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even to a very fine powder, leaving in some instances a stony, correctly moulded, cast of the cavity of the shell; that very frequently the substance of the shell is entirely altered, having become a calcareous stone, or a siliceous or pyritous mass, and that the shells of a former world are frequently found in masses of marble, which is called lumachelli, or shelly marble. Of the Multivalves, the chiton does not appear to have been found in a mineralized state; and though several species of Lepas have been found in a mineral state, they are by no means frequent fossils. Lepas anserifera is said to have been found fossil, as well as Lepas diadema; these must, however, be exceedingly rare fossils. Fossil shells of the Pholas are by no means common; the Pholas crispata has been, however, found among the Harwich fossils. Fossil bivalves are very common fossils; they are, as might be expected, very seldomfound in pairs, except when united by a lapideous mass, which prevents the examination of their hinge, or their intermal structure, which in many fossil shells . objects highly worthy of examina10n. The Mya pictorum is described by Solander as existing among our Hampshire fossils: a fossil mya of three or four inches in length, is found also in the rocks near Bognor Remains of the solen siliqua, and of the solen ensis, have been found at Harwich, and a small fossil shell, nam£d by Solander solen ficus, has been found between Lymington and Christchurch. Fossil shells of the genus Tellina, as well as of cardium, mactra, donax, venus, spondylus, chama, arca, and párticularly 9 trea, have been found of many species. But no bivalve exists as a fossil in such Prodigious numbers, and in such various *pecies, as those of the genus Anomia. €se shells are characterized by the beak of the largest or under valve, which * Perforated, being greatly produced, ising or curving over the beak of the *maller or upper valve. Anomia lacuosa (Plate Ii fig. 1.) is one of the most bundant of these species. They are ound in considerable quantities in differ* Parts of England, particularly in Linolnshire, Warwickshire, and Gloucester. oute. Anomia terebratula (Plate II. fig.2) is another fossil of this genus, which exists in different counties is this *land, in great abundance.
Of the genus Mytilus several species are known as fossils, some of which approach very near to those which are known recent: one in particular appears to differ very little indeed from Mytilus modiolus. Fossil shells of the genus Pinna, in any tolerable preservation, are not frequently found: the shells are in general so fragile as to render it very difficult to obtain them tolerably perfect; or so that but little information can be yielded respecting the species to which they belong. No fossil shell appears yet to have been found, which can with certainty be placed under the genus Argonauta. But of the genus Nautilus, specimens are very frequent. These have been found in several parts of this island: some very fine specimens have been found at Lime, in Dorsetshire, in different parts of Wiltshire, and at Whitby in Yorkshire. The finest specimens are perhaps found in the neighbourhood of Bath, and in the Isle of Sheppey in Kent, at which latter place they are found exceedingly large, and still retaining a resplendent pearly shell. (Plate II. fig. 3.) The Cornu Ammonis, which, if we except the extremely minute shells of this kind which have been seen by Plancus, and others, in the sea-sand on the Venetain shores, may be said to be only known to us in a fossil state. Like the Nautilus, the Cornu Ammonis is divided into compartments, by regularly disposed partitions, and these partitions are perforated, as are those of the Nautilus, although it is by no means easy to point this out, except in very few specimens. There are none of the fossil shells, except perhaps the Anomiae, which can vie in the variety of their species with the Cornu Ammonis. The shell of some is perfectly smooth over its whole surface; in others smooth at the sides, but ridged or beset with spines at the back; and others, though smooth at the side, are crenulated at the back. The species most commonly met with have the shell variously ridged; some with small close striae, and others with large and round ridges. In some the ridges are single, in others bifurcated, and in others trifurcated. In some, and these are least common, the shell is tuberculated: these tuberculae differing considerably in different species, in their size, form, and disposition. The different species proceeding from the intermixture of all these varieties, it must
be obvious, must be exceedingly numerous: Scheuchzer was able to determine the existence of one hundred and fortynine species. The difference of size observable in these fossils is not less remarkable than the variety of their forms, some being found not much larger than the head of a pin, whilst others have been found as large as the top of a small table. A peculiar appearance is observable on the surface of many of these fossils, which depends on the peculiar form of the septa which separate the chambers of the shell. These septain the nautili are smooth, and terminate at the surface of the shell in a straight line; but in the Cornua Ammonis they become undulated as they extend outwardly; and in some so much so, as to form, on the outer surface, deeply crenulated lines, giving the appearance of foliaceous sutures. When the cavities of the shell have become filled with stone, and the septa just mentioned have been removed, as is frequently the case, by some chemical agent, the casts formed in the chambers separate, each forming a curiously figured stone; these separate casts have been termed spondilolites. (Plate II. fig. 4.) By the junction of these are formed the foliaceous sutures above-mentioned. The Cornua Ammonis were formerly called serpent-stones; the appearance which they yield of a serpent coiled, having led the