« PreviousContinue »
grandson of Atlas; and, 5. From kings and founders of nations, as Romulidae, i. e. the Romans, from their founder King Romulus. PAVEMENT, a layer of stone, or other matter, serving to cover and strengthen the ground of divers places for the more commodious walking on. In London the pavement for coach-ways is chiefly a kind of granite from Scotland; and on the foot-path Yorkshire paving is used: courts, stables, kitchens, halls, churches, &c. are paved usually with tiles, bricks, flags, or fire-stones; and sometimes with a kind of free-stone and rag-stone. In France the public roads, streets, courts, &c. are paved with gres, a kind of free-stone. In Venice, the streets, &c. are paved with brick; churches sometimes with marble, and sometimes with Mosaic work. In Amsterdam, and the chief cities of Holland, they call their brick pavement the burgomaster’s pavement, to distinguish it from the stone or flint pavement, which is usually in the middle of the street, serving for the passage of their horses, carts, coaches, and other carriages; the brick borders being designed for the passage of people on foot. Pavements of free-stone, flints, and flags, in streets, &c. are laid dry, that is, are retained in a bed of sand; those of courts, stables, ground-rooms, &c. are laid in mortar of lime and sand, or in lime and cement, especially if there be vaults and cellars underneath. Some masons, after laying a floor dry, especially of brick, spread a thin mortar over it, sweeping it backwards and forwards, to fill up the joints. Thirty-two statute bricks, laid flat, pave a yard square, sixty-four edgewise. The square tiles used in paving, called paving bricks, are of various sizes, from six to twelve inches square. Pavements of churches, &c. frequently consist of stones of different colours, chiefly black and white, and of several forms, but chiefly square and lozenges, artfully disposed. PAvEMENT of terrace, is that which serves for the covering of a platform, whether it be over a vault, or in a wooden floor. Those over vaults are usually stones squared, and bedded in lead. Those on wood are either stones with beds, for bridges; tiles for ceilings in rooms; or lays of mortar, made of cement and lime, with flints or bricks laid flat, as is still practised by people in the east and south, on the tops of their houses. PAVETTA, in botany, a genus of the
Tetrandria Monogynia class and order, Natural order of Stellatae. Rubiaceae, Jussieu. Essential character: corolla one petalled, funnel-form, superior; stigma curved ; berry two-seeded. There are seven species. PAVILION is sometimes applied to flags, colours, ensigns, standards, ban ners, &c. See FLAG, &c. PAVILION, in heraldry, denotes a covering in form of a tent, which invests or wraps up the armories of divers kings and sovereigns, depending only on God and their sword. The pavilion consists of two parts; the top, which is the chapeau, or coronet; and the curtin, which makes the mantle. None but sovereign monarchs, according to the French heralds, may bear the pavilion entire, and in all its parts. Those who are elective, or have any dependence, say the heralds must take off the head, and retain nothing but the curtins. PAULLINIA, in botany, a genus of the Octandria Trigynia class and order. Natural order of Trihilatae. Sapindi, Jussieu. Essential character : calyx five-leaved, petals four; nectary four-leaved, unequal; capsules three, compressed, membranaceous, connate. There are seventeen species, all natives of warm climates. PAVO, the peacock, in natural history, a genus of birds of the order Gallina. Generic character; bill convex and strong; head covered with turned-back feathers; nostrils large, feathers of the tail long,
broad, expansile, and adorned with rich eye-like spots. There are four species. The P. cristatus, or crest
ed peacock, was originally brought from India, where it is found in its wild state, and exhibits all its maturity of growth, and glow of colouring. It was an article of importation from that country to Palestine, in the reign of Solomon, in those fleets which conveyed, once in three years, to the court of that magnificent monarch, invaluable treasures of art and nature. In this country peacocks do not attain their full and brilliant plumage till their third year. The female lays five eggs, and is particularly solicitous to conceal them from the male, which not unfrequently destroys them. These birds feed almost solely on insects and grain. They prefer elevated situations for roosting, choosing the tops of houses and the highest trees for this purpose. They were considered as luxuries for the table by the Romans, and the young ones are now regarded as a delicacy. Their voice is harsh and dissonant, and in perfect contrast to that beauty exhibited by their plumage, which, in the language of Buffon, “seems to combine all that delights the eye in the soft and delicate tints of the finest flowers, all that dazzles in the sparkling lustre of the em, and all that astonishes in the grand isplay of the rain-bow.” See Aves, Plate XI. fig. 2. PAUSE, a stop or cessation of speaking, singing, playing, or the like. The use of pointing, in grammar, is to make proper pauses, in certain places. There is a pause in the middle of each verse ; in an hemistich it is called a rest or repose. PAUSE, in music, a character of silence, or rest, called also by some a mute figure, because it shows that some part or person is to be silent while the rest continue the song. Pauses are used either for the sake of some fugue, or imitation, or to give a breathing time, or to give room for another voice, &c. to answer what this part sung, as in dialogues, echoes, &c. In military affairs it is essentially necessary for all officers to accustom themselves to a most minute observance of the several pauses which are prescribed during the firings. According to the regulations, the pause between each of the firing words, “make ready, present, fire,” is the same as the ordinary time, viz. the seventy-fifth part of a minute, and no other pause is to be made between the words. In firing by companies, by wings, each wing carries on its fire independently, without regard to the other wing, whether it fires from the centre to the flanks, or from the flanks to the centre. If there are five companies in the wing, two pauses will be made between the fire of each, and the make ready of the succeeding one. If there are four companies in the wing, three pauses will be made betwixt the fire of each, and the make ready of the succeeding one. This will allow sufficient time for the first company to have again loaded, and shouldered at the time the last company fires, and will establish proper intervals between each. In firing by grand divisions, three pauses .# be made between the fire of each division and the make ready of the succeeding one. In firing by wings, one wing will make ready the instant the other is shouldering. The commanding officer of the battallion fires the wings. In firing companies by files, each company fires independently. When the right file presents, the next makes ready, and so on.
