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Coriandrum Coriandrum sativum
Cornu Cervus Elaphas
Creta Carbonas calcis
Crocus Anglicus Crocus stativus
Cuminum Cuminum Cyminum 5emen
Cuprum sulphuricum Sulphus Cupri
Cydonia Pyrus Cydonia
Magnesia sulphurica Sulphas Magnesia:
Menyanthes Mezereum Morus
Rosa Gallica Rosa Gallica
Veratrum Viola Vesicatorius Vinum Ulmus
SIMs, Bot. JMag.
Upon these divisions the limits to which we are confined prevent us from making more than a few observations. Among the acids we perceive a form for the citric, now first introduced into the list, which will be found a useful and elegant medicine; we have a new form for the nitric, and the flores benzoes assume the name of acidum benzoicum. In the alkalines we meet with no great difference, except in the change of names, which, for the most part, are shortened from those of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. The same general observation may apply to the earths and salts, which, under the existing Pharmacopoeia, form one common chapter with the two preceding divisions. The chapter sales employs the term soda instead of that of natron. The sulphurea of the proposed Pharmacopoeia is nearly a transcript of the preparata sulphure of that now in use. Among the metallica we perceive the pulvis antimonalis ordered to be prepared with half the quantity of sulphurated antimony to that of gross antimony, as under the present form. A useful and well-known preparation of arsenic is introduced, under the name of liquor arsenicalis. Copper furnishes two preparations, cuprum ammoniatum and liquor cupri ammoniati; and iron several additional forms. Among the distilled waters, the aqua anethi is banished, and the aqua carui introduced in its stead. The addition to the chapter of decoctions is numerous, and consists chiefly in a form of this kind for the dulcamara, lichen, senega, and veratrum. To the infusions there is also a very numerous addition: angustura, cloves, cascarilla, cinchona, columbo, quassia, rhubarb, simarouba, tobacco, digitalis, tar, horse-radish, each becomes a separate subject of this mode of preparation. Among the mucilages, that of tragacanth is omitted. The extracts afford us new preparations in the hop (humulus lupulus) poppy, sarsaparilla, dandelion (taraxacum), and hemlock. The mixtures give us a new form for gum guaiacum. The spirits revive the old spiritus anisi, and spiritus raphani, the latter under the newer name of spiritus armoraciae compositus. The chapter of tincture provides a new form for capsicum, digitalis, humulus, hyoscyamus, kino. The aceta gives us a form for the colchicum. The syrupi provide a form for the lemon, and order the syrupus papaveris somniferi to be prepared from its extract. The term confectiones is intended to embrace equally, electuaries, confections and conserves: from this chapter several of the existing forms are banished. The list of pulveres is also considerably diminished, chiefly by a rejection of several of the cretaceous preparations. Among the pilulae we now meet with a gamboge pill: the opium pill is banished. The list of emplastra is diminished in a few forms, and enriched by a new preparation, entitled emplastrum thuris cum opio. *#e cerata are increased by a ceratum sabinae, and C. vesicatorii.
The unguenta are much diminished: several of those, indeed, in the existing Pharmacopoeia being transferred under a different preparation to the chapter of cerata: while as new articles we have an U. hydrargyri nitrici, U. hydrargyri nitrico-oxydati, and U. veratis.
The liniments give us as a new preparation, a lin. aeruginis.
The cataplasms offer us a new form for one prepared from meal and yeast, under the title of C. effervescens.
PHARMACOLITE, in mineralogy, is of a snow-white colour, and it occurs in small crystals, though sometimes in other forms. Internally it is glistening, with a silky lustre. Its fracture is radiated or fibrous: it also presents large and small granula, distinct concretions. The crystallized varieties are translucent; it is very tender and easily frangible; it is soluble in nitric acid, without effervescence; it consists of
Arsenic acid 46.5 Lime - - 23.
Oxide of cobalt . 0.5 Silex and alumina - - 6.
