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PREFACE

It has been said that history, as generally written, is but an account of the wars and contentions by which dynasties have striven for the mastery of nations. It imparts little or no information in respect to the social condition or material progress of the people themselves. It is true that the means of preserving such information have never before existed in the shape of those printing facilities which at this day place every variety of intelligence within the reach of the poorest classes. These facilities are themselves among the wonders that have attended the progress of the American people during the past eighty years. In that period a nation has been born, and grown to unexampled power and place among the nations of the earth.

Inasmuch, however, as that the nature, the institutions, and the administration of the American nation are different from all others, so must its history be in an entirely different style. If there are no regal intrigues to chronicle or military exploits to recount, there are more lasting triumphs in every useful science to record. If we have no Alexander, or Cassar, or Bonaparte, or Wellington, to shine on the stormy pages of our history, we have such names as Franklin, Whitney, Morse, and a host of others, to shed a more beneficent lustre on the etory of our rise. The means by which a few poor colonists have come to excel all nations in the arts of peace, and to astonish the people of Europe with their achievements through the development of their inventive genius, are true subjects for a history of the United States. Such a history is now for the first time presented to the American people. In its preparation no pains or expense has been spared in the view of making it perfectly reliable, and it is believed that a •work has been produced which will be standard on the subject.

"When the "War of Independence was finished, the American people, free on their own soil, turned their quick intellect and undivided attention to the great object of improvement, material and mental, and they have wrought out results that have become not only the admiration but the exemplar of all nations. The great genius of the people manifested itself in the invention of labor-saving machines, because labor was scarce and dear. The steam engine was adopted, improved, and applied to every branch of labor. It was applied to navigation, to locomotion, and to manufacturing in all its branches, great and small. Inventions were introduced in all possible branches of manufacturing by which labor was saved. It is probable that one man now produces as much by the aid of machines as one hundred did formerly. In other words, that inventive genius has increased manufacturing production a hundredfold. At the same time a vast continent has been settled; and here again has inventive genius supplied machinery as a substitute for farm laborers, and one man may, by their aid, harvest a large surplus above his family wants. These machines have become the models for Europe. This vigor of production has enabled the construction of as many miles of railroads as all Europe put together.

The telegraph has been invented for transmission of intelligence, and more miles of it used than in all Europe.

In ship-building, the American improvements have outstripped the boasted wooden walls of old England, and given the model to the world. Their active enterprise has won the foremost rank in foreign commerce, and covered the inland waters with more steam tonnage than all other nations possess.

The cities of America have sprung up with magic growth, and increased with marvellous vigor. There is no example in history where so many large cities have been built in a similar period.

In producing a carefully written history of all these events, a vast amount of labor and research has been gone through to collate reliable statistical matter. Every effort has been used to place the results in a clear and attractive view, so as to make the reader master of every branch of the subject, and enable him to speak understandingly of his country's triumphs. To this end a great expense has been incurred for engravings illustrative of the various industries;

It is believed that the work now offered to the public is the most complete history of a nation's progress ever written.

The reader should ever bear in mind that the work does not come down later than I860, except in a few cases, it may cover a portion of 1861. There is also a brief description of the Iron-clads and Monitors of a later date.

C O N TENTS.

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AGRICULTURE.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.................... 19

First Settlers........... - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . 19

James River Settlement, Virginia.......... 19

Plymouth Colony............. . . . . - - - - - - . 19

Stock of early Settlers............... ..... 20

Introduction of Clover in England, 1633. ... 20

Beef and Mutton, same date...... - - - - - - - - 20

Early Agricultural Implements............ 20

Customs of the Indians.......... - --- - - ... 21

Indians' method of clearing Forests........ 21

Indians instruct the English how to cultivate

Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - . . . . . 21

Indians' mode of storing Corn............. 21

First sight of Ships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 22

Low condition of Agriculture before the

Revolution...... . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 22

Raisings and Huskings of early times....... 22

Early Settlers manufacture their Garments... 22

Courtship and Marriage................... 23

Number of Newspapers.................. 23

Prejudice against housing and milking Cows

in Winter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Emigrating West meaning Western New

York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 24

Associated AND LEGISLATIVE EFFORT........ 24

Letter of Washington to Sir John Sinclair... 24

South Carolina Agricultural Society........ 25

Massachusetts do do . . . . . . . . 25

First Agricultural Exhibition in 1809....... 25

Effects of Agricultural Societics............ 26

FARM IMPLEMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Jack at all Trades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Ploughs in Virginia in 1617........... ... . 27

