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pulse and relieving the head. The chief advantage they have depends on the suddenness of their action.
Class. XXV. Linimenta. Lisinests. CLAss. XXVI. Unguenta. OINTMENT. CLAss. XXVII. Cerata. CERATEs. CLAss. XXVIII. Emplastra. PLAs.TERs.
We connect these together, as being all oleaginous or fatty combinations for external application, and as merely differing from each other in their degree of consistency. Deyeux has, indeed, lately defined plasters to be combinations of oil with metallic oxides; but as this would comprehend many of our present ointments, and exclude many of our plasters, we shall adhere to the old meaning of terms. Liniments are the thinnest of these compositions, being only a little thicker than oil. Mointments have generally a degree of consistence like that of butter. Cerates are firmer, and contain a larger proportion of wax. Plasters are the most solid, and when cold should be firm, and not adhere to the fingers; but when gently heated, should become sufficiently soft to spread easily, and should then adhere to the skin. Plasters derive their firmness either from a large proportion of wax, resin, &c. or from the presence of some metallic oxide, such as that of lead. Plasters should have such a consistence, that although when cold they do not adhere to the fingers, they become soft and plastic when gently heated. The heat of the body should render it tenacious enough to adhere to the skin, and to the substance on which it is spread. When prepared, it is usually formed into rolls, and inclosed in paper. Plasters of a small size are often spread on leather, sometimes on strong paper, by means of a spatula gently heated, or the thumb. The leather is cut of the shape wanted, but somewhat larger; and the margin all round, about a quarter of an inch in breadth, is left uncovered, for its more easy removal when necessary. Linen is also often used, especially for the less active plasters, which are used as dressings, and often renewed. It is generally cut into long slips of various breadths, from one to six inches. These may either be dipped into the melted plaster, and passed through two pieces of straight and smooth wood, held firmly together, so as
to remove any excess of plaster; or, what is more elegant, they are spread on one side only, by stretching the linen, and applying the plaster, which has been melted and allowed to become almost cold, evenly, by means of a spatula, gently heated, or, more, accurately, by passing the linen on which the plaster has been laid through a machine formed of a spatula, fixed, by screws, at a proper distance from a plate of polished steel.
To prevent repetition, the Edinburgh College give the following canon for the preparation of these substances:
“In making these compositions, the fatty and resinous substances are to be melted with a gentle heat, and then constantly stirred; adding, at the same time, the dry ingredients, if there be any, until the mixture, on cooling, becomes stiff.”
Linimentum simplex, Edin. simple lini. ment, wax and oil. Oleum ammoniatum, Edin. linimentum ammoniae, Lond. oil or liniment of ammonia, volatile liniment. Linimentum ammoniae fortius. Lond. volatile liniment, stronger. Oleum lini cum calce, Edin. linseed oil with lime. oleum camphorat. Ed. camphorated Oll, Unguentum adipis suillae, Lond, oint. ment of hog's lard. Unguentum simplex, Edin. ointment of simple wax and oil. Unguentum spermatis ceti, Lond. Dubl. ointment of spermaceti. Unguentum cerae, Lond. Dubl. ointment of wax. Unguentum acidinitrosi, Edin.ointment of nitrous acid. Unguentum resinae flavae, Lond. Dubl. ointment of yellow resin. Uuguentum elemi, Dubl. unguentum elemi compositum, Lond, ointment of elemi. Unguentum picis, Lond. Dubl. ointment of tar. Unguentum sambuci, Lond. Dubl. ointment of elder. Unguentum cantharidis, Lond. Dubl. ointment of cantharides. Unguentum infusi meloes vesicatorii, Edin. ointment of mild epispastic. Unguentum pulveris meloes vesicatorii, Edin. ointment of stronger epispastic. Unguentum hellebori albi, Lond. Dubl. ointment of white hellebore. Unguentum sulphuris, Lond. Dubl. ointment of sulphur.
