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REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Advice to Servants; being Jive Family Lectures delivered to Domestic Slaves in the Island of Darbadoes, in the Year 1822. By the Rev. John Hothersall Pinder, A. B. Chaplain to the Codrington Plantation. 12mo. pp. 36. Is. Rivingtons and Cochran. 1824.
At the present moment, when the public attention is so earnestly directed to the state of slavery in our West India colonies, it is with feelings of the liveliest satisfaction, that we take up the little work now before us, and examine its most interesting contents. It consists of five lectures, written in a style, well adapted by its plainness and familiarity, to the persons addressed. Mr. Pinder, as the title-page informs us, is Chaplain to the Codrington Plantation. We should have given him a higher sounding title, and called him Chaplain to the Codrington College; but we suppose he preferred the former designation, as denoting to less informed readers, that his office consisted in attending to the instruction of the Negro slaves, by whose labour the Codrington estate is cultivated; the revenues of which are applied to the maintenance of the Codrington College, under the control of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Whether the domestic slaves, to whom these Lectures were addressed, were the property of Mr. Pinder, or of the College, does not appear in the work itself; we rather conclude the latter supposition to be correct; and if we may judge of Mr. Pinder's care of his whole flock, by the diligent at, tention which this work shews he
has paid to those who came under his daily view, we are persuaded we may congratulate the Trustees of the College, upon having so zealous and discreet a man for their chaplain.
The first Lecture is on the Reciprocal Duties of Masters and Servants, the text is from Colost. iii. 22, 23; and iv. 1. The two following passages form the greatest part of this Lecture.
"It is the duty of the master to establish the worship of God in his family, where thanksgiving, prayer for blessings, and confession of sin may daily be offered up to the Almighty by all the members of the family. It is the duty of the servant to be glad of such an opportunity, and make the best use of it; to be ready at the time he knows the bell will ring; enter reverently, pray earnestly, and hear the Scripture attentively. Far from making him presume upon this mark of religious favour—because admitted into the apartment where at other times he it seen ou service—he should be more bumble and respectful than ever; should feel a stronger tie than before, towards his master and fellow-servants; and having bowed the knee before God, as one of a family, he cannot henceforth commit the smallest injury to the head of the family, or even the youngest member, without injuring himself at the same time, and dishonouring God, " the Father of all the families of the earth." It is the master's duty also to encourage his servants in praying by themselves; in learn, ing to read ; in serving God on the Sabbathday; and when sufficiently advanced in Christian knowledge, and Christian behaviour, to lead them to the Lord's table, where they may call to mind the death of the Saviour, and receive God's promises and pledge of mercy, grace, and salvation, on their true belief and repentance,"— P. 3.
"It is the duty of a master and mistress to advise a servant, when they see any bad or faulty habit creeping on upon them; if advice U neglected, tbey mast reprove ; if their reproof is set at nought, they nmst use other means. Some servants there are, who will feel more at being turned from the room in which they wait, or displaced from their duty for a day, or even passed without being wished good-night or morning, than others will at more harsh means. Happy and tender is such a conscience! it carries its blessing. It is the dnty also of a master to reward. And this can be done in many ways without money given, or payment made for doing what their business of life is. This would in some cases shock advanced Christian servants, and make them feel hnrt at being suspected, of not valning God's favour above all as their chief reward. With the young, it is a different case. Just setting out, surrounded by temptation, and weak through the corrupt nature which they brought with them into the world, they need these little helps, which may be removed after a time, like scaffolding from a building. Thus it appears the duty of masters and mistresses to lead their servants forward in religions knowledge, to be kind and gentle to all tempers which can be won by such treatment; to advise, and to reprove. To afford comfortable clothing, sufficient and easy maintenance—I may add, attention, when any are sick—and tears over the grave of a faithful servant, will be as beautiful and becoming as the drops of morning dew. May the Almighty dispose my heart ever to be the friend as well as master of my servants—May they serve me in return, * not with eye-service, as men-plrasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God; and whatever they do, do it as to the Lord!' May I, like Cornelius, not serve God by myself, but 'with all my house,' and keep the way of the Lord." P. 4.