After the first fire, each man as he loads come to the recover, and the file again fires without waiting for any other; the rear rank men are to have their eyes on their front rank men, and be guided by and present with them. PAUS US, in natural history, a genus of insects of the order Coleoptera. Antenna: two-jointed, the upper joint very large, inflected, hooked, pedicillate; head pointing forwards, with a convex, jugular triangle; thorax narrow, unequal, scutellate ; shells flexile, deflected, truncate; four feet placed at the fore part of the breast, thighs with minute appendages; tarsi four-jointed. There are five species: two of which are fully de; scribed in the “Linnaean Transactions,” vol. 4. P. microcephalus, head unarmed; club an oblong sphere; shells as long as the body, not punctured; shanks linear. It inhabits the Banana islands. P. sphoeroceros: head horned; club globular: shells shorter than the abdomen: punctured; shanks dilated at the tip. It is found at Sierra Leone; wanders about in the night-time during the months of January and February, and becomes blind or benumbed on the approach of light : the globes of the antenna give a kind of phosphoric light in the dark; the body is polished and of chesnut co
lour, a little narrower than the last; horn
between the eyes straight, conic, tipped with a tuft of cartilaginous hairs; eyes larger; thorax the same breadth as the head; wings shining and violet. . . This genus is remarkable for the singular conformation of its antenna, and for the almost prophetic anticipation of the future, under which it received its name. The great Swedish naturalist, foreseeing the termination of his vast labours, an that he would not again be called upon to form any other genus of insects, applie". to this the designation which it now bear. “Pausus,” signifying a pause or restio was in reality the last genus he formed, and it is believed that the species of it with which he was acquainted wo amongst the last insects, if not the wo last which he described. f PAW, patte, in heraldry, the fore foot 0 a beast cut off short, if the leg be" off, it is called gambe. Lions' paws" much used in armory. - PAWLE, in a ship, a small piece of iron boited to one end of the beams of to deck, close to the capstan; but “... easily, as that it can turn about, so . is to stop the capstan from turning bac . by being made" to catch hold of
whelps; they therefore say, heave a pawle; that is, heave a little more, for the pawle to get hold of the whelps: and this they call pawling the capstan. PAWN, among miners, a pledge put into the bar-master’s hand, at the time when the plaintiff causes the bar-master to arrest the mine. PAWNBROKER. See BRoKER. PAY, in the sea-language. The seamen say, pay more cable, when they mean to let out more cable. PAYING, among seamen. When the seams of a ship are laid over with a coat of hot pitch, it is called paying her; and when this is done with canvass, parcelling; also when, after she is graved, and the soil burned off, a new coat of tallow and soap, or one of train oil, rosin, and brimstone, boiled together, is put on her, that is also called paying of a ship. PAYMENT, in law, is the consideration or purchase-money for goods, and may be made by the buyer giving to the seller the price agreed upon, either by bill or note, or by money. Where a day certain is appointed for payment, the party bound shall be allowed till the last moment of the day to pay it in, if it be an inland bill. Payment of money before the day, is, in law, payment at the day; for it cannot, in presumption of law, be any prejudice to him to whom the payment is made, to have his money before the time ; and it appears by the party’s receipt of it, that it is for his own advantage to receive it then. PEACE has been represented, allegorically, as a beautiful female, holding in her hand a wand or rod towards the earth, over a hideous serpent, and keeping her other hand over her face, as unwilling to behold strife or war. By some painters she has been represented holding in one hand an olive branch, and leading a lamb and a wolf yoked by their necks in the other; others again have delineated her with an olive branch in her right hand, and a cornucopia, or horn of plenty, in her left. At Rome a celebrated temple was erected for the goddess of peace, which was furnished with most of the rich vases and curiosities taken out of the Temple at Jerusalem. The Temple of Peace, built by Vespasian, was three hundred feet long, and two hundred feet broad. Josephus says, that all the rarities which men are accustomed to travel to see, were deposited in this temple. PEACE, in law, signifies a quiet and harmless behaviour towards the King and his people. The King, by his office and
dignity royal, is the principal conservator of the peace within all his dominions; and may give authority to any other to see the peace kept, and to punish such as break it; hence it is usually called the King's peace. All the great officers of state are generally conservators of the peace throughout the kingdom, and may commit all breakers of it, or bind them in recognizance to keep it. Also the sheriff, coroner, constables, and tithingmen, are conservators of the peace within their own jurisdiction, and may apprehend all breakers of the peace, and commit them till they find sureties to keep the peace. PEACH, in botany. See AMYGDALUs. PEACOCK. See PAvo. PEARL, a concretion formed in several species of shells, as in some species of the oyster and the muscle. It has been regarded by some persons as a morbid concretion, owing to an excess of