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cation of the impelling power proves absurd and injurious; from which it appears, that love should, in the first instance, be received merely as a hint, the propriety or impropriety of which is to be examined by the test of reason, and cherished or rejected according to her dictates. Love, thus confirmed, is a blessing to the possessor, as it induces the exercise of every amiable quality towards its object, consequently harmonizing and reconciling the soul to independent occurrences.— The sensations of this passion are so tranquil, that the features are but little af. fected; the eyes sparkle with vivacity, when directed to the person admired, the mouth gently opens, and a serene smile is the only indication of influence on the museles. Hope necessarily arises from the indulgence of love, but it is a faithful attendant of every other passion; consequently, it sometimes becomes criminal. Hope is a compound of fear and desire. The person under the influence of this companion of every situation in life fixes his affections or desires upon the attainment of some favourite object or pursuit, and his mind experiences the alternate pleasures and pains of fruition and disappointment, as the prospect of attainment or want of success predominates. Indeed, every individual may be said to exist from their infancy in hope; and we all die in hope of future happiness, though the hopes of our lives have too often been directed to the very means of punishment, veiled under the specious appearance of probable felicity. Hope and expectation have the same effect upon the frame and features; the heart palpitates, the countenance is enlivened by a display of eagerness and search for something invisible. Joy is the result of success in this aggregate of self-love, which is a passion, in some instances,too violent for the strength, and death or madness, and fainting, succeed, when it takes place before the mind has been prepared to receive it. The most extravagant and frantic actions distinguish those whose animal spirits are in full vigour, and under little controul, when it takes sudden effect; and it is, therefore, absolutely necessary to inform such persons gradually of the benefit or advantages they are about to experience. Unutterable pleasure dances in the features of those less agitated: they skip and leap from place to place, laugh, recount rapidly prospects of future happiness and intentions, and have been known to melt into tears. Such are the conse

quences of immediate relief from on. ing danger, apprehended personally or for friends, and extrication from pecuniary difficulties. Happiness is the tranquil attendant of joy, but never assumes the sway till all the turbulent emotions are subsided: then, indeed, the contemplation of future good produces an ecstatic sensation, which gradually passes into gladness, contentment, and satisfaction, the repose and completion of joy. Pride is one of the class of improper passions, when indulged as the result of some imaginary perfection; but a consciousness of superior worth, which renders the person too proud to act or say any thing derogatory to the honour of his rank and connections, is the only justifiable pride. The male or female, proud of birth, of riches, elegance of person, and those who are proud without any of the advantages enumerated, are equally ridiculous and contemptible ; such unfortunate self-tormentors are jealous of every occurrence, lest it should in its consequences trench upon their own importance : they see and hear disrespect in every movement and every sound that is uttered, and full of alarmed dignity, the features are contracted into a contemptuous threatening frown, the head is thrown backward, the steps are measured, the hand waved, and they stalk into retirement, where a thousand stinging malicious reflections accompany and make them miserable. Vanity is a near relative of pride; but this affection of the soul is generally, though not always personal. They who are fortunate enough to possess superior attractions of body and features, cannot but be conscious of their claims to admiration, which are willingly answered by the public, when humility and modesty attend them; but vanity no sooner attempts to point them out by the ridiculous arts of dress, and disposition of countenance and limbs, than envy commences her operations, and contrives to excite laughter instead of applause. Richness of the habit, affected smiles to show a fine set of teeth, and a strutting mode of walking, are sure marks of vanity. Modesty, the direct opposite of pride and vanity, is sometimes carried to excess. The natural and acquired advantages we possess ought ever to give a tempered consequence to the front and mien. The really modest person often sinks into bashfulness, which is a most troublesome, though not a vicious companion. To shrink from view, and con