Water - - 22.5
Loss . - 1.5
This mineral is found in veins of granite in Germany and France. PHARNACEUM, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Trigynia class and order. Natural order of Caryophyllei. Essential character: calyx five-leaved; corolla none; capsule three-celled, many-seeded. There are fourteen species, chiefly natives of the Cape of Good Hope. PHARUS in botany, a genus of the Monoecia Hexandria class and order. Natural order of Gramina, Gramineae, or Grasses. Essential character: calyx glume two-valved, one-flowered: male, corolla glume two-valved: female, corolla glume one-valved, long, involving ; seed one. There are three species, natives of the East Indies. PHASCUM, in botany, a genus of the Cryptogamia Musci class and order. Generic character: capsule ovate, veiled, sub-sessile, or on a short bristle, closed on every side, sometimes with the rudiments of a lid, never opening; males, subdiscoid, terminating, or gemmaceous oxillary. PHASEOLUS, in botany, kidney-bean, a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria class and order. Natural order of Papilionaceae, or Leguminosa. Essential character: keel with the stamens and styles spirally twisted. There are twenty-one species. The varieties of the kidney-bean are very numerous: the P. coccineus, scarlet kidney-bean, is by some considered as a distinct species; its twining stalks, if properly supported, will rise to the height of twelve or fourteen feet; the leaves are smaller than those of the common garden bean; the flowers grow in large spikes, of a deep scarlet colour; the pods are large and rough; they are more esteemed for the table, by many people, than the others.
PHASES, in astronomy, the several appearances or quantities of illumination of the Moon, Venus, Mercury, and the other planets; or the several manners wherein they appear illuminated by the Sun. With regard to the Moon, these phases are very observable with the naked eye; by which she sometimes increases, and sometimes wanes; is now bent into horns, and again appears as half a circle. By means of a good telescope the like phases may be observed in Venus and Mars. Copernicus, before it was possible to ascertain the fact, by means of glasses, foretold, that it would, at some period or other, be ascertained, that Venus underwent all the changes to which the moon was subject. Galileo was the first person, who, by actual observation, confirmed the truth of Copernicus's theo
PHASIANUS, the pheasant, in natural history, a genus of birds of the order Gallinae. Generic character: bill short, strong, and convex; head covered in some degree with carunculated flesh; legs generally with spurs. There are ten species.
P. gallus, or the wild pheasant, inhabits the forests of India, and has been seen, indeed, by navigators in almost all the Indian and South Sea islands. This is the unquestionable origin of all the domestic varieties throughout Europe, of which we shall notice the following.
P. gallus, or the dunghill cock. The most interesting animal under this variety is the game cock, which is found in great perfection of vigour and courage in England, and the irascibility and jealousy of which has, in almost all ages, occasioned it to be employed in the sanguinary diversion of cock-fighting. This practice is carried to a great extent, even among the mild inhabitants of China and India, whose manners or principles might be conceived in the highest state of repugnance to it. The polished civilization of the Athenians did not prevent their engaging in it with considerable ardour,
and the Romans encouraged it with all that fondness which might be expected from a nation established by rapine, and as it were educated in blood. From them it was introduced into England, where it has occasionally been patronized by monarchs, and is still indulged in both by lords and plebeians with considerable frequency, though, probably, not to such a degree as in some former periods. The appearance of this animal, when under the agitation of strong feeling, is highly interesting, indicating boldness, freedom, and energy, of a very superior character; and the beauty of his plumage, and gracefulness of his movements, combine strongly to heighten the effect. The female is remarkable for great fecundity, and for the most exquisite parental fondness and sensibilities; the poets of almost every age and nation having introduced it as the most expressive image of maternal duty and tenderness. It is finely observed, by the great French naturalist, that “dull and tasteless as the business of incubation may be thought by us, nature may have made it a state of extraordinary joy, connecting, probably, sensations of delight with whatever relates to the continuance of her offspring.” In some countries, and particularly in Egypt, chickens are produced from eggs without the assistance of the parent bird. The eggs are enclosed in ovens heated with extreme care and precision, and turned at certain intervals, and thus hundreds, and even thousands, are annually produced in one establishment; but chickens thus produced are stated to be rarely so vigorous as those hatched in the natural mode. See Aves, Plate XII. fig. 1. P. colchicus, the pheasant. These birds are found in almost every territory of the old continent; but are not to be met with in America. Their wings, from their shortness, are ill calculated to sustain a long flight. They resemble the partridge in breeding on the ground, and lay from twelve to fifteen eggs. In many parts of this kingdom they have been introduced with great success, exhibiting an interesting and beautiful object to the admirer of . nature, and furnishing variety to the pursuits of the sportsman, as well as to the luxuries of the table. Pheasants prefer low woods bordering upon vallies, are extremely shy, and never associate but in the spring. The hen pheasant, has been occasionally discovered with the feathers almost universally peculiar to the male; and, indeed, this circumstance takes place in several other genera of