shelly matter, and by others it is supposed to have originated in a wound of the shell, containing the animal. Pearls are of a silvery or bluish-white colour, and very brilliant. As they consist of concentric layers of carbonate of lime and membrane, alternately arranged, the refraction of light is ascribed to the lamellated structure. See Shell. PEARL, mother of, is the shell, not of the pearl oyster, but of another sea-fish of the oyster kind. This shell on the inside is extremely smooth, and of the whiteness and water of pearl itself; and it has the same lustre on the outside, after the first laminae or scales have been cleared off with aquafortis and the lapidary’s mill. Mother of pearl is used in inlaid works, and in several toys, as snuff-boxes, &c. PEARL, in heraldry, in blazoning with precious stones, is the same with argent, or white. PEARL ash, an alkali used in various manufacturing processes: it is potash mixed with different heterogeneous substances. See PotAsh. PEARL fishery. The most important fishery to England at present is that at Ceylon. The origin of this method of procuring a valuable ornament for the person must have arisen from accidentally discovering the pearl within oysters taken for food is evident; but it is impossible to ascertain when the search became systematical, though it is extremely probable it has been so for many ages. The pearl oysters of the coast of Ceylon are all of one species, and possess the same regularity of form; but they assume different qualities, and have different denominations, suited to the nature of the ground where they are situated, and from the appearance of zoopinytes adhering to the external surface of their shells. They resemble a cockle in shape, which is an imperfect oval, and their circumference is generally about nine inches and a half, having a segment as it were cut off where the joint of the two shells occurs. The interior of those is far more brilliant and beautiful than the pearl they enclose, and the outside is smooth, except when injured by the usurpations of sponges, corais, and other marine productions. The flesh of the animal is white, and of a glutinous consistency. Perhaps no class of animated nature undergoes more unmerited persecution and destruction than the pearl oyster; when situated in their native regions, they af. ford a foundation for the habitations of other animals, and millions of them are dragged from their banks, and thrown away, for what they are vainly supposed to contain, and that an intruder or a disease. One of the banks at Ceylon furnishes oysters to which zoophytes are attached, apparently belonging to the class of sponges, and those generally resemble a funnel or cup, and grow to a size that completely overshadows the oyster : others of different banks have a substance adhering to them tinged with red. The above are tound to contain the finest pearis: some escape free from incumbrance, and thousands are compelled to bear trees of coral on them of five times their own weight. The oyster is fastened to the rocks at the bottom of the sea by quantities of hairy fibres. By this means they are not readily swept from their original station, and yet possess the advantage of being conveyed to some distance from 1, by the motion of the water; besides, they are connected to each other in the same manner. It frequently happens that an old oyster, surrounded by young ones, is brought up by the divers, and the latter have been ascertained to possess, even when little larger than a grain of sand. the power of moving themselves by the extension and contraction of what is termed the beard. The violence of the waves, at the time of the monsoons, occasions great changes in the state of the banks, when incredible numbers of them are buried by the shifting of sand, and that is sometimes removed by the same power acting in a contrary direction. It is supposed, from many concurring circumstances, that the pearl oyster ar
scription of oysters, as every individual of
the species is found to be accompanied by a certain proportion of minute particles, which are evidently the pearl in the first stages of formation ; hence it may be fairly supposed, that they are in some essential degree useful, rather than prejudicial, to the inhabitant of the shells, of the nature of which it decidedly partakes, and is composed of a number of layers, move. able by a skilful person to the improve. ment of the pearl, as it sometimes hop. pens the exterior coat only may be dis. coloured or injured. When the pearlis in a state of perfection, they are of a bril. liant white; some have been found of * beautiful tint of pink, of the colour of gold, and a few entirely black. These Wariations are, however, very uncommon. The pearls are discovered near the air gles of the shell, and close to the hio where the animal is most thick and fleshy; they are generally numerous, and, in SOIsle instances 150 have been taken from." oyster; on the other hand, an hundred oysters have been opened, whence"P" could not be extracted fit for any pur.” whatever. Attempts were made o; years past to transplant this spoo." oysters, but without success, as they m. variably died during their transportation. The first step previously to a i. is the examination of the banks, "" takes place at the end of October, do the short interval of fine weather. " between the close of the south-wes' o: soon and the commencement ofoo o east. One pilot, two divers, and *; t 0 more sailors to each boat, are emp": upon this service, and there are o: ly nine boats. The superintenda. o e part of government accompa".