Unguentum oxidi plumbi albi, Edin. ointment of oxide of white lead. Unguentum acetitis plumbi, Edin. the acetite of lead, saturnine ointment. Unguentum cerussae acetatae, Lond. Dubl. ointment of acetated ceruse. Unguentum hydrargyri, Edin. ointment of quicksilver. Unguentum hydrargyri fortius, Lond. Dubl. ointment of quicksilver, stronger. Unguentum hydrargyri mitius, Lond. Dubl. ointment of quicksilver, milder. Unguentum calcis hydrargyri albi, Lond, ointment of white precipitate. Unguentum calcis hydrargyri rubri, Lond. ointment of red precipitate. . Unguentum nitratis hydrargyri, Edin. citrine ointment. Unguentum subacetitis cupri, Edin. ointment of verdigris. Unguentum oxidizinci impuri, unguentum tutiae, Lond. Dubl. ointment of tutty. Unguentum oxidi zinci, Edin. ointment of oxide of zinc.
Ceratum simplex, Edin, ceratum spermatis ceti, Lond, Dubl. cerate of spermaceti. Ceratum resinae flava, Lond. Dubl. cerate of yellow resin. Ceratum cantharidis, Lond. Dubl. cerate of cantharides. Ceratum saponis, Lond. Dubl. cerate of Soap. Ceratum lithargyri acetati compositum, Lond, saturnine cerate. Ceratum carbonatis zinci impuri, Edin. cerate of carbonate of zinc. Ceratum lapidis calaminaris. Lond. Dubl. cerate of calamine epulotic, Turner’s,
Emplastrum cerae, Dubl. emplastrum cerae compositum, Lond, emplastrum simplex, Edin. plaster wax, drawing. Emplastrum picis Burgundicae, Dubl. Empiastrum picis Burgundicae composit. Lond. plaster of Bungundy pitch. Empiastrum cumini, Lond, plaster of curri in to. Emplastrum ladani compositum, Lond. plaster of laudanum compound. Emplastrum cantharidis, Lond. Dubl. emplastrum meloes vesicatorii, Edin. plaster of cantharides. Emplastrum meloes vesicatorii composit. Edin. plaster of cantharides, compound. Emplastrum oxidi plumbi semivitrei, Edin. Emplastrum lithargyri, plaster of common litharge. Emplastrum resinorum, Edin, emplas
trum lithargyri cum resina, Lond. plaster, adhesive. Emplastrum asafoetida, Edin. emplastrum gummosum, Lond. plaster of gum or asafoetida. Emplastrum lithargyri compositum, Lond, plaster of litharge, compound. Emplastrum saponis, Dubl. emplastrum saponaceum. Lond Edin. plaster of soap. Emplastrum thuris compositum, Lond. plaster of frankincense, compound. Emplastrum hydrargyri, Edin. plaster of quicksilver. Emplastrum ammoniaci cum hydrargyro, Lond. plaster of gum ammoniac with quicksilver. Emplastrum lithargyri cum hydrargyro, Lond. plaster of litharge with quicksilver. Emplastrum oxidi ferri rubri, Edin. plaster of red oxide of iron. We shall close this article by observing, that the adult dose of the different preparations and materials of which they are composed will, for the most part, be found in the article MATERIA MEDICA.
Since writing the above, we have received a copy of a specimen just printed, and limitedly calculated by the London College of Physicians, as to the groundwork of a new Pharmacopoeia, which it is their intention to bring forward as soon as they may be able to avail themselves of the various hints and suggestions, which it is probable will result from a circulation of their present pamphlet. As this is a work of high consequence to the medical world, and of curiosity to those who have not had an opportunity of seeing the specimen before us, and more especially as we are persuaded that the Royal College, with its usual liberality, will receive with thanks any important information upon the subject in question, from whatever quarter it may proceed, we shall endeavour as concisely as possible to sketch an outline of the valuable labours in which they are engaged, from the specimen before us: which we cannot better commence than in the words of the Committee, to whom the College has chiefly submitted the undertaking.
