought himself entitled. We ance which took, without a murmur, are also somewhat sceptical with the loss of fanie, and fortune, and respect to the extent of the odium honour. Dr. Russel declines going under which the Episcopal Church into a minute detail of the persecu. laboured. The act which abolished tions which the Episcopal party Episcopacy says indeed, that it was endured, because he has no desire odious to the people. We believe to revive old animosities ; and we it was odious to a rabble of miser. cannot but approve his resolution. able fanatics, and to a few rapacious We are indebted to bim for the innobles, who had possessed them- teresting account he has given in his selves of the spoils of the Church, Appendix ; and we cannot but think and who feared that the prey might that a more expanded history of hereafter be reclaimed, if the hie Scottish Episcopacy would be ac. rarchy continued to enjoy its tem-'ceptable, if it were to proceed from poral honours. Another cause of the pen of one who has shewn hini. its subversion, doubtless, was the self so well qualified to do justice refusal of the bishops to transfer to such a work.'' their allegiance to King William and
MONTHLY REGISTER. Society for Promoting Christian Chair, supported by the Bishops of Knowledge.
Oxford, Lincoln, Exeter, GloucesAt the Anniversary Dinner of the ter and Limerick, Lord Kenyon, Society for Promoting Christian Mr. Justice Park, the Stewards, and Knowledge. which took place at several of the dignified Clergy and the Freemasons' Tavern on Tues- Lailyo
Laity of rank. day, the 1st of June, there were After the loyal and appropriate present about 120 of the Members toast, “Church and King," had of the Society and Friends of the been di
been drunk with customary cordi. Established Church.
ality, &c. The Bishop of London was in the The Bishop of London rose to propose the health of the Archbishop of Canter- it appeared, that the total number of Bibles, bury; to whom, said his Lordship, not only &c, issped to Members on the terms of the on account of his private virtues, but of Society, granted gratuitously on special his bigh public character, we all look up application, and delivered to Members for with affection and reverence.
their gratuitous distribution,amounted to The Bishop of Oxford then gave the Bibles ................... 54,290 health of the Right Rev. Prelate in the New Testaments and Psalters 60,275 Chair, of whom it were unfit, he said, toC ommon Prayer Books ..... 126,431 speak in his presence as he deserved; Other Bound Books ........ 95,142 but whose health he was sure would be Small Tracts, half-bound, &c. 811,949 cordially drunk by a company which was Books and Papers, (for grawell qualified to estimate bis virtues and · tuitous distribution) ...... 316,431 his talents, 'The Bishop of London returned his
Total. . 1,434,818 sincere thanks for the flattering manner in exhibiting on the whole an excess of which the mention of his name had been 54,107 above the distribution of the prereceived, and assured the company that ceding year. with the blessing of Divine Providence on . The receipts towards the general dehis humble endeavours to promote the in. signs of the Society were 60,6071. 45. 2d. terests of the Society and to perform bis leaving in the hands of the Treasurers a duty in other respects, he should hope to balance of 12291. 38. 2d.; and towards continue to merit their approbation.
the East India Mission, 29701. 148. 5d. His Lordship concluded with proposing a leaving a balance of 2371. 18. 8d.--the retoast, which on that day certainly needed ceipts of the last year exceeding those of no preface,-the Society for Proinoting the preceding one by 28921, 4s, 3d, for Christian Knowledge-and with offering the general designs of the Society and by his congratulations on the increase of its 7411. 11s. ad. for the East India Mission. prosperity, which would appear on the The Bishop of London said, that after face of the Report, to be read by the the lominons Report which had been reverend Secretary.
heard by all with so much gratification, he The Rey. Mr. Parker having stated begged leave to propose the bealth of that it was the custom on this occasion the Secretaries, by whose diligence and to raise a small sum, not for the gene zeal the concerns of the Society had ral purposes of the Society, but for the been so prosperously conducted-conaid of a certain number of poor Widows; cerns which had recently increased to and Dr. Gaskin having, by particular re an amount far beyond what any one when quest, as in former years, read the Thira he first came into the rooun could have teenth chapter of St. Paul's First Epistle anticipated. to the Corinthians--the usual collection The Rev. Mr. Parker returned thanks, was inade.