rags

Wooden Forks.......................... 27

Description of Ploughs .................. 30

Modern Improvements in Ploughs...... ... 30

Ten Millions saved in Ploughing.......... ... 30

First Patent for Cast Iron Ploughs......... 31

Thomas Jefferson on Ploughs........ ... ... 31

Massachusetts Plough Manufactories....... 31

The Harrow, Cultivator, Grubbers, &c...... 32

Sickle and Cradle........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32

Reapers and Mowers.................... 33

Horse Rake................. ... . . . . . . . . 36

Malthus on Population.......... ... . . . . . 36

Trial of American, English, and French

Threshing Machines............ - - - - - - - 36

RAISING OF STOCK.................... ... . . 37

First Stock imported................ ... . . 37

Crossing of different Breeds of Cattle..... . 38

Fodder for Cattle in Virginia........... ... 38

Cattle in Illinois in 1682....... ... ... . . . . . . 39

Stock Raising in England................. 39

Large Prices for Improved Stock.......... 40

Hereford and Devon Breeds..... . . . . . . . . . 40

Methods of improving the Breeds of Cattle... 41

Milch Cows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois Cattle. 47

18,378,907 head of Cattle in 1850.......... 47

Animals slaughtered in 1850 worth $111,703-
142. . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 47

Importing Choice Stock.................. 48

Ohio Company for importing, Capital $9,200. 48

Short Horns, Jerseys, Ayrshires........... 49

Value of Cattle in Ohio in 1857, $11,315,560 50

Average numberlbs. Butter per Cow in differ-

ent states. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Average number lbs. Cheese.............. 51

Number of Cows per inhabitant....... ... .. 51

Stock Raising in Southern States.......... 52

raor race

Honses............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 52 | Wheat in California........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - 77

Roads, Mails at four miles per hour........ 52 | PRODUCTION OF OTHER GRAINs.............. 77

Speed desired in Horses....... ------- . ... 52 Rye, Oats, Buckwheat..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 78

First Horses imported by Columbus....... 53 | Buckwheat raised South, West and North... 78

Wild Horses Descendants of Spanish Breeds 53 Clover and Grass seed................... 79

Demand for Fast Horses..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - 53 l Potatoes................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

The Morgan and Black Hawk ............ 54 |PEAS AND BEANs...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 79

Horseback Riding in the South...... ... ... 54 GRASS AND HAY CRop................... ... 79

Number of Horses in 1850, 4,336,719, not in- Timothy found by Mr. Herd in a Swamp,
cluding Cities and Large Towns........ ... 54 taken to Maryland and Virginia by Timothy

Sheep............... - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Hanson........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

First Imported Sheep........ ............. 59 || Value of Hay Crop..... - - - - - - --- - - - - - ... 80

Wool Two Dollars per pound.............. 59 || Hay consumed per head of Cattle in differ-

The Dog Law.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 ent States..... -- - - - - - - - - --- . . . . . . . . . . 80

Tennessee Wool takes the Premium at the CULTURE of FRUIT........................ 81

World's Fair......................... 60 | First Apples in this Country.............. 81

Great Britain produces 275,000,000 lbs. Wool First Horticultural Society......... - - - - - - 81

annually........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 60 | The Nurseries of Western New York...... 82

Wool of the South, West and North........ 63 | Orchards in the South................... 82

Swine AND Pork...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 63 | Peaches in the South......... - - - - - - - - - - - 82

First Swine imported...... ------------ 63 | Fruit in California................. ... ... 83

Improvement in Breeds of Swine........... 64 || Wine in do ....................... 83

Native Hogs of the West........ ......... 64 Imports of Fruits which may be grown in

Swine of the South, West and North....... 65 California............................ 83

Manner of killing Hogs.............. .... 65 | Thousand Dollars worth of Pears on one acre 84

Pork Packing......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 66 Orchard Products of 1850.......... - - - - 84

Lard Oil......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 67 | Fruit Books........ ................ ... 84

Quantity of Pork packed in Cincinnati for Pears imported from France in 1851....... 84

twenty-seven years.................... 67 |CULTURE of Tobacco.......... - - - - - - - .... 85

Number of Hogs killed in Western States... 67 Columbus presented with a Cigar........ . 85

PRODUCTs of THE Sol L............. - - - - - - - - 68 || French Revenue from Tobacco ......... ... 85

Indian Corn............................ 68 Tobacco at Forty Cents per pound......... 86

Indian Mythology....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 68 Exports of Tobacco..................... . 86

Early Exports of Corn.......... - - - - - - - - , 69 Tobacco raised South, West and North.... 87

Increased Exports of Corn since 1820..... 70 Manufacture of Cigars............. ... ... 87

Corn produced in France and Russia....... 70 |CULTURE of Hops.................. - - - - - - . 88

1,000,000,000 bushels Corn in 1855........ 70 Hops introduced as early as 1828.......... 88

Corn exported from 1851 to 1858.......... 71 Hops Raised South, West and North... ... 89

England imports $225,000,000 worth of Grain 71 ||FLAx AND HEMP........................ ... 89

Wheat........................ - - - - - - - - - 72 Quantity raised South, West and North..... 90

