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looks were a law of modesty and the main consonant to it) was such gravity: he did oft bear, and dis- that he was unmoveable, even to a charged most usefully and accept- martyrdom: never more offended ably to strangers and others the (as I have sometimes heard him highest offices and honours of the express his displeasure) than with University, both politic, as a magis- those halters in opinion, a kind trate, or justice of peace, in his of ambiguous Protestants, that are being Vice-Chancellor; and literate, afraid to own their discommunion as a scholar: he made the (comitia and distance from the Church policonvivia commencement acts to be tic, or Court of Rome, even so far banquets and feasts ; in which he, as they see by scripture and antias Gamaliel, presided as father and quity, that it hath evidently dimoderator.
vorced from communion with the He kept up very much, as good word of God, and institutions of Jesus learning and good manners, so the Christ, and walks contrary to the honour of orthodox divinity, and judgment and practice of the priorderly conformity; he kept to the mitive churches; to both which he doctrine, worship, devotion, and go- always appealed in the grand convernment in the Church of England, cerns of religion ; not allowing that which he would say he liked better policy which encroached upon truth and better, as he grew elder; and and piety ; though in matters of then best of all, when he saw the outward rites and ceremonies he alvipers of factions seizing upon her lowed latitudes and liberty, without out of the fire of her. tribulation, breach of charity; it was a maxim but not able to do ber any harm, I have heard him use, that nothing either as to confute her doctrines, was less to be stickled for or against or to condemn her constitutions with than matters of ceremony, which any shew of reason.
were as shadows not substances of Neither in her prosperity, nor religion; as they did not build, so in her adversity, did he endure that they could not burthen, if kept within any man great or small out of fac- their bounds, as was done in Engtion, pride, or popularity, or novelty, land's Reformation. should worship or recede from its Yea, he had so far both pity excellent orders: if any out of scru- and charity for those plain and hople and tenderness of conscience, nest-hearted people of the Roman was less satisfied with some things, communion, as either their errors no man had a more tender heart, or (presumed by them to be truths) or a gentler hand either to heal any their ignorance in some things not little scratches, or to supple any fundamental, did not betray them wonted obstinacy, or to win any either to unbelief or self-presumpminds to the peace of the Church, tion, or to final impenitence, or to who were capable, ingenuous and immorality or uncharitableness. If honest; he drew all by the silken there were hope to close the sad cords of humanity and humility, breaches of these western churches, reason and religion; not by the no man was more able and willing cart-ropes of rigour and imperious to have poured balm into them: but ness; he would convince, though he he feared the gangrene of Jesuitism did not convert gainsayers, and if had festered and inflamed things to he could not persuade them, yet he an incurableness, which he oft dewould pity and pray for them. plored.
His judgment as to the founda- As for the differences of other tions and solemn administration of parties in some opinions which then the reformed religion, settled in the began to grow very quick and warm Church of England (and so in other in England, as well as the Netherreformed churches which were for lands, he seemed always most con. formed to, and satisfied with the they hope to advance their private judgment of his learned and revered interests and politic designs. friends, Bishop Usher, Bishop Da- When the clouds of non-conforvenant and Dr. Ward, who were mity (wbich was formerly reduced great disciples of St. Austin and to an hand breadth in the Church of Prosper in their contests against England) began now, partly by a the Pelagians. Not that he could spirit or breath of super-conformity, endure no difference among learned and chiefly by those vehement winds and godly men in opinions, espe, which blew from the north, to cocially sublime and obscure, without ver the whole English heaven with dissensions and distance in affec- blackness, and to threaten a great tion; but he wished all men to look storm of blood, which after folwell to the humility and sincerity of lowed; yet did this excellent per. their hearts, whose heads were most son then hold to his former princi. prone and able to manage points of ples and practice, not because he controversy; the heat of which is was a Bishop, but because he was a ready to make the fullest souls to judicious and conscientious man, boil over to some immoderation and where he saw scripture and law study of sides. He thought that bound him to duty, and to that conScripture itself was in some points stancy of his judgment in matters left us less clear and positive as to of religion, both essential and cirmysterious not necessary verities, cumstantial, substantial and ornathat Christians might have where- mental, which became a wise and with to exercise both humility in honest man, themselves, and charity towards The wisdom, gravity and ma. others.