ceal our attainments, is unjust to our instructors; besides, example is required in society. Modesty and bashfulness occasion apprehension and trembling, and deep blushes and hesitation in speech complete the confusion and errors committed. We have hitherto treated on those passions which agitate the mind and body in various ways, without melting the soul into what is termed sorrow, and its numerous ramifications. It is difficult to separate any of the sensations under this head from the affection of self-love, though it is beyond a doubt that much really disinterested sorrow is felt. . Grief is the most violent emotion experienced by man, and the most difficult to conquer. An injury may be forgiven, an enemy converted into a #. and resentment subdued; but grief seizes upon the soul after the loss of a relative with irresistible power, and reason exerts herself in vain to shake it off. The moralist argues against its indulgence without effect, because the loss cannot be supplied, and the mind is compelled to wander in a desert, where it searches in vain for its departed friend. Grief sometimes affects the faculties even to derangement, and produces melancholy madness, which of all the varieties of insanity is the most hopeless. In cases of this nature, the organs of life are obstructed, the heart oppressed, the lungs are inflated almost to bursting, deep sighs are essayed for relief, but in vain; a sudden obstruction recurs in the windpipe, and that part of the body seems more affected than any other. The unhappy sufferers wander, lost in misery, from place to place, wring their hands, and strike their feet forcibly on the ground; raise their eyes, as if in silent ejaculation, and the muscles of their mouths are drawn down, giving the countenance the expression of dreadful agony. It is this state, which is the most alarming for the safety of the senses; when tears and lamentation succeed, immediate relief is experienced, and time will produce settled sorrow. This is attended by a composure of features more affecting to the spectator than the most vehement paroxysms of grief. The afflicted person seeks retirement to weep, loses his appetite, is careless of his dress, and views the grave and the gay with equal indifference, and, when in this state, incurs the danger of falling into an habitual melancholy, which, though often the result of the loss of friends, is not less frequently the

consequence of disease. The melan. choly man feels an universal listlessness; he is deprived of all desire of exertion, walks without consciousness, and reposes his limbs, when fatigued, by the mere impulse of nature. As it appears, his mind is abstracted from all external objects, and preys only upon itself, the brilliancy of the sun, the beauty of the expanse of air and clouds, the pride of the spring, and the rigour of winter, pass in their fascinating varieties before him unnoticed, and he is only anxious to escape from them by suicide. Resignation is one remove towards returning happiness, the calmness, and tranquillity of which cannot be described; but it is nearly allied to humility, or a sense that no exertion will avail to restore the loss occasioned by death, and that it is little short of presumption to oppose the weakness of human nature to the dispensations of Providence. Humility, however, bears another character, and becomes in this view a melancholy resignation, or acquiescence in the consciousness of some defect of person or intellect. Enthusiasm, or vehemence, in any pursuit, may be called a passion of the soul, which exhibits its effects with the greatest violence when generated by religion. To describe its consequences would require a volume. It has led, and will hereafter lead, mankind into a thousand extravagancies, which can only be compared with the inconsistencies of madness. This cause will impel him to flagellate the body till blood follows, immure himself within a voluntary prison, and to meet death in any shape it may present itself. The consequences of this passion cannot well be described, as they belong almost decidedly to disease. Enthusiasm is the parent of despair, which it frequently produces in the minds of those, who conceive that their sins in this life exceed the possibility of future forgiveness. The wretch thus situated displays all the gestures and actions of grief united with terror, a compound, which is fortunately generally concealed from view by the asylums for lunatics. We have now noticed the principal emotions of the soul, and stated our opimion, that the causes of them are studiously kept from us by the great Author of that ethereal spirit; and without attempting to reason upon the probability or improbability of the opinions of others, we shall conclude this article with a slight summary of some of them.

Writers on the passions have indulged in a variety of speculations and conjectures as to the precise situation of their impetus, in hopes of ascertaining whether that is in the material animated part of man, or in the spiritual. Des Cartes and other philosophers will have their seat to be wholly in the corporeal system; and Mr. Grove, of a totally opposite opinion, concludes the passions to be “the affections attended with peculiar and extraordinary motions of the animal spirits;” and adds, that he inclines to “think that a sensation of the soul generally precedes a change in the spirits, external objects not being able to raise a ferment in the spirits till they have first struck the mind with an idea of something noble, frightful, amiable,” &c. Mallebranche defines the passions as being all those agitations of the soul, naturally proceeding from uncommon influence and motion in the blood and animal spirits; those he contrasts with others which are usual with decided intelligences, and which he terms natural inclinations.