vulgar to consider them as petrified serpents. The fossil Cones are very few, when compared with the numerous species known in a recent state; the same may be also said of the Cypreae. In both these genera the species are mostly made out more from the colour and the markings of the shells, than from the peculiarities of their form; but in the fossil shells the colours no longer exist, and of course the species in these can very seldom be presumed. The fossil Volutes, as far as can be judged from their form alone, differ generally from the recent species. With respect to the genus Buccinum, Strombus, and Murex, the number of species of the fossil shells do not appear to equal those which are known in a recent state. This is the case also, in a still greater degree, with the genus Trochus. The fossil shells of the genus Turbo are pretty numerous, and some of them very closely resemble those of known recent species. One fossil shell of this genus is very remarkable for its vast size, being upwards of a foot in length. The cast of another species is so large as to weigh four or five pounds. Nothing like this occurs with respect to
the species of the genus Helix: the fossil shells of this genus very much resemble those which are recent, and are not found of any considerable magnitude. The fossil shells of the genus Nerita by no means display so many species as the recent; but some of the fossil species far exceed the recent in size, and one in particular is twelve times the size of any known recent species. Of the genus Haliotis, it is not o determined that a single shell has been seen, which could be considered as fossil. Fossil shells of the genus Patelta are by no means common. Several species have, however, been found in France, in a state of excellent preservation. Some few also have been found in the cliffs of Harwich, and others, of a different species, imbedded in the lime-stone of Gloucestershire. Dentialia, apparently similar to existing species, have been found in Hampshire, and in some parts of France and Italy, exceedingly well preserved. In Italy, also, have been found specimens of Serpulae, very similar to those which are known recent; but others have been found in France exceedingly different from any known recent species. The Orthoceratites, a lapidified conical or cylindrical chambered shell, the septa dividing the chambers of which are perforated like those of the Nautilus, is a genus, of which not a species is known in a recent state, excepting the microscopic specimens found by Plancus in the sand of the Riminian shore. Much is wanting to complete the history of this fossil, since from the state in which the specimens have in general been found, very few, or perhaps none, have been obtained perfect. Authors have divided them into those which are straight (Plate II. fig. 8.) and those which have a spiral termination, the latter of which are considered as fossil shells of the Nautilus lituus ; but the extraordinary disparity of size is sufficient to shew that they can hardly be considered of the same species, the recent shell being seldom more than an inch in length, whilst the fossil is described as being sometimes the size of a man's arm. The belemite (Plate II. fig. 7) is a spathose radiated stone, generally conical, but sometimes possessing a fusiform figure, and contains, in an appropriate cavity at its larger end, a smaller calcareous body (alveolus) which has evidently been a concamerated shell, the septae of which are pierced like those of the preceding fossil. These fossils are from an eighth of an inch to two inches in thickness, and from an inch to a foot and a half in length,
They are sometimes found imbedded in chalk or limestone, and sometimes in pieces of flint; but they are most frequently detached from their matrix. Various have been the opinions respecting this fossil: some have considered it as the horn of a narwhal, and others as a concretion formed in the pennieilla marina, or in Some shell of the dentalium kind. Some have even supposed it to be of vegetable Origin, whilst others have considered it as entirely belonging to the mineral kingdom. But that the Belemnite originally existed in the sea is evident, from its being commonly found with the remains of the undoubted inhabitants of the ocean; and that it is of an animal nature is rendered evident by its structure. Among the concamerated fossil shells may be placed the Helicites, or nummular or lenticular stones. These are round flattish bodies; but in general of a lenticular form, both sides possessing a slight degree of convexity. On each side are sometimes seen traces of its internal structure and of its spiral formation; while sometimes these appearances appear to be concealed by a thick covering. Various opimions have been entertained respecting their origin, but no doubt can exist of their having existed in the ancient ocean as a spiral chambered shell, and of their being one of those species of animals which are now lost. Among the fossil shells which can only be here enumerated, are the rare tuberculated turrilite, or chambered turbinated shell, the orbulites, planulites, and baculites, of Lamarck. Insects of the smaller kinds are seldom found in a fossil state, the smallness of their size, and the delicacy of their structure, most probably preventing their preservation. Those which are in a state to allow anything of their general form to be made out are consequently very few. The one which is generally found in the most perfect condition is, that which is generally known to us as the Dudley fossil, from its being found in the neighborhood of Dudley, in Worcestershire. (Plate II. fig. 5.) Other species of this animal have been found in Wales, and indifferent parts of Germany. From the imperfect state in which the insects are found, little more, Perhaps, can be said of them, except that the remains, which have been examined, shew that the covering of their body was formed by three series of thick crustaceous plates, transversely disposed in rows, the length of the body; whilst one plate served to give a covering to the head of