jesty of the Church of England he He very much venerated the first thought was not now either to be worthy reformers of religion at disciplined or reformed, or chas. home and abroad, yet was he not tened by the pedantic authority, so addicted to any one master, as pretended necessity, or obtruded not freely to use that great and ma. insolency of any church or nation ture judgment which he had, so as under heaven, much less by any to sift and separate between their party in itself, which was less than easy opinions and native passions the authority of a full and free Par(as men) and their solider proba liament, consisting of King, Lords, tions, and sober practices, as great and Commons; counselled as to and good Divines. He suffered not matters of religion by a full and prejudices against any man's person free convocation or synod, which he or opinion, to heighten animosities thought the most laudable way of in him against either. He hoped managing religion, and most proevery good man had his retracta- bable by doing good impartially to tions either actualor intentional, that be blest of God, and approved by died in true faith and repentance, good men : he saw the Church and however all had not time to write State of England bad been sufficient their retractations as St. Austin did; every way for itself heretofore, while
If against any thing (next sin united; and was then happiest, when and gross errors) he had an antipa- it enjoyed its own peaceable and thy and impatience, it was against parliamentary counsels and results, those unquiet and pragmatic spirits without any other's partial dictates, wbich affect endless controversies, which were as improsperous as imvarieties and novelties in religion, portune and impertinent. that hereby they may carry on that For the Liturgy, or public form study of sides and parties in which of Prayer, and solemn administrathey glory; and under which screen tion in the Church of England,
though he needed a set form as lit- well knew there had been variety tle as any, yet he had a particular of liturgies in churches, and variagreat esteem of it: 1. For the ho- tions in the same Church; he made nour and piety of its martyrly com- very much, but not too much of the posers, who enduring such a fiery English Liturgy; not as the Scrip. trial were not likely to have made a tures, unalterable ; but yet he judged Liturgy of straw and stubble. 2. For that all alterations in such public its excellent matter, which is divine, and settled concerns of religion, sound, and holy, besides its method ought to be done by the public spiwhich is prudent and good. 3. For rit, counsel; and consent of the prothe very great good he saw it did, phets, prince and people. Howas to all sober Christians, so to the ever this was a concluded maxim commun sort of plain people, who, with him, that the solemnity and whatever other provision they had sacredness of consecrating those of their ministers private abilities: Christian mysteries of the blessed yet they were sure every Lord's day sacraments, were not to be advenat least, to have a wholesome and tured upon ministers private abilicomplete form, not only of prayers, ties, tenuities, or disteinpers, but by but of all other necessaries to sal- a public and uniform spirit among vation set before them for faith, holy preachers and people, all should say life and devotion, in the Creeds, Amen to the same prayers, and reCommandments, Lord's Prayer, with ceive the same mysteries under one confessions and supplications, ad- form of consecration, in which nomirably linked together, and fitted thing should be defective or superto the meanest capacities; the want fluous. of which he saw was not supplied His personal and occasional abiby any minister's private way of lities for prayer were answerable to praying or preaching, which iu very his other gifts and graces, both for deed are but small pittances of piety, matter, method, utterance, discreor fragments, compared to the lati- tion and devotion, full, fervent and tude of religious fundamentals and pathetic upon his own and others varieties contained in the Liturgy; spirits ; not coldly formal and stark, the want of which he judged would nor yet wildly rambling, loose and induce a great ignorance, as he saw, broken ; but judicious, apt, grave and said to me a little before his and of so moderate an extent, as death, it had done already among suited the weight of the occasion, the ordinary sort of people in coun the capacity of the auditors, and try and city, whose souls are as pre the intensiveness of his own heart; cious to God as others of greater his prayers were not the labour and parts and capacities, whose appe. product only of lips, lungs and tites were not to be flattered and tongue, but of his spirit and underdeceived with novelties, but fitted standing; he minded not the glory and fed with wonted solidities, by but grace of prayer. which they would thrive and look As to the government of the Church better (as by the use of plain and by episcopal presidency, to which repeated food, which is as their Prince and Presbyters agree, he was daily bread) than those that delight too learned a man to doubt, and too in greater varieties and dainties. honest to deny, the universal custom