and the Rev. Mr. Campbell said, that The Bishop of London said, that there having been so short a time in office, lie were two Gentlemen then present, to felt, that with respect to the past be dewhom the Society was much indebted for served little : with respect to the future their activity and judicious arrangements, he loped what had been said would act as whose health therefore he should have the a stimulus to exertion. pleasure of proposing, the Treasurers, Mr. The Bishop of London proposed to pay Archdeacon Cambridge and Mr. Joshua a tribnte of grateful respect to the Watsoo,
Stewards; to those who had honoured the Mr. Archdeacon Cambridge returned meeting with their company, and to those thanks for his colleague and himself, and who were prevented by various causes expressed his hopes that the operations of from doing so. Among whom his Lórdthe Society might be still beneficially ex- ship mentioned Earl Talbot, Lord Liltended in the Colonies and especially in ford, the Bishop of St. Asaph, the Dean of the West Indies, where the newly ar. Chester, and Mr. Roberts. ranged Ecclesiastical Establishment would The Bishop of Limerick returned thanks open fresh sources of connexion with the in the name of the Stewards; and thus Society, and present a wide field for emphatically concluded, “that the Althe exertions of those who were appointed mighty may bless and prosper the Christo watch over the spiritnal interests of tian efforts of this Society, as he has those distant portions of the Established hitherto blessed and prospered them, is Church.
my fervent prayer." The Report for the last year was then The Bishop of London wished to pay read by the Rev. Mr. Parker, from which another tribute of gratitude to a body of REMEMBRANCER, No. 67.
Gentlemen whose zeal and exertions were fined to one class, the black populationi well known and highly appreciated; to of the West Indian Islands; and bis Lord. whom were to be attributed a large aug- ship added, that the individuals into whose mentation of the funds and a wide diffu- hands had been put the Ecclesiastical sion of the books of the Society -- the affairs of these Islands, were, he felt Treasurers and Secretaries of the Dioce. amply assured, perfectly competent to san and District Committees.
discharge the important trust confided to The Bishop of Lincoln proposed the them. At the same time his Lordsblp the health of the late Secretary. Dr. was happy to say, that the West Indian Gaskin said, that he felt overwhelmed with Proprietors have shown the most liberal gratitude for the kind manner in which spirit, with a disposition to encourage the his health had been drunk. It had al- ' education of the negroes. The day he ready pleased Providence to protract his therefore hoped might not be far distant, life to a considerable term, so that he had when it might be in his power to congra. during a long course of years watched the tulate the friends of humanity on the sucgradually increasing prosperity of the So. cess of the effectual labours of that society, but that he hoped still to be per- ciety, the prosperity of which be pow promitted to see it prosper to the glory of posed- the Society for the Education of God and the welfare of mankind.
Negro Slaves in the West Indies. The Bishop of London begged leave to The Bishop of London then gave the call the attention of the company to a Clergy Orphan Society, -as one which unsimilar Society in a sister Island, connect. doubtedly had a claim on the attention of ed with the Society for Promoting Chris- the Clergy, from whom it had obtained tian Knowledge in England by the most much patronage, but not so much as it desacred ties; and co-operating cordially in served. His Lordship stated, that there was the same good work--the Association in room in the house of the Institution for 150 Ireland for the Discouragement of Vice children, but that the existing funds would and the Promotion of Christianity.
not allow of the building being filled The Bishop of Limerick returned which he could but consider as a disgrace thanks; and felt it his duty to say, that the to the Church. His Lordsbip entreated Association in Ireland has endeavoured at that the gentlemen present who came from a humble distance, but with zeal, to follow different parts of the country would do the footsteps of her venerable sister in their best to make known the deficiency, encouraging whatever might tend to the and endeavour to supply it, in order that promotion of true religion :- that it has 50 more orphans than can at present be been the object of that Association to admitted, may receive the benefit of the promote Christianity, not merely in the education provided in the Schools—an general sense of the term, but according education such as few schools can offer. to the doctrine, discipline and forms of His Lordship suggested that a very trifling the Established Church of England and annual subscription from Diocesan ComIreland.
mittees would form a material addition to The Bishop of London gave-prosperity the funds of the Charity, and enable the to the Society for the Propagation of the Society to complete the purposes for Gospel in Foreign Parts—as a younger which the School was originally constructbranch of the Society for Promoting ed. If any evidence were required as to Christian Knowledge; pursuing the same the excellence of the education given, object, and equally supported by the with regard to soundness and accuracy, friends of the Established Church and the and its effects on the minds and manners Christian Religion. His Lordship then of the children, it was only necessary to gave successively " the National Society," refer to the last Annual Examination. and “the Society for the Enlargement of He could say, without exaggeration, that Churches and Chapels ;" adding, that it the education was better than that which was a gratifying fact, that for every Pound could be had at most schools. laid out by the latter Society a poor pian T he Bisliop of London, ia proposing had been accommodated with a seat in a the next toast, remarked, that it was place of worship; that po Charity in the a part of the professional duty of the Kingdom had, according toits means, ren- Clergy to support such Societies as that dered more important or extensive bene- for Promoting Christian Knowledge ; fits to the community; nor was there any and that it was also unquestionably the one which better deserved the support of duty generally of the Laity to promote the all the friends of the Church of England. honour of God and the welfare of their
The Bishop of London next mentioned fellow creatures; but, when the Laity came a Society the objects of which are con- forward actively and prominently in aid