When it is considered that these Lectures are addressed to persons in a state of slavery, we are certain, that many persons who are taught to view the state of our West India colonies, as a state of universal barbarism, will be not less surprised than gratified, when they find a Christian Clergyman, himself a native of Barbadoes, addressing his slaves in these affectionate terms. From the information we possess respecting the West Indies, we are; led to believe, that as far at least as relates to the domestic slaves, the tie
between the master and the slave has something patriarchal in its character; and that those " tears over the grave of a faithful servant," which Mr. Pinder describes as "beautiful and becoming as the morning dew," are oftener shed, than many are willing to believe. And as the manner in which Mr. Pinder has described the feelings of good servants, who incur some slight from their masters, such as being displaced for a day, or not wished good night or morning, shows that he is speaking not merely of himself, but of other masters; so also it proves the friendly nature of the connection between the master and the slave, amongst the better portion of society. Such reproofs only exist where servants are united to their masters, by affection and regard.
The Second Lecture treats of stealing, the text Ephes. iv. 2a. Mr. Pinder treats with much clearness the various kinds of stealing of which servants are guilty; and his remarks are as well suited to the servants in England, as they are to the domestic slaves of the West Indies. He proposes to the consideration of his hearers, the examples of Abraham's servant, and of the servant of the Centurion, in the following terms.
"How delightful it is to read of Abraham being able to trust his servant on so important a business, as to bring home Rebecca to his son Isaac, and to mark with what confidence the old man put into his hands, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold? sore of his servant's faithfulness and honesty, and worthy of the trust he put in him. How pleasing to our Saviour, to hear the Roman captain, speak so highly of hit servant, and actually come begging him to cure him of the sickness with which be was afflicted. These were Jumett servants.*" P. 10.
His description of the feelings with which an aged servant would call to mind his acts of dishonesty, when roused to a sense of guilt, is in itself interesting, as pointing out the protection which faithful slaves receive from their masters, whin incapacitated by age from active service.
The Third Lecture is upon Lying. We cannot avoid extracting the following passage, as containing instruction worth the attention . of masters even in uur own country.. The passage abounds with good sense and judgment.
"People are tanght to lie by having false promises made to them. If they will do such a thing, a bad person promises to give them this ; not to tell upon them, and so on. Persons are tanght to lie, from the way they are spoken to,—Get into a passion with them—storm and rage;—why they are frightened, and scarcely know what they are saying. Ask them mildly and quietly; search into the troth till you come at it, and clear them of the charge; or, if they have told a lie, punish them. Yet the punishment even of young persons should be something more than whipping or confinement: try and make them sensible, of their wickedness; make them ashamed ; make them sorry in the sipht of God) and try and fix in their hearts a determination never again to tell a lie.
"Another way of making a person lie, is to accuse him without a cause.. Consider every person as innocent, and treat him so, till yon are satisfied in yonr own mind, or have very strong reasons indeed, fiom hi* behaviour, for believing that he is guilty. This will be far from encouraging him to tell a lie.
'• How are we to prevent or cure this bad habit ?—Know that God is present; hears what you say, mid is offended with you for a lie. Do you think you may repent, before yon meet God r Do not be too sure. Ananias and Sapphira told a lie; St. Peter warned them; they persisted; and God struck them both dead upon the spot! Gehazi, the servant of Elishn, ran after a person that had been calling at his master'sMioiisc, and by means of a lie, got tome money and clothes; then, with a calm face, walks hack, and stands before the prophet.—' Where have you been Gehaaii''—Thy servant has not been any where.'—' What! did not my heart go with tbee and watch thee when Naaman gave you what you begged for, with a lie in vonr month ; and now you deny it to me!' And how was he punished ?—' with Uprosy, for ever.'—If this will not prevent lying, to be told that God hears every word you say, true or false, whisper or lotctl, to master, mistress, or one another,
it will be in vain for me to remind you that every man, woman, and child that speaks truth will despise you, and think little of you, and watch you, and never trust you. In vain to remind you, that your own heart will be touched with shame, at times; that yon cannot be happy here, nor expect to be so hereafter.'' P. 17.
"Do not give way to telling strange accounts of things, and talking about other people. If you make a promise, keep it. Keep company, as much as possible, only with true and faithful Christians. Do not speak hastily; think before you speak, and do not talk too much: yon rannot unsay what yon have once said. When you repeat a thing, do not make it more or less; better or worse; either to produce fun, or promote displeasure; and do not ever say what yon yourself do not believe. If you get out of temper, avoid speaking till you are cool again ; yon may tell, either by threatening or promising, what you may afterwards repent." P. 20.