Dr. Cheyne considered the passions in two points of view, spiritual and animal; the §: he supposes to be the emotion produced in the soul by external objects, which become compounded and material by the intervention of the organs of life. The animal he defines by those effects produced by bodies or spirits immediately on the body. Dr. Morgan, by indefatigable observation, drew the following conclusion: “That all the grateful or pleasurable passions raise the vital tide, strengthen and quicken the pulse, diffuse the natural heat, and take off any antecedent stimulus or pressure upon the abdomen and inferior organs. And, on the contrary, the painful passions sink and depress the blood, weaken the pulse, recal and concentre the natural heat, and fix a stimulus, or compression, on the inferior organs. All the passions impress their characteristic sensations or modifications on the muscles of the larynx, and thus discover themselves by the different modulation and tone of the voice.” From which he concludes, that the nerves of the eighth conjugation, or par vagum, are the principal instruments of the passions.

Dr. Reid doubts whether the “principle of esteem as well as gratitude ought to be reckoned in the order of animal principles, or if they ought not rather to be placed in a higher order.” The same author, treating on resentment, has considered it as a sudden and instinctive ani

mal principle, common to the brute creation and mankind; at the same time he calls deliberate resentment a rational principle. To pursue theories further would be useless; we shall therefore conclude with the opinion of Dr. Cogan, one of the latest writers on the subject: “Without entering therefore into enquiries of this nature, which for want of data must be conjectural and unsatisfactory, it will be more consistent with my plan, simply to state interesting facts, and leave it to the metaphysician to draw such consequences as he may deem most legitimate. It must be admitted that every passion, emotion, and affection, proceeds from certain impressions or ideas excited, concerning the nature, or state, or quality, or agency of the exciting cause. These ideas have undoubtedly their seat in that part of man we distinguish by the appellation of mind.” This admitted, the Doctor advances, that the existing cause must change the state of it in relation to any given object; thus from total indifference the mind becomes in some particular manner interested, consequently the new impression produces a correspondent change upon the body, and in proportion to the impetus, general observation, and universal phraseology, founded upon that observation, demonstrates that a perceptible influence of each violent emotion is directed towards the heart, which feels different sensations, pleasant, or the reverse, over which it has no control, and from this centre diverges the influence of agitated spirits, the slightest effects of which are not visible to the spectator. “Nay,” adds this gentleman, “the subject himself is not conscious, perhaps, of any thing more than either a change of sentiment on the perception of the stronger influence of a former sentiment, connecting with something agreeable or disagreeable in this perception ; a something which attaches more strongly to the object, or creates some degree of repugnance. This state of mind is styled an affection, and it appears to be totally mental; but stronger influences produce such changes, that the inward disposition becomes obvious to the spectator, through the medium of the corporeal frame. It is now called an emotion, and this may increase in strength until the whole system becomes agitated and convulsed. From this statement it appears incontestible, that the affections and passions have their origin in the mind, while emo

tions are corporeal indications of what passes within.” PAssion, or Cross of the Passion, in heraldry, is so called, because resembling the shape of that on which our Saviour is thought to have suffered; that is, not Crossed in the middle, but a little below the top, with arms short in proportion to the length of the shaft. Passion flower, in botany. See PassiFLQRA. PASSPORT, is a license for the safe Passage of any person from one port to another. PASTE, a composition of water and flour, boiled to a consistence; used by Various artificers, as saddlers, upholsterers, bookbinders, &c. Paste, in the glass trade, a kind of coWuted glass, made of calcined crystal, lead, and other metallic preparations, so * to imitate the natural gems. The basis of these compositions is a pure glass, Prepared from pounded quartz, fused with alkali, with the addition of borax owl of oxide of lead. The latter gives density to the glass, a susceptibility of re. *iving a higher polish, and a greater re*ctive power, by which the sūstre is in9teased. Different colours are obtained by the addition of various metallic oxides. The oxide of gold gives a red; of cobalt, * of manganese, purple; of lead, Yellow; and of iron, green : and these olours are so rich, as to be equal, or oven superior, to those of natural gems, though in lustre, hardness, and durabi. ity, the pastes are far inferior. They may be distinguished by their inferior *pecific gravity, and their softness, which o that they can be scratched by the nite. PASTEBOARD, a kind of thick paper, formed of several sheets of paper pasted "other. The chief use of pasteboard IS binding books, making letter-cases, C. See PAPER. PASTINACA, in botany, parsnip, a ge* of the Pentandria Digynia class and %der. Natural order of Umbellata, or obellifera. Essential character fruit $optic, compressed, flat; petals invoute, entire. There are three species; of which P. sativa, common garden pars"P.has smooth leaves, of a light or yel"Wish green colour, in which it differs from the wild plant; the stalks also rise igher, and are deeper channelled; the P*Incles are much longer, and the flow* of a deeper yellow colour. The roots **weeter than carrots, and are eaten o who abstain from animal food in