- - - - is principal arripanaar, '. o * taught his profession from his j § professi in the man’
inheriting it from his father, in The ner of most occupations in the Po. d the boats visit the banks in a body, * rtain divers, frequently descending o time its exact position, and at the o: rs 35 bring up a thousand or more o: ef. specimens, which are examined by P
sons, who, from experience, are enabled to judge whether it is probable they are of an age calculated to answer, the purposes of the intended fishing : the examination is not, however, deemed suffitient, and the oysters are opened, when the pearls are extracted, and after sorting them they are valued. It is really shocking to humanity, to reflect, that if one thousand oysters produce as many pearls as are worth three pounds sterling, the fishery is undertaken, as it has been found that the examination of that number is a sufficient designation of success, or the reverse. In the progress of this preliminary part of the undertaking, the oysters are found at various periods of their growth: those not more than one year old are very small, being less than an inch in circumference, and the full grown oysters are as large as the palm of the hand of a man: between the ages of four and five years the seed pearl only is discovered; but after this period they increase in size very rapidly; and, as has been before observed, they die after the eigth year. After completely satisfying themselves, as to the probability of future success, the result is published, for the information of those who may be inclined to partake of the probable advantages. Since the island of Ceylon has been a part of the British empire, each fishing season has either been reserved for the exclusive use of government, or rented to speculative persons ; but the produce has never amounted to 200,000l. on any one occasion. The most common practice is, to farm the season to an individual, who lets the right of partaking to others. The fourteen banks, or beds, on which the oysters are found, are situated in the bottom of the gulf of Manaar, and are included in a space about thirty miles in length from north to south, and twentyfour in breadth. It has been ascertained, that the largest of those beds is ten miles long, and two broad; the remainder are much smaller; nor are they all equally productive, as it seldom happens that more than three beds can be marked for use in any given season. The spots where the oysters lay are not raised higher than the surrounding parts, except by their accumulation, and the coral rocks, on which the most valuable are placed, are on a level with the sand; the depth of water over them varies from eighteen to ninety feet, and the most convenient and best fishing #. the depth of between six and eight%thoms.
When it is thought proper to undertake a fishery, advertisements are issued in the English and Malabar languages, inviting the possessors of boats suited for the purpose, and all divers, to meet on the 20th of February, in the bay of Condaatchy: vessels of this description assemble from various places on the coast of Coromandel, completely equipped, and furnished with every necessary |. the accomplishment of their intentions : those are open, of about one ton burthen, forty-five feet in length, seven or eight wide, and three deep in the hold; and are so constructed as to draw not more than eight or ten inches water, unless they are heavily laden, and are navigated with one sail only. They have a complement of twenty-three men, whose employments are thus appropriated: one pilot; one man for the helm ; another to take care of the boat; one to lade out water; ten divers; ten mundrees, who haul up the divers, the stones, and the baskets; and a peon attends on the part of the renter, to take care that his interests do not suffer from fraud. A second examination of the banks takes place a few days before the operations begin, which is merely for the purpose of anchoring buoys, to point out the situation of the banks, and those parts of them most abounding with the object of search. A small sloop is from the first stationed in the centre of the banks, where she remains, for the double purpose of guarding the buoys, and as a guide to the boats. The pilot boats make a circuit of twelve or fifteen miles round the sloop, sounding and sending down the divers, and upon discovering a place remarkable for the number of oysters, a buoy is immediately placed over it, which consists of triangular rafts of wood, fastened by a cable attached to a wooden anchor, sunk by two stones. The rafts support flags of various colours; and drawings of these are inserted in a book, where a minute description is given of the name, quality, and age of the oysters on the bank under each flag. Three hours sailing of the boats employed in the pearl fishery from the shore of Condaatchy, or a distance of about fifteen miles, occurs between the banks and that place: unfortunately the land near them is so low, that it is impossible to make use of it in ascertaining their position ; it becomes, therefore, absolutely necessary to renew at each fishery the fatiguing operation of sounding and diving, the buoys being all removed at the close of