The Fourth Lecture is upon Idleness, and contains much familiar and useful instruction. The extract, though colloquial in its style, is worth reading; and the reference to our blessed Lord's example is well adapted to cheer those, whose life is one of toil and labour.
"I In « no better rule for being earnest in business, than praying for a blessins; on your daily labour. Pew can go on long playing the hypocrite to such a degree as to beg God's blessing on this piece or that piece of business : and then neglect it in the day! You cannot speak too plainly to your Heavenly Father in prayer. If you charge yourself with so late taking rest, pray against it. If yon think yourself slow, if fond of gadding, If of being busy only while watched, if of doing business carelessly, if of idle fits, though not regularly idle, or any other way in which I have mentioned, pray for strength to get the mastery of it. Whoever you may serve, never be a servant to the bad disposition of a corrupted heart. Pray more and more earnestly, till yon find it getting less and less manifest in your conduct.
"Remember the Lord Jesus Christ. He whom archangels were made to serve, came down, ' not to he ministered unto but to minister.' 'He went about doing good.' He laboured till he was hungry, and the people came to him again, so that he could take no food: he walked till he was thirsty, and then was refused a draught of water. Like the sun that rules by day, he went his daily round, giving light and life; preaching peace, but enjoying none; offering rest to weary souls, bnt not having where to lay his head. At length, bearing his own cross, he patiently suffered himself to be nailed to it, for our redemption. Even now he is actively engaged, praying in our behalf, guiding his servants, directing their duties, helping the performance, and preparing places in heaven against their coining thither; wherein we may rest neither day nor night from the blessed lot of praising and serving God for ever and ever I"— P. 38.
The last Lecture is upon Sobriety, and well pourtrays the evil effects of drunkenness; but we shall forbear making any further extracts.
We cannot, however, close the Review, without contrasting the address of Mr. Piuder to his domestic slaves, with the manner in which our more enthusiastic brethren strive to impress their hearers with the useful truths of the Christian religion. In Mr. Pinder's discourses, every thing is adapted to the understanding of the slaves, yet without condescending to that familiarity, which is disgusting when employed in the service of religion. The main and fundamental doctrines of Christianity, are plainly and practically enforced; and though we here and there detect phrases not quite in accoidance with the elegancies of the English language, as spoken on the eastern side of the Atlantic, still the production, on the whole, is creditable to Mr. Pinder's talents, and bespeaks a heart devoted to religion, and a miud studiously fixed upon the discbarge of his important and interesting duties. In taking leave of Mr. Pinder, we request him to be assured, that he will carry with him, on his return to his duties at the College, our earnest prayers, that his health may be spared to enable him to continue his valuable services, and we
doubt not that the future Ecclesiastical governors of the Leeward Islands will be able to appeal to the happy condition of the slaves of the Codrington Plantation, in testimony of the benefits which will result to the planter, as well as to the slave, from the judicious extension of Christian instruction amongst the Negro population.
The Christian Ministry : a Sermon, Preached in the Cat/udral Church of Chester, at a public Ordination of Priests and Deacons, by the Right 'Reverend George Henry, Lord Bishop of that Diocese, on Sunday, October 5, 1823; and published at the Request of the Bishop, the Dean, the Archdeacon, and the rest of the Reverend Clergy then present. By George Gaskin, D.D. (of Trinity College, Oxford,) Prebendary of Ely. 8vo. pp. 24. Is. Gd. llivingtoiis. 1824.
A Sermon from so old a servant of the Church, on the duties of the Ministry, will be read with very deep interest by all, and with no small profit and edification by the younger Clergy.
"We live (says the venerable Preacher) at a period of time, when the Church is assailed, by a vast variety of opponents—by those, who set themselves to controvert the idea, that God has made any revelation of his will to mankind, and consequently that he has not founded a Church,—and by others, who, professing to believe, corrupt the faith, split into numberless petty sects and parties, and create Ministries amongst themselves. Thus, errors and confusion are engendered, and we have a torrent of evil to oppose, which nothing can effectually stem, on our part, but suitable learning, especially on the origin and nature of our office, correct life, pious disposition, abstraction from secular pursuits, and secular manners, and diligence in tbe various duties of our cal ling. If such dispositions be entertained, and such pursuits be followed, under the guidance of God's word and Church, and by- the aid of the Holy Spirit, we may anticipate usefulness in our labours; we shall be instrumental to the salvation of the souls committed to our attention, and thus ministering, and preaching to others, we shall not ourselves become cast-aways •. P. 5.