In the progression of human knowlege, pharmacy cannot remain stationary, and the College have accordingly accommodated it to existing circumstances, at suitable intervals, and thereby regulated and improved the practice of medicine in this country. Such a revision they have felt themselves called upon to make, at the present time, by the vast improvement in the several branches of science, with which pharmacy is more especially connected, since the year 1787, and they think it proper to state, generally, the principles upon which various alterations have been adopted in the present instance. These alterations are referable to the several heads of nomenclature, weights and measures, arrangement, processes, the omission of former articles, and the introduction of new ones. To each of these it will apply as a general observation, that practical application and convenience have been assumed as fundamental points, which the Committee have endeavoured constantly to keep in view. 1. JWomenclature. At the time of the publication of the last Pharmacopoeia, modern chemistry was in its infancy, its language, (which professed to describe, and not merely to designate a substance by its name) was new in principle, and the application of it not generally received. Various terms, therefore, of that Pharmacopoeia differ essentially from those which have since been established in the science, and it has been incumbent upon the Committee to consider, in the present instance, whether the nomenclature of chemistry might be still further and more minutely adopted. As far as arbitrary names (to which common consent has affixed precise ideas) go, and also in compounds consisting of two ingredients only, or where different portions of the same constituent parts are to be expressed, it has been thought proper to receive those terms which general chemistry employs; but as a large proportion of pharmaceutical preparations consist, strictly speaking, of more complex combinations, which cannot be expressed correctly without periphrasis and inconvenience, and are therefore but ill suited to the purposes of prescription, the Committee have judged it sufficient to designate these, without attempting at the same time to describe their composition; and whether the name has been drawn from some circumstance of preparation, or quality, they have cautiously endeavoured to make such distinctions, as may be least liable to error in the ordinary method of practice, and may not contradict the received chemical doctrines, or mislead in their application. The names of vegetables have also been accommodated to the latest systems of bo.
tany, so that they may not hereafter contradict the terms of that science, or deceive the practitioner in his references thereto. Many names of medicinal plants were in the earlier periods of botany drawn from those of families, to which modern system does not admit them to belong," but have been retained in pharmacy, though wholly at variance with the improved state of science. The Committee trust they have been able to remedy this inconvenience, without very frequent violence to the names commonly employed. They have thought it most convenient, and fully sufficient, to express each article in general by a single word, f and have retained the former one, wherever it accorded either with the generic or specific name of Linnaeus, both of which, however, it has been necessary to employ, for the purpose of distinguishing between them, when more than one species is taken from the same genus.f There being some vegetable substances, the names of which are in a manner independent of botanical nomenclature, $ no alteration with respect to these seemed necessary, for in fact they are not at variance with modern science. Intending, moreover, that the pharmaceutic name shall, where a part of a plant is used, refer to that part only, they have transferred the term expressive of such part from the first column of the catalogue, in which it formerly stood, to the second. 2. Weights and JMeasures. From the great uncertainty of the customary mode of dividing by drops any quantities of liquids of less bulk than a drachm, and the increase of that uncertainty by the late introduction, into some shops, of measures applying to liquids of different densities, the bulk of a drop of water as a standard, the Committee have been led to consider the subject more particularly, and to adopt means for the removal of this uncertainty in the exhibition of many active remedies, for the future. They have, for this purpose, adopted the graduated measure of the late Mr. Lane, which is founded upon an accurate division of the exchequer wine gallon down to the one-sixtieth part of a drachm, and which is equivalent to a drop of water. Of course it is their intention, that the common method of dropping liquids of
different densities should be disused, and the measure received into the shops of apothecaries, a point upon which it will be necessary to place especial stress, in order that prescriptions may be accurately prepared. As the same Latin term has been employed to express the pint measure and the pound weight, they have extended the same resemblance to inferior measures, and have the more readily substituted granum for gutta, because the latter term implies that peculiar mode of division which they wish to deprecate.
3. Arrangement. On this head it is only necessary to observe, that the chapters have been arranged in what appeared to be a more natural and convenient order of the substances concerned than the former one.