Samples of Wheat sent to Holland in 1626. 72 |CULTURE of Silk.......................... 90

Damage to Wheat by Blast, Insects, &c..... 73 BEE CULTURE........................... ... 90

Raising Wheat in New England........... 73 |Poultry. . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 90

Exports of Wheat and Flour....... ------ . 74 LUMBER BUSINESS.................... . . . . . 91

French Settlements in the West........... 74 || Great Variety of Trees................... 91

Soldiers of the Revolution settle in Illinois... 75 | New Settlers....................... ... 91

Chicago Grain Depot................. ... 75 | The Lumbermen in the Forest........... . 92

Grain Store-houses of Illinois Central Rail- Rafting Business.................. ... ... 93

road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Lumbering in Maine............... ‘..... 94

Agricultural Products Sixteen Hundred Mil- Kinds of Lumber........ -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 94

lions annually. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 76 The way Lumber is sold......... ... 95

Agricultural Interests four-fifths of Taxes in Lumbering at Green Bay................. 96

New York State...................... 77 Chicago Lumber Market................. 96

Wheat produced South, West and North... 77 AGRICULTURAL LITERATURE................. 97

[graphic]

Essays by Jared Elliot 97

The American Farmer 97

Various Agricultural Papers 98

Agricultural Books 98

Agricultural Colleges 99

Chemistry in aid of Agriculture 99

Guano as a Fertilizer 100

Two Million Tons Guano from Chincha Islands 100

The Prospect Of Agriculture In The Country 101

Comparison with other Countries 101

Number of Farms in the United States 102

Remarks of Daniel Webster 102

COTTON CULTURE.

Capital and Labor 103

Early Exports of Produce 104

Labor in Comparison with Europe 105

Cotton great Export Article 106

Trade with Brazil 107

Cotton, Rico and Tobacco South 107

Production And Prices Of Cotton 108

Machinery for Spinning Cotton 108

Steam Engine Important in Cotton Manufac-

turing 109

Early Manufactures in England 109

Cotton Trade of France 109

Comparative Consumption of Cotton 110

Cotton found by Columbus 110

Sea Island Cotton Ill

Whitney Cotton Gin Ill

Vexatious Law Suits 113

Increase of Cotton from 1820 to 1830 114

Prices of Cotton decline 114

Decline in Shipping Tonnage of Charleston.. 114

Rice Culture 115

Railroads in the South 115

Cotton Factories in the South 115

MOHOPOLY OF THE MARKET—SLAVS LABOR 116

Limit of Sea Island Cotton 116

Cotton in various Countries 117

Paper read before the Society of Arts 118

Experiment with American Cotton in India. 118

Picking Cotton 119

Slave Labor 119

Humanity of tho Master 119

Maine Liquor Law among Slaves 120

Ploughing in February 120

Cultivating Cotton 121

Distribution of Labor among Whites and

Blacks 121

Slaves Marry and are given in Marriage.... 121

Cotton and Gold support high Tariff 122

Northern Furniture in Southern Houses.... 122

Northern Books do do ... 123

SUGAR CULTIVATION AND CONSUMPTION.

Cane first introduced in Louisiana 127

Five kinds of Cane 127

Mode of Cultivating 128

Sugar Mills 128

Quantity Sugar produced per acre 129

Consumption of Sugar in the United States. . 129

Maple Sugar 130

COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES.

Colonial Trade, Ac. 132

Rapid Development 132

Early Settlers and Imperial Government.... 133

Colonists forbidden to Coin Money 133

Early Manufactures. 133

The Colonies forbidden to Manufacture 133

Report of Parliamentary Committee on Co-

lonial Manufactures and Trade 133

West India and American Rum 135

Imports and Exports of 1770 136

Burdens of the Colonies 137

The Revolutionary War 137

Paper Currency 138

Trade with Great Britain from 1784 to 1790. 138

Insurrection in St. Domingo 139

Stephen Girard 139

Jay's Treaty 139

Table Imports and Erports from 1730 to 1807 140

Mr. Hamilton, Secretary of Treasury, Report 141

Table of Exports 141

American Manufactures 143

Table of Tonnage, Exports and Imports,

from 1803 to 1820 142

The Embargo 143

National Debt at close of the War of 1812.. 143

Increase of Population, Wealth, tc., from 1791

to 1820 144

Changed Interests, Manufactures, 4c 144

Table of Imports and Exports from 1821 to

1839 145

Capital employed in Cotton Manufacture in

1830 147

Table Imports and Exports from 1831 to 1840 147

Large Fire in New York in 1835 148

Two Hundred Millions sent West to start

Banks 151

The Panic of 1837 161

United States Bank 161

United States Bankrupt Law 162

Table of Imports and Exports from 1841 to

1850 153

Famine in Ireland 163

French Silks in Tricolors 164

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