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ing ages,) who, when he had justly denied mourner for losing her orthodox governor, that usurped power before whom he was presented by the Earl of Suffolk to a was convened, after he had suffered all small living at Little Chesterford, near the indignities that the deluded rabble, Audley Ion, in Essex, in 1652, which he and the ruder soldiery conld throw upon accepted, when he saw no probability of him, was beheaded upon a scaffold, pur that dark cloud dispersing, which still posely erected before his own palace. An lung over this then distempered nation. act so leivous, that it could not be Bat lie, who had lost the mastership of equalled by any thing, but by the malice a college for his loyalty, was resolved not of his Majesty's enemies, from whom it to stain his conscience by a base submishad its original.
sion to those usurpers, in the acceptance In the fall of this tall cedar, the other of that place ; and therefore held it only trees of our forest were rudely shaken, by my Lord of Suffolk's presentation, withand though they were not all hewn down out being settled thereiù according to the by the fatal axe, yet were they sore cut; prevalency of those licentious times, by their boughs and branches at least lopped their triers. In wbich privacy, since we off, unless that some of the shrubs escaped, have found him settled, we will see how because their lowness excused them from le managed in that critical juncture, after the levelling stroke.
I have subjoined, that it was in this year Thus several persons truly poble, both 1652, that he married Mrs. Elizabeth for descent and proper merit, attended Smith, his predecessor's daughter, who, their most gracious sovereign in bis suffer: without flattery I speak it, were so happy ings, even to his fall and their death; in each other, that those who had the whose greatest crime was that, for which longest acquaintance with them, never disinterested posterity will have them in beard an harsh word fall from then against the bigbest admiration, their loyalty. Be- each other : a felicity rarely to be found ! cause they could not consent to usurpa- and which ought to be mentioned to their tions in the civil government, and to inno- honour; and which doubtless was a true rations in the ecclesiastical, they must be sign that they were both unfeigned votaries martyrs; or taught to obey in that new to virtue. way of gospelling, by pike, gun, and dra . In this his recess, a place much more goons.
agreeable to his inclination than merit, • This, among many other confessors, was did Dr. Rainbow continue for some years. the fate of our Dr. Rainbow, who, for re- And though he was so far retired from the fosing a protestation against the king, in poise and bustles of those tumultuous 1650, lost his mastership of Magdalen, times; yet he knew he could not retire which he had hitherto kept by the power out of the piercing eye of the Almighty, fal intercession of his noble friends; and with whom he had to do. He knew it was which he was very willing to sacrifice, ra- as much incumbent on him to do his duty ther than to make a sacrifice of his con- there, as in a more conspicuous station ; science to those Anakims, which had no and therefore, though he could not use thing to entitle them to the government the English Liturgy, yet he used some of but violence and rapine
those excellent prayers of which it is comHe had been a mourner before this in posed, and that not only in his private fathe geveral loss of the nation, in the hor. mily, but also composed such prayers as he rid murder of their gracious sovereign, and used in the Church out of those in the was a particular one in the interment of Liturgy; and so gradually brought the igthat truly religious lady, the Lady Su- norant people to affect the common praysanna, Countess of Suffolk; the history ers, a little transformed and altered, who of whose virtues is far from being Apocry- disliked the Common Prayer Book itself, phal. Nor did she want a faithful historian they knew not why. in Dr. Edward Rainbow, who, in May 13, Nor was he satisfied with his own prac1649, made her funeral sermon, in a pa. tice alone in this case; when therefore he thetical and moving air, but did it as far lodged one night at a clergyman's house, from flattery, as she was above it; since an old acquaintance of his, who then used he spoke nothing but what be believed, other prayers in his family, he out of ci. and was not her orator to present her vir- vility to him commended his friend's form toes in a gaudy dress, but her faithful his. of prayer, but advised him for the future torian, to deliver what he knew upon good to use the prayers of the Church, for there grounds to be true.