the animal. Other remains of the smaller insects have been mentioned by different authors; but few or none appear to have been described as agreeing with any insect now known to be in existence. The remains of lobsters and crabs are frequently found in the isle of Sheppey, and Malta. The remains of different species of these animals are also found in a compressed state in the margaceous and schistous masses of Pappenheim and Oppenheim. The fossil remains of amphibia are very numerous, and supply us with ample exercise for inquiry and admiration. In different parts of England, particularly in Somersetshire and Dorsetshire, the remains of animals, apparently of the Lacerta genus, are frequently found ; but are, as far as we are able to judge, really different from any animal which is known to us. But in no part of the world have such exquisitely fine and wonderful remains of animals of this description been found, as in St. Peter’s mountain near Maestricht. A most beautiful specimen of part of the jaw of the fossil animal of St. Peter's mountain was presented to the Royal Society, by professor Camper, and is now very properly exhibited in the British Museum. A wonderful specimen of the head of this animal has been also obtained from the same mountain by Faujas St. Fond; and is delineated in the elegant work which he has given to the world, descriptive of the fossil riches of that mountain. “Histoire Naturelle de la Montagne de Saint-Pierre de Maestricht.” The plates of St. Fond, as well as the specimen of professor Camper, shew that these are the remains, indubitably, of an enormous animal, different from any at present known. It must, however, be observed, that the remains of crocodiles, apparently of the same species which now exist, have also been diseovered: part of the head of the Asiatic crocodile was found in very good preservation in the quarries of Altdorff. Fossil fishes have been found imbedded in calcareous and argillaceous masses, in various parts of Germany, Switzerland, and Italy; but no where in such prodigious numbers as in the mountain named Vestena-Nuova, generally called Monte Bolca, in the Veronese ; which extends, in height, a thousand feet above the quarry, in which are found the numerous remains of fish, of which specimens are to be seen in almost every cabinet of repute in Europe. The remains of fishes, from an inch to upwards of three feet in length, are found in these quarries, and of these several are found, whose living analogues are said to exist in the neighbourhood of Japan and of Brazil, also in Africa and America. The Abbé Fortis is of opinion that the actual descendants of the Veronian fossil fishes are now to be found in the sea which washes the shores of Otaheite. In Cerigo (Cytheria), Alessano, Lesina, in Dalmatia, Oeningen, Pappenheim in Aix, and in several parts of Trance, fossil fishes are found in very excellent preservation. In England fossil fishes are much more rarely found than in France, Germany, or Italy. The fossil fish of Vestena-Nuova are supposed to prove from several circumstances that their privation of life was sudden, some having been found with the head of their prey still in their mouths, and others with the remains of the fish which they have devoured still in their stomachs. The fossil remains of birds are very rarely found ; although frequently mentioned and even described by different authors. Fossils very much resembling the beaks of birds are sometimes found; but these are much more probably parts of fishes. Several of those specimens which have been spoken more positively of, as petrifactions of whole .. and of their nests, have been merely calcareous incrustations of very modern formation. Bones very much resembling the bones of birds have been found in the calcareous stone of Oxfordshire, and in some parts of France, and of Germany. The fossil remains of quadrupeds, especially those of the larger kind, are such as must necessarily excite the attention and wonder of every curious inquirer in natural history. In various parts of this country have been found the remains of elephants, and of other animals of considerable magnitude. In Ireland have been found the remains of deer of a size far exceeding any now known; and in Scotland have been found the remains of the elk, as well as those of an enormous animal of the ox kind, but larger than even the urus. ... In France, Germany, Italy, and indeed in most parts of Europe, remains of large animals have been found, and in both North and South America, the remains of enormous unknown animals have been discovered. According to Pallas, from the Tanais to the contimental angle nearest to America, there is hardly a river in this immense space, especially in the plains, upon the shores, or
in the bed of which, have not been found the bones of elephants and other animals, not of that climate. From the mountains by which Asia is bounded, to the frozen shores of the ocean, all Sibe. ria is filled with prodigious bones; the best ivory (fossil) is found in the countries nearest to the arctic circle, as well as in the eastern countries, which are much colder than Europe, under the same latitude; countries where only the surface of the ground becomes thawed during summer. The number of bones which have been discovered of the rhinoceros is very considerable, not only in Siberia, but in Ger: many, and in other parts of Europe; and in the opinion of St. Fond, founded not only on the discoveries of Pallas and others, but on his own observations made on the immense collection of Merck, joined with that of the Landgrave of Hesse Darmstadt, are of the species with double horns. An entire body of an animal of this species, still possessing the skin, so and muscles, has been dug up near the river Willioni in the eastern parts of Si. beria, from under a hill, which is covered with ice the greatest part of the year, St. Fond states, in