After an introduction, so calculated to excite the attention of his audience, Dr. Gaskin thus expresses himself on the subject of the Christian Ministry.
'* When we consider the great objects of the Christian Ministry, and the nature of its duties; how closely interwoven are religion and happiness; and how vexatious and short lived, are concerns that are merely worldly; it will be perceived, that the relationship subsisting between the Clergy, nnd 'those among whom they minister, is of the most endearing, interesting nature: and that they are, or ought to be, united together, by the strongest and most indissoluble ties. By this spiritual alliance, the Pastor's interest is really bound up with that of his Parishioners; and in seeking their welfare, he consults his own. A mutual obligation is bound upon both parties: the duty of one is fidelity and diligence, and that of theother is respect and attention. There does not then occur to me a more suitable train of discourse, on this occasion, than that which results fairly from the tent ; whence, we are led to consider, the dignity of their office, who are " the Ministers of Christ, and Stewards of the mysteries of God;" the duties, to which that sacred office obliges them; and the obligations of the people, amongst whom they minister. What I shall advance upon these heads, will be strictly conformable to the views of the Church of England, and what I verily believe myself, after much thought, consideration, and experience." P. 7.
The first of these heads regards the dignity of the Priestly office; which is justly stated to be of God's own appointment, not derived from, however it may be enriched by, man, but instituted by Christ himself for man's benefit.
"With respect to the dignity of their office, who are 'the Ministers of Christ, and Stewards of the mysteries of God,' it it will be suitable to premise, that they are *»/ the creatures, or mere servants of the Slate. The secular honours, with which the Clergy of an Established Church are invested, and
the legal security they have for the payment of their revenues, originate in the kindness, and proceed from the indulgence, of the State. These honours and these rights, however, are quile distinct from the spiritual commission, which they bear for the administration of the concerns of our Lord's Kingdom on earth. They have no necessary connexions with it; tbey stand merely on the ground of human law; whilst the spiritual commission, or office, of the Minister, is altogether derived from a different source. There is, in the sacred character, somewhat more divine, than can belong to the mere hired servants of the State; there is somewhat, which the potentates of the earth, and the powers of the world, can neither give, nor take away.
•' Nor is it to be supposed, that the 6ody of the people are vested legitimately, with the power of conferring a right to administer spiritual things, in the Church of Christ. I am aware that the sectaries of most, perhaps all, denominations, plead for this power; and the persons, who minister before them, are unquestionably their delegates. ?7>etr office, however, is the invention of the human brain; and their power is that, which the people please to give them. Such a spurious spiritual administration as this, the Church had net beard of, in her primitive and purest times. It was the leaven of a comparatively modern iera: it bad its grnnd prevalence, if not its rise, in this kingdom when anarchy rode triumphant, on the ruins of our civil and ecclesiastical constitution; and the doctrine, at this day, prevails, chieBy, if not altogether, with those who long to see that anarchy revived among us. The dignity of the sacred ministry has then another origin. They, who, legitimately, minister, in spiritual things, are neither the creatures of the state, nor the del/gates of the people: they are the ministers of Christ, and therefore, 'Stewards of the mysteries of God.' The prophet Malachi informs us, of old, that < the Priest was the messenger of the Lord of Hosts * j* and, in reference to the same idea, St. Paul tells us, that he was received as * the Angel, or Messenger, of God, even as Christ Jesus t • himself had been received. 'As my Father sent me,' said our Lord to those whom he had ordained, * so send 1 you J,'and, 'lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world j| .* Accordingly, when the Jewish Sanhedrim, who acted under the authority of the Romans, imprisoned the Apostles, and ' commanded them not to speak at all, nor teach, in the name of Jesus §;' they replied that they had a commission from God to preach the gospel, which must
• Mai. ii. 7. f Gal. iv. 14.
J John xx. 21. || Matt, xxviii. 20.
§ Actsiv. 18, 19