were none other like them. Dr. Rainbow being exiled from Magda Nor did this pious doctor look upon his len college, by the order of the Rump constant preacluing to be a sufficient disParliament, which college vow became a charge of his duty, and that which woulil
merve to clear him when he was to give an to their privileges, laws, and religion, I account of his stewardship to his great am to inform the reader, that Dr., RainMaster, he believed that many of his bow had the satisfaction to bear, as the hearers came to Church purely out of cus- nation had to know; that Oliver Cromwell tom and forn, and consequently that their pot a period to the sitting of that long attention was not very profitable and ad- parliament, which had ruined three kingvantageous to their souls, in minding what doms, and unlinged the whole royal fawas delivered to them from the pulpit, mily, by pretending to reform the first; and therefore often went to their houses to and this was done after they had sat about catechise and instruct them, and to those twelve years, in 1653, on that very day who were indigent be often gave money to in which Dr. Rainbow was born. A tranoblige them to attend to his instructions ; saction at which lie not only publicly rethereby making their temporal necessities joiced, because it happened on the day of to contribute to the supplying their spiris his nativity, but he also noted it in his tual wants. A double charityl for which, dairy, with a prayer, “ That God would I doubt not, he hath long since met with turn it to the good of the Church and na a double reward from the Liberal Dis- tion.” penser of all good things.
But to proceed: in the year 1660, when In this place did our Dr. Rainbow re. the finger of God signally appeared in side, pleased with his present condition, bringing, in this onr nation, a king to the and his parishioners no less pleased with throne of his royal progenitors, after him, till April 1659, when the rectory of twelve years exile, and without a stroke Benefield, in Northamptonshire, valued at struck, potwithstanding that there was a 2001. or 3001. per annum, and of the gift veteran army, flushed in blood and vicof the Earl of Warwick, fell vacant, and tory, and trained up in an aversion to was proffered him by the said noble earl; monarchy then in being, the Chorch was which he utterly refused, because the also restored with the king : and then all triers, with whom he was resolved to have those worthy persons, who in the nreced. nothing to do, were then in power, tilling times of rebellion and confusion had there was sent him a presentation from been sufferers by loss of goods or places, the Earl of Warwick, with an assurance or by imprisonment, or by banishment, that he might be possessed of Benefield were either restored to the places which without going to the triers, Which last they had formerly possessed, or were prefavour had been procured him by the Earl ferred to higher honours. Among others, of Orrery, then only Lord Broghil, and Dr. Rainbow was restored to his masterboth ont of the respect wliich those ho. ship of Magdalen College, and by the fapourable personages had to his worth and vour and solicitation of his noble friends sweet temper.
was made chaplain to his late majesty, Having, though very unwilling to leave King Charles the Second, and in the year his retirement at Chesterford, accepted of following was made Dean of Peterbothe presentation to Benefield, upon the rough, wbere he had formerly been a above mentioued conditions ; wherein, by scholar, the bye, the reader may see how careful le Thither he removed in August 1661, was not to make shipwreck of a good con- with a design to reside there; but his stay science for any temporal benefit or ad. there was not long, preferments convancement, he managed things there as he ing now thick upon him ; for he was the had done at Little Chesterford, composing next year called to Cambridge, being all his prayers for the Chureh out of the elected vice-chancellor of that famous aniLiturgy ; which being repeated by him at versity in Nov. 1662. Which early electhe offices of cliristening, burial, &c. by tion of him to that great trust was not heart, which the ignorant people not up only a public testimony of the university's derstanding, liked well. And there he great esteem for him, but of his loyalty too. lived with great content, and in quietness; In the discharge of the vice-chancellor's being kindly treated by that people, who office, he acquitted hiniself with soffi. roughly treated others of the same fano. cient reputation, and in the management
thereof forgot not the care and interest of Before, in the course of our history, I that college, whereof he was the head. For come to that great and happy year of 1660, whereas the office of a proctor came not to when our late sovereign, Charles the mer- that college in forty-four years, be got it to ciful, was restored with the joyful acela. be publicly ordered and confirmed by his mations of all his loving subjects, to his late Majesty, that that office should return erown and dignity, and his loyal subjects to Magdalen College every vixth year;
and by a politic fixing the epocha of this deapery, and the other in his masternew circle, got a course to his own col. ship. lege sooner than it conld expect; and not Overcome at last with the desires and only so, but because some who were pot arguments of his friends, be accepted of up to preach in the University Church got, that honourable dignity, that was procured for a small sum of money, others to do it bim by his poble patron's mediation, and for them, who performed it so meanly, accordingly was consecrated in July 1664, that it turned often to the dishonour at London, by the most reverend Fatber thereof; to prevent which, he procured a in God Dr. Gilbert Sheldon, then Lord malet of forty sbillings to be imposed on Archbishop of Canterbury, and came to every such offender; and to give a good settle at Rose Castle, in Camberland, the example therein to the masters of art, the palace for the bishops of that see, on Sept. heads of the colleges (by his instigation) 3, following. yielded to preach there in their turns.
