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symptom by a number. This is a great improvement upon Hempel's total omission of such information, which Hahnemann so assiduously gives. The result is that the whole 1656 symptoms take up only twenty-nine octavo pages of fair-sized type, which is just the number occupied (with but slight differences of page and print) by Hahnemann's 541.
At the outset we have a list of provers and authorities. Of this we note the great paucity of information given. To be told, that the first nineteen names belong to Hahnemann's Materia Medica Pura is enough: but "Austrian provings" is a very insufficient heading for the next sixteen. We should have been informed that these are to be found in vol. i of the Oesterreichische Zeitung. And so with the " additional provings." Where are Jousset's and West's to be found? We know not; and there are many who would not recognise the sources indicated as Schneller and J. C. Peters. Again, surely the information which has been collected and presented in the articles on Aconite in the Oesterreichische Zeitung, in the Hahnemann Materia Medica, and in the Monthly Review, regarding the sources of the cited symptoms in Hahnemann's pathogenesis, should be given (however briefly) here. "Greding" and "Stoerck" convey no idea to the mind; but a catalogue of the patients to whom they gave Aconite, and who had the symptoms selected, is full of illumination. Then also we are told that "toxicological symptoms are marked with t." If this were in addition to a reference to their source, the information conveyed by it would be useful; and it is so in the poisonings used by Hahnemann. But to authenticate a symptom simply by a t, without any other reference, cannot be commended; and this occurs very frequently in Dr. Allen's collection (e. g., eight times in the first fifty symptoms). Lastly, we miss Hahnemann's introduction to the medicine, as also his notes to several of his symptoms. If the former is inconsistent with the compressed plan of the work, the latter at any rate must be retained, as indispensable to the understanding of his statements.
Coming now to the body of the pathogenesis,—the principles on which the symptoms are ordered are explained by Dr. Allen, and seem very good. They apply, however, to the intimate structure of the schema. Its large outline is that of Hahnemann, as he altered it for his Chronic Diseases, i. e. putting the mental and moral symptoms first instead of last. We cannot complain of this; though we do think that the time has arrived for a revision of some parts of the Hahnemanuian order. We refer especially to making it more consistently anatomico - physiological throughout ("fever," for instance, is a pathological heading); and to breaking up the chapter "generalities" into certain defined sections. But this is only a suggestion. The indications given by asterisks and variations of type will doubtless be valuable to students; and another useful addition from the editor is a chapter of conditions of aggravation and amelioration. We wish he had also given, where the records enable him so to do, references from one symptom to another, to show connection and coincidence. This is carried out largely in Dr. Hering's monographs; and the same end is obtained by a system of grouping in the Hahnemann Materia Medica.
Our criticism of Dr. Allen's work has necessarily taken the form mainly of fault finding. But we gladly end with the more grateful task of expressing the great obligation under which homoeopathy will be to him if he carry through the labour of which the pathogenesis of Aconite is an earnest and sample. It exhibits such industry and research, so much thought and knowledge; it is such a complete collection of all that is known of the physiological action of the drug, that to have a whole Materia Medica like it will be the greatest boon we have received since Hahnemann's pen fell from his hands. We hope that Dr. Allen will feel our animadversions only as additional evidence of our interest in and appreciation of his work; and that he will enhance its value by giving them his unprejudiced consideration. Let us briefly sum up what we recommend :—
1. That the materials of the collection shall consist only of such provings, &c., as are on record. If anything exist worthy of note yet unpublished, let it be printed in one of our journals, and then cited therefrom.
2. That the bracketing and correcting (where necessary) of the symptoms taken by Hahnemann from authors be done with the utmost thoroughness.
3. That no mere "clinical symptoms" be admitted.
4. That full information be given at the outset as to the authorities for and subjects of the symptoms, as by Dr. Hering, and in the Hahnemann Materia Medica.
5. That each subject of overdosing or poisoning shall be numbered and referred to separately, as are the provers; and the circumstances of the case briefly stated.
6. That all natural groups of symptoms be preserved (where we have the original records) by references between the component elements of such groups in the several places where they occur.