confirmation of the above opinion, that another head obtained by Pallas from Siberia; one existing in the cabinet of the Elector of Manheim, and another in the cabinet of Merck, are all apparently similar to the head of the double-horned rhinoceros of Africa. This circumstance, so contradictory to the opinion he had formed of these remains of large animals having been brought by floods from the eastern Part of the globe, and which opinion was confirmed by discovering that no to mains of the African crocodile had been found in Europe, led him to further to: search, by which he found reason to P. pose that, in fact, the rhinoceros, who corresponded with all the fossil remo”. which he had seen, was the rhinoceros of Sumatra. By ascertoining this ciro" stance, the difficulty was removed, sino Sumatra being separated from the Po sula of India merely by the Straits of * lacca, this animal might also have formerly existed there. Much remains to be ascertained " respect to the fossil remains of eleph" of 'which considerable numbers ho been found in various parts of England, France, Germany, and Italy; but . where so abundantly as in Siberia. America, indeed, the remains, of "". known species of this animal are also very
abundant. There appear to be only two species of elephants now in existence ; one (the Asiatic) being distinguished by its grinders being divided into transverse and nearly parallel plates, and the other (the African) having these plates disposed in lozenge-like forms. The elephantine remains which have been found in Siberia have been supposed to have belonged to no existing species; for though the teeth are formed of plates disposed parallel to each other, as in the Asiatic, these plates are said to be thinner, and consequently more numerous; but this distinction is by no means established. The remains of elephants discovered in this country seem referable, in most instances, to the Asiatic. With respect to the elephant, whose remains have been found in America, the tooth of which differs essentially from all known fossil or recent species, in having its crown cuspidated and covered with enamel (Plate II. fig. 6), there exists at present every reason for supposing it to be of a species now extinct. The generally adopted opinion, that this animal was of a carnivorous nature, is by no means established, but is, indeed, contradicted by the assertion, that the stomach of one of these animals has been found filled with vegetable matter. One of these animals, with its flesh, skin, and hair, has been lately found in Šiberia. The remains of an animal, of an enormous size, has been found at Paraguay, at no great distance from the river Plata, which, being properly arranged, has been formed into a skeleton, and placed in the obinet of natural history at Madrid.— This animal, twelve feet in length and six in height, is distinguished, as well by its general form, as by the largeness of its claws; on which account, Mr. Jefferson, who has described some remains of a similar animal, in the Philosophical Transactions of Philadelphia, has named it the megalonyx. The celebrated Cuvier has arranged this animal with the sloths; but Faujas St. Fond, concluding that an animal so enormous was never intended to climb the trunks of trees, thinks he should not be thus classed; and wishes lim to be held, as it were, in reserve, until some discoveries should supply us With more satisfactory notions respecting 18 nature. In various parts of Scotland, and of France, in Tuscany, the Veronese, and In North America, Ho: been found the fossil remains of some animal, which has en supposed to be a variety of the WOL. IX.
urus of Julius Caesar, or of the bisonf But these horns, which are of very considerable size, the bone of each horn, exceeding two feet in length, appear to have belonged to a different species of animal from any which is at present known. The observations which have been made on these fossils, particularly by the liberal and industrious o: St. Fond, give great reason for believing that two species of animals have existed, bearing horns of this enormous magnitude. These remains are found to exist in Siberia along with the bones and horns of the rhinoceros, with the bones and teeth of the mammouthean elephant of Siberia. To the fossil remains already mentioned, may be added the animal incognitum. of Symore, in Languedoc.; the enormous stag, found in the mosses of Ireland; the gigantic tapir, found at the bottom of the black mountains of Languedoc.; the bears, of two species, now unknown, found in Bareith; and the numerous animals of unknown species, which the admirably indefatigable Cuvier is perpetually discovering, in that mine of fossils, the quarries of gypsum, near Paris. Of the mineralised remains of man no well attested instance is known. In a cavern, indeed, in Mendip Hills, some human bones have been found, invested with stalactite; these appear to be but comparatively of modern existence. Scheuchzer published an essay, describing a . skeleton of a man, which was undoubtedly the remains of some large fish. A view of the foregoing sketch cannot but shew, that the study of this science must prove a source of the highest gratification to every mind that contemplates the works of nature, for the purpose of obtaining a glimpse of the beauty which they display, and of the power which they manifest. By this science we obtain, not only a knowledge of the peculiar. beings which dwelt on this planet in its antediluvian state, but we also acquire a more correct knowledge of the structure of this globe itself. We at the same time discover the strongest proofs of those changes which it has suffered, and which, are recorded in the Holy Scriptures; whilst our reverential admiration is excited at this wonderful display of the power and providence of the Almighty Creator. ORYZA, in botany, rice, a genus of the Hexandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Gramina, Gramineae, or Grasses. Essential character: calyx glume.