I ought to mention, that his generosity Ayd now being fixed again in his former in this case was so great, that though (perstation, with the additional revenue of the haps) he was at that time in such circumdeanery of Peterborough, he had more stances as to need some assistance to dethan satisfied bis ambition, which never fray the necessary charges of his consecraaimed higher than such a station, as where. tion, first-fruits, and his journey to, and in be might live decently, and might be settlement in his diocese ; yet did he not capacitated to be serviceable to his coun. so much as desire to hold the mastership try. Bat, beyoud his wishes, no less than of Magdaleu College in commendam for a above his expectation, was he elected while with his bishopric, but presently and Bishop of Carlisle in 1664, upon the tran- freely resigned both that place and bis slation of the Right Rev. Dr. Richard deanery of Peterborough to his successors Stern to the archiepiscopal see of York in them both; although such favours as
This new advancement was directly con- the retaining one of them for some time, trary to his mind, as he declared it to had not unusually been granted to others those honourable friends of his who had upon the like promotion. therein solicited for him, His truly pri W e have now seen him ascend by steps mitive temper put bim upon the declining into the episcopal throne ; a dignity wbich of that high and honourable employment the primitive Church of Christ had so in the Church ; the great care of so many great a veneration for, and which in times souls, as would thereby be devolved upon of hot persecution had been so often him, affriglated and deterred him awhile sprinkled with the blood of those who sat from embracing that honour, which so thereon; they exchanging that ticklish many court in vain, who so little know how honour for an immortal crown of glory, to discharge it. He looked upon himself, by that of martyrdom, we will now take a as did the ancient fatbers, to be unfit for stand, and view how he discharges that that high calling, wbich was, though in his sacred office. judgment bigbly honourable, yet withal a He found his palace at Rose Castle much burden too heavy for his weak shoulders ruinated; a great part of it being burnt to bear and sustain. He was desirous, as out down by the rebels in the late times of re. most reverend and learned primate, Arch. bellion, and bat little repaired by his imbishop Parker, was in the last age, to be mediate predecessor, though he had reserviceable to the Church, though moving ceived great advantages by entering upon in a lower sphere, and only that he might that bishopric after so long a vacancy, and enjoy those promotions and dignities he the expiration of the tenants leases, which had then arrived to, without ascending engaged him in a suit about dilapidations bigher.
with his predecessor, then his metropoliThus meadly did he think of himself, tan. In which trouble he was unwillingly what others often contradicted him in, as embarked, as that which was both repugnot sufficiently qualified for that high dig. nant to his meek nature, and was in his nity, and had still refused it, if the im thoughts unbecoming persons of that saportunity of his friends had not at last pre- cred cbaracter. vailed with him to decline it no longer; After the conclusion of that long suit, and there was one thing which contributed be was at a great expense in building at pot a little to his accepting of it, the great Rose Castle, for he built the chapel anew, respect which he had for two ancient and and made several other additions and convery deserving friends, which upon his re- veniences there. But though these edimoval to Carlisle were to succeed bim in fices were costly, as well as troublesome, his present promotions; the one in his yet there was another sort of building
which he was more intent upon, the build- who attend at God's altar, and dispense ing of God's Church in the spiritual sense, his holy word, and unfold the sacred mys. and that either by himself or leis assistants, teries of our holy religion. He therefore bis brethren the clergy, in the diligent resolved to set them a copy as legible as preaching of God's word; in the due admi- his human frailties would permit it to be vistration of the holy sacraments; in cate written, that they fairly imitating it, the chising of youth, (which word is rendered laity might be invited to transcribe it from by some grammarians, To build up in the them. most holy faith ;) in advising them to walk Pursuant of his pious design, he preachin paths of virtue and holiness, and in ad. ed not only in his courses at the cathedral, monishing and reclaiming the more loose but often there also upon occasional days; from their immoralitics.