Not that he was such a formalist, and practice of the Church of Christ verbalist, and sententialist, as could in all ages and places for fifteen not endure any alteration of words, hundred years, according to the pat. or phrases, or method, or manner tern (at least) received from the of expressions in the Liturgy, to Apostles; who, without doubt, fol. which either change of times, or of lowed, as they best knew, the mind language, or things may invite; he of Christ. This catholic prescrip: tion he thought so sacred, that as it reason, order, and government in did sufficiently prejudge all novel human societies, or to disown the presumptions, so nothing but im- remarkable differences which God portune and grand necessities put and nature, age and education, exupon any Church, could excuse, perience and studies, industry and much less justify, the cutting off grace did make between ministers those pipes, or the turning of that no less than other men; as to think primitive and perpetual course of that neither work nor rewards of ecclesiastical ordination, subordihonour and estate may be propornation and government into ano- tioned to their different worths. ther channel. Nor did he under. He saw po cause to affect among stand the method of those new ministers, above all fraternities, this Vitruviuses, who would seem mas- ÚOTEPOY TEOtepov, the inverting of all ter-builders, though they are yet but order, that the first should be last, destroyers; when they affect to have and the last first ; though he suball timber and stones in the church's scribed to the rule of Christ, that the building of the same shape, size and greatest among bis ministers, even biguess; when the Church of Christ the (unèp aiav årbotoros) very chiefest is compared to a body which bath of the Apostles, should in humility members of different forms, use, and charity condescend and demean and honour.
themselves so, as if they were serYet he did not judge the princi- vants to all, and the least of all, pal dignity or authority of Episco- yet he saw this precept was vain pacy to depend upon its secular and impertinent, as not practicable, advantages, but on its ecclesiastical if none were greater or more emi. custom and apostolic institution ; nent than others, as in age, gifts, and however no man was more ready and graces, so in spiritual power and to condescend to any external din ecclesiastical authority; not tyran. minutions, and comely moderations, nously usurped, but by the consent that might stand with a good con- of all couferred. science and prudence, as tending to Those novel interpretations he the peace and unity of the Church; saw were but wresting scripture from yet no man was more firm, resolute primitive sense, to bring in the posand immoveable from gratifying any tern chaos of popular parity among sacrilegious projectors or proud fac- ministers, which never was in Christ's, tionists, or peevish novellers, to the or the Apostle's, or after days, nor reproach of the Church of England, can be ever without great disadvanvea and of the Catholic Church in tages to both ministers and people. all the world, which had its Bishops Nor was it his ambition but his every where before it had its Bible conscience and judgment that thus or its Scriptures completed. In commanded him to assert Episcothe matter of Episcopacy, he dif- pacy even long before he was, or fered little from Bishop Usher's mo- (possibly) thought to be a Bishop: del of the ancient synodical govern- upon which account, when I once ment: only he thought the petulancy told his Lordship (after he was made of men's spirit in these times, beyond Bishop by the King, and unmade by the primitive simplicity, did require the people) that a person (equestris all prudent advantages of order and ordinis, but parum æquæ mentis) authority, which might consist with had in discourse told me, that he piety and true policy; as antidotes wondered Dr. Brounrig would be ought to be heightened to the mea. made a Bishop; whom he had heard sure of the poison they are to en. sometime declare his judgment counter.