One word in conclusion. It must be borne in mind that, although we need such a work as this—a new, fuller, and better Jahr,—it is not our only or even our chief desideratum as regards the Materia Medica. We want monographs, on medicines, in which they receive exhaustive study and presentation in all their aspects and relations. No one man can do more than a few of these in his lifetime; and therefore we want numerous workers. We hope that the Hahnemann Publishing Society may no longer have to call for such in vain.
Toxicology of the Poison of various Fungi*
1. Agabictts Muscabius (IAnnasi).
Setting aside the oldest relevant observations on account of their defectiveness, let us observe that Paulus, from various poisonings with the fly mushroom, cites the following symptoms: —Nausea, vomiting, fainting, anguish, prostration, and stupor, a sensation of constriction of the trachea. Some of the patients had cutting pain in the abdomen. After emetics the fungus was ejected upwards and downwards along with bloody masses.
Vadrot observed in some French soldiers who were poisoned: anguish, choking, burning thirst, violent pains in the abdomen; small, irregular pulse, cold sweat, cyanosis of the face, general shivering, tympanites of the abdomen, very effusive stools. The coldness and cyanosis of the extremities, delirium, and extremely violent pain continued uninterruptedly till death, which occurred the next night. Emetics saved some from death.
Fricker relates that a child of sixteen months had eaten some fly mushroom raw; very rapidly there set in a deathlike sleep, in which the pupils were dilated and insensible to light; the face puffed up, pale, and bluish about the eyes, nose and mouth; pulse small and irregular; slight twitching all over the body, and slight distortion of the upper extremities set in.
Krombholz communicates the history of a day-labourer, aged 50, who drank a decoction of twenty-four of these Agarici for an cedematous swelling of the feet. Soon after he vomited often and violently, and had many diarrhoeic stools; complained of violent pain in the abdomen, fell into an unconscious state, and soon died. In cases of slight poisoning only staggering as from drink, with vertigo and inclination to vomit.
Of late years, some observations were published in France, which deviate somewhat from the above. In October, 1859, six officers ate a dish of Agaricus muscarim. In six hours vomiting set in, soon followed by colic, and then by convulsions, and a sensation of heat in the epigastrium, consciousness intact till death.
* Neue Zeitschrift fur Bom. Klinik., Bd. 18, No. 19.
The experiments by various hands on animals are valuable. The most careful ones are those of Krombholz. Cats, dogs, birds, frogs, &c. He sometimes used decoctions of the fungus in milk, sometimes the expressed juice, which he introduced into the stomach. In two cases injections under the skin of the back. Results as follows:
In general, during the experiments, or at most within fifteen minutes, the first symptoms set in. With small doses, the animals were sad and their faces betrayed uneasiness. In most cases vomiting followed, or frequent stools, or both at once; whereupon the animals recovered in from half to one hour. "With larger doses violent attacks ensued, quickest and most violent after injecting the cellular tissue. As constant symptoms were observed, restlessness, fear, trembling, vertigo, staggering as from drink, dilatation of the pupils, sight impaired or destroyed, dulness of all the senses, breathing rapidly and heavily, but towards the end slowly and painfully ; twitching of the cervical muscles; palsy soon setting in, especially of the hinder part and hinder extremities. Less constant symptoms were, increased and involuntarily evacuations (vomiting, stool, and urine) aod salivation. The least constant were exalted sensitiveness previous to stupefaction, dread of water (hydrophobia), and violent thirst. In two cases death ensued with general convulsions; in most of the othera quietly. Reports post-mortem are very sparing.
In three patients of Vadrot's was found a considerable accumulation of fetid gas in the stomach and bowels, whose mucous membranes showed signs of more or less inflammation and gangrenous spots (extravasation ?) In some places that of the small intestines quite destroyed. In a fourth subject the liver was also considerably swollen, and the gall filled with thick, dark bile.
In Krombholz's case, the post-mortem exhibited severe congestion of blood in the spinal cord, brain, and its membranes, lungs, the right side of the heart, the liver, and kidneys; striking congestion also in the whole of the venous system, with black thick blood. The mucous membrane of the alimentary canal reddened here and there, but with no trace of softening or destruction.