as also frequently at bis own chapel at As this was his great province, so it Ross, at Dalston Church, and the adjawas his desire and endeavour to see that cent chapels, till hindered from this perthe clergy subordinate to him should do formance by the gout, the racks of which their duties. Iu the management of which, were not probably more troublesome than when some who liad been sufficiently cri. their consequence, his being thereby forced mipal and neglectful in the discharge of to omit bis public duty. And catechising their function, were justly reproved by him he so much kept up, that to oblige some for so doing; though that was done too at indigent persons to attend it, to their owu the first with meekness enough, yet he met spiritual advantage, and the building them. with a very rude treatment from them, selves in the most holy faith, he gave and much unbecoming their station ; never them money. Neither was his hospitality theless, both that and the ill returns made offending against the canons of the Church, bin from persons whom he had highly but like that of a bishop. His entertainobliged, was far from making him vindic- ment was free; his table was well furnished tive, if bis public character and the inte. with varieties; his conversation pleasant rest of the Church were not interwoven and yet grave, divertive and yet instruct. with his own concern, for then he would ing, often feeding the minds as well as the take care to rescue both from contempt, bodies of his guests. lest the cominon cause might suffer by bis We have observed his way of procedure own supine negligence. I shall not here as to what related to the Church; now the revive the rensembrance of those affronts ordering of his family challenges our next to that sacred order, by particularizing consideration. The government of his those which were offered to him, and private family was mode:led in imitation therefore will forbear to mention the of. of that of the Church; that is, regular. fending persons names, wishing that the Four times a day was God publicly called faults of some of them may be buried in upon by prayers in that family; twice in the same grave with their authors; and the chapel, wliich part his lordship's chaponly ada, that generally the troubles which lains performed ; and twice in the dining befel him after his advancement to the room ; the latter of these at six in the episcopal authority, were occasioned by morning and nine at night, was the usual his conscientions discharge of that sacred task of our right reverend and worthy preoffice, which doth not seldom make the late himself, if not disabled by sickness : best of men fall under the weight of popu. as if he who was the master of the falar odium. For although I am far from mily, would open it every morning, and pretending to exempt him in his manage. lock it up every night, by the key of ment of that dignity from mistakes and prayer. errors, and it is certain his own humility All known profaneness and swearing taught him another lesson, than to aspire were banished thence: for this made as to the swelling title of infallible ; yet gener much discord in that family, as an ill musirally his failings were such as might admit cian did in Plato's schools. Offenders in of an easy apology, without the assistance debauchery were at first reproved and adof political refinings, to which he was very monished, and if they relapsed into the much a stranger.