against Episcopacy *: which report Only he could never be induced so far to forsake the principle of all * An anecdote is recorded of his send
Las I no way believed ; so relating and falsehood) professed he lied noit soon after, and the author's name toriously; for, saith he, I never to him, he with some passion and thought, inuch less said, as that emotion (as full of a just defiance lewd person hath falsely averred; I and contradiction to such a fable thank God I took the office of a
Bishop with a good conscience, and ing for a pupil of Dr. Barwick's, though so I hope by his mercy I shall both not of his own college, (meddling, it is maintain and discharge it. said, where he had nothing to do,) and
He was by the favour of King addressing him as follows, “I wonder
Charles, and to the great liking of that your tutor, no ill man in other respects, does not yet abstain from that all good men, made Bishop of Exeform of worship, which lie must needs ter, anno 1641. But as (Extpwce) know will be disagreeable to our excellent one born out of due time, when that Parliament, and not very acceptable to storm was beginning to rise, which God himself;" (for Mr. Barwick, accord. afterward shipwrecked the Sovereign ing to the custom of his college, and of and other gallant ships; the wall the primitive Church, used to worsbip God' was to by bowing towards the East) “but be you
was too far swoln out, and threatencareful, says he, to steer your course clear
ing to fall before this potent pillar of the dangerous rock of every error, whe.
or shore was applied to support it: ther it savours of the impiety of Arminian. if any single puissance could have ism, or of the superstition of Popery' done good, his shoulders were most upon which it is observed, the young man probable to have done it, for his began to warp towards the Paritans, &c. counsel and prudence, bis equani(Life of Barwick, p. 16. 41.) Neal, how.
mity and moderation, were equal to ever, only infers from this anecdote, that
his other vast abilities ; for he had Bishop Brounrig was “no favourer of Archbishop Laud's innovations." --Another occa. not only the verdure and spring of sion in which he appeared 10 lean towards wit, also the summer of much learnthe Puritans, is mentioned by Barwick.--As ing and reading; but he had the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, he would harvest of a mature understanding, not permit a confutation of the Covenant and a mellow judgment, in all matwhich had been expressly prepared for the purpose, to be proposed in the Regent's House, from the apprehension, “ as he
ecclesiastical and civil. himself gave out," that such a step might
If his excellent temper had sooner bring to pass what the rebels had threat- been added as an allay to some other ened to some of their greatest men mother men's hotter spirits; (Troja “ transportation to the isles of America, nostra stetisset) we had not seen or even to the barbarous Turks." Neal
such deplorable ruins of a flourishalso says, that when the Earl of Manches
ing and reformed Church; but upon ter visited the University in the year 1644, Bishop Brounrig complied so far as to
this and other worthy Bishops' heads keep his mastership, but he was deprived in the next year, he adds, agreeing with Dr. * “ There being at this time the bią Gauden's account, on account of his ser. shoprics of Worcester, Lincoln, Exeter, mon preached upon the anniversary of his Chichester, and Bristol void by death or Majesty's inauguration. (Vol. iv. p. 244.) translation, the King, during the time of his The key to his conduct on these occasions being in Scotland, collated to those sees, Dr. was probably his principle of moderation, Prideaux, the King's Professor of Divinity which induced him to avoid giving unnecess in Oxford ; Dr. Winniff, Dean of St. sary offence in matters which he judged, Panl's; Dr. Brownerigg, Master of Catheeither unimportant, or inexpedient to be rine Hall, in Cambridge; Dr. Henry King, pressed in that conjuncture of affairs. As Dean of Litchfield; and Dr. Westfield, of to his interference indeed as Vice-Chan Great St. Bartholemew's, Londou; all of cellor, to hinder the proceedings respecting great eminency in the Church, frequent the Covenant, this account is questioned preachers, and not a man to whom the by the Editor of Barwick's Life, as not faults of the then governing Clergy were agreeing with the date of the year when imputed, or against whom the least objec. Dr. Brounrig was Vice-Chancellor. - Bar- tion could be made."-(Clarendon. Flist, wick's Life, Note, p. 36.
of the Rebellion, Vol. I, part 2, p. 422.)