4. Processes. Considerable alteration has been made in various processes, by which it is hoped they will be found more accommodated to general use. Expense in preparation ought not to be balanced against correctness and uniformity, and it is to be lamented that the profits and competition of trade should have induced a very extensive disposition to deviate from the directions of the Pharmacopoeia, To this point, therefore, the Committee have looked with much attention, and, as far as they have thought themselves justified, they have endeavoured to make such deviation less an object to the operating chemist than heretofore; for this purpose they have not looked in their formulae to that accuracy which would be necessary for chemical tests, but rather to the uniformity of the preparation, and its use as a medicine. The directions for manipulation are given generally, because they admit of some variety in their application in many instances, according to the scale on which they are prepared, and other circumstances: the Committee trust, however, that, if their directions be followed, the results will be in the same proportion uniform and correct, and that the well educated apothecary will have no difficulty in understanding and applying them. Under this head, it is particularly incumbent upon the Committee to acknowledge the great advantage they have derived from the liberal communications of the Society of Apothecaries, with respect to the practice of their extensive concern, and also from many individuals engaged in chemical preparations upon a large scale.
§ Omission of former Articles, and Introduction of new ones. In the rejection
of many substances of trifling importance or efficacy, of others which have appeared rather to belong to extemporaneous prescription, and of certain forms of medicine, which have become obsolete in general practice, and also in the introduction of any new articles, the Committee have exercised their own judgment freely, and they trust with sufficient caution. They hope the College at large will approve of their having neglected to insert many substances which individual practitioners have recommended and employed, where such have not received the sanction of more general experienceThey conceive further, that a strict examination of its powers ought to precede the introduction of any article into the Pharmacopoeia, and that the late appointment of a Committee of the College for this express purpose will, hereafter, appreciate the value of such recommendations by surer tests than those which have heretofore been deemed sufficient. The proposed Materia Medica is as follows, in which it will be perceived that the vegetables are described, in the second column, from Willdenow’s edition of the “Species Plantarum” of Linnaeus; and the animals from Gmelin’s “Systema Naturae” of the same writer, excepting indeed in a very few instances. This table we cannot and ought not to abridge.
Anisum Anthemis Antimonium sul
phuratum Arabicum Gummi Argentum Armoracia Arsenicum Asarum
Barilla Belladonna Benzoin Bistorta .
Borax Cajuputi Oleum
Cochlearia Armoracia Fadia: Oxidum Arsenici album Asarum Europaeum Folium Ferula Asafoetida Gummi-resina Citrus Aurantium (Hispalensis) JBacca , Bacca Cortex exterior Myroxlyon peruiferum Balsamum Toluifera Balsamum Balsamum Carbonas Sodae imura Atropa Belladonna Folium Styrax Benzoin Balsamum Polygonum Bistorta Radia: Sub-boras Sodac Melaleuca Cajuputi Oleum essentiale Carbonas Zinci impura Acorus Calamus Radia: Stalagmitis Cambogioides Gummi-resina Laurus Camphora JMateria volatilispeculiaris Canella alba
Castoreum Rossicum Castor Fibor •Materia peculiaris
Catechu. Acacia Catechu Eartactum Centaurium Chironia Centaurium Cacumen Cera ào; Apis mellifica — flava Cera Cerussa Oxinum Plumbi album Cinchona Cortex Cinchona lancifolia Corter -–flavus Cinchona cordi- 3: folia 5 Corteac § - ruber Cinchona oblongifolia Cortea: Cinnamoni Cortex Laurus CinnamoInuin Corter - Oleum Fjus oleum essentiale Coccus Coccus Cacti Colchicum Colchicum autumnale Padic recens Colocynthis Cucumis Colocynthis Pomi pulpa Colombo Radix Planta adhuc incog. mitae Radia: Conium Conium maculatum Contrajerva Dorstenia Contrajerva Radia: Copaiba Copaifera on's Resina liquida