same fault, they were often dismissed the But to return from whence I have dis house, unless tbere appeared visible sigus gressed: as he inspected the lives and of repentance, and those ushered in with manners of his Clergy, and their perform- fervent promises, to make those good by ance of their pastoral charge, so was he not their utmost endeavours. wanting to set them a good pattern bim- While the suit was continued between self, being assured that nothing won more the then Archbishop of York and onr upon the minds and consciences of men worthy prelate, viz. in 1668, he was once than a good example, especially in those offered to be removed from the see of Car
lisle to that of Lincoln, by the inost Rev. and intimate acquaintance; yet when he Father in God Gilbert Sheldou, Lord first considered in his cooler, by whose Archbishop of Canterbury. A prelate, interest he was frustrated of his expeciawho, besides the monuments he erected to tions, and that the Bishopric of Lincoln, his name by his truly primitive virtues, besides its vast extent, which still increasbath left one at Oxford, that famous thea ed the cure of souls, and consequently tre built at his own charge, and dedicated made that greater burden balance the to the uscs of the public, the service of greater revenue, it had, as he thought, a the Church, and the muses. A structure greater inconvenience, that that revenue, whicb, if the world last so long, may con- superior to the other of Carlisle (which tinue the name of that pious archbishop notwithstanding was far from tempting our longer than the Egyptian pyramids have prelate to a removal to Lincoln,) concontioned the memory of their ambitious sisted much in pensions from the Clergy, and vain-glorions founders.
so that he used to say, that that Bishop Dr. Rainbow listened with some plea was maintained out of the poor clergy. sure to that motion of the good arche men's mouths. bishop, as being desirous to be freed from Dr. Edward Rainbow had continued the inquietudes wbich bis legal dispute near twenty years in the exercise of his with his metropolitan in the above nien- episcopal function, though often indispostioned case of dilapidations did create him, ed, and especially in his latter years, with But herein he met with too potent an the stone and the gout, two diseases of so adversary to be successful; a great lady, acute a pain, that they would not only with whom he had formerly some acqnaint pose the patience, or rather pretended ance, and a just respect : but, when she apathy of the proudest stoical philosopher, had forfeited his esteem, and that of all but put even a Christian one to fly from good men, by the prostitution of ber ho- second causes to the first of all, for his nour, our good Bishop did not then think support under that torment, more cruel himself obliged, notwithstanding her greater than the dispatching and devouring flames : quality, to pay her those regards he bad he had been Bishop, I say, so long, when formerly done. And when she, after that, in March, 1683, his pains occasioned, as offered him civilities, he was so far from was supposed, by the gout in the stomach, laying hold on such opportunities to ad- increased, and the more they augmented, vance bis fortunes by her mediation, that the more did our pious Bishop apply himhe declined her very company, contem- self to the Physician of Souls, as looking ning the most innocent favours of such a upon the bodily health to be in a declining person, who had forgotten her noble condition; albeit, to preserve it, be neg. practices in the addition of new titles, and lected not to consult' physicians for the those purchased at a dear rate with the body too, but in vain. When he thereloss of her fame.
fore ascertained that death was approachThis slight from our pious prelate, the ing him, with how much cheerfulness, and lady so highly resented, that partly out of with what a true Christian magnanimity particular pique, and partly out of a de- did he look the king of terrors in the sign to prefer an uncle of her's to the bi- face! he prepared to receive him not as shopric of Lincoln, though far unfit to be an enemy, but as a welcome friend, who placed in so much light, she hindered the way to conduct him out of this vale of translation of Dr. Rainbow thither. Al tears, into the mansions of eternal joy, far beit the pious Archbishop so far prevailed above all the regions of instability. He over that lady's interest, as to get an Irish saw his course was almost finished, and le Bishop, designed before for Carlisle, and longed to be at the goal. with the thoughts whereof he bad been Daring this his last sickness, not one well enough contented, to be placed in the idle or impertinent word fell from him. stead of that lady's upcle, who was thereby He had in his lifetime, hefore this last gently laid aside.
arrest of his body by distempers, learned Our prelate was not much displeased at a perfect resignation of himself to the dithis tarn of affairs, though he had wished vine will and pleasure of Almighty God, the contrary, for the above-mentioned and therefore received the approaches of reason; to which another might be added, death with that humble submission to the that the Bishop of Lincoln's palace at Divine will, and with that calmness and Bagden was so situated as to be near serenity of mind, which are not often Cambridge, and not far distant from Lon found but in persons of a primitive piety. don, in which respect he could not have He had indeed begged of God, that he wished to have been better fixed than might over-live Lady-day, because it there, for the enjoyment of his relations would much conduce to the profit of his