Lent, or eat salt fish; they are highly nutricious. In the north of Ireland they are brewed, instead of malt, with hops, and fermented with yeast; the liquor thus obtained is very agreeable. PASTORAL, in general, something that relates to shepherds; hence we say, pastoral life, manners, poetry, &c. The original of poetry is ascribed to that age which succeeded the creation of the world ; and as the keeping of flocks seems to have been the first employment of mankind, the most ancient sort of poetry was probably pastoral. It is natural to imagine, that the leisure of those ancient shepherds admitting and inviting some diversion, none was so proper to that solitary and sedentary life as singing, and that in their songs they took occasion to celebrate their own felicity. From hence a poem was invented, and afterwards improved to a perfect image of that happy time, which, by giving us an esteem for the virtues of a former age, might recommend them to the present. And since the life of shepherds was attended with more tranquillity than any other rural employment, the poets chose to introduce their persons, from whom it received the name of pastoral. A pastoral is an imitation of the action of a shepherd, or one considered under that character. The form of this imitation is dramatic, or narrative, or mixed with both ; the fable simple; the manners not too polite nor too rustic; the thoughts are plain, yet admit a little quickness and passion, but that short and flowing ; the expression humble, yet as pure as the language will afford; neat, but not florid; easy, and yet lively. In short, the fable, manners, thoughts, and expressions, are full of the greatest simplicity in nature. The complete character of this poem consists in simplicity, brevity, and delicacy; the two first of which render an eclogue natural, and the last delightful. PASTURE, is generally any place where cattle may feed, and in law is mostly applied to a common of pasture, or right of feeding cattle on certain waste lands. See CoMMox. PATE, in fortification, a kind of platform, resembling what is called an horseshoe; not always regular, but generally oval, encompassed only with a parapet, and having nothing to flank it. It is usually raised on marshy grounds, to cover the gate of a place. PATEE, or PATTEE, in heraldry, a cross, small in the centre, and widenT


ing to the extremes, which are very broad. PATELLA, in anatomy, a bone which covers the fore part of the joint of the knee, called also rotula, and popularly the knee-pan. PATELLA, in natural history, limpet, a genus of the Vermes Testacea; animal a limax : shell univalve, subconic, shaped like a basin; without a spine. This is a very numerous genus, containing between two and three hundred species, divided into sections. A. Furnished with an internal lip; shell entire. B. With the margin angular, or irregularly toothed. C With a pointed, recurved tip or crown. D Very entire, and not pointed at the tip or crown. E. With the crown or tip perforated. The most worthy of no ice are the following: P. vulgata, of Europe, with rough prominent striae, and swarply. crenated edges; vertex pretty near the centre; the edges often in old subjects are almost smooth. P. pellucida, with a transparent shell, marked longitudinally with rows of rich blue spots: the vertex placed near one edge; inhabits the sea rocks of Cornwall, England. P graeca, with an oblong shell, perforated vertex, striated roughly to the edges. It inhabits the west of England. This genus was well known to the ancient Greeks, from whom we learn that it was used for the table, and that it was found adhering to the rocks. PATENT, something that stands open or expanded; thus a leaf is said to be patent, when it stands nearly at right angles with the stalk. PATENT, or Letters Patent, are writings sealed with the great seal of England, by which a man is authorized to do, or to enjoy, any thing, which of himself he could not. They are so called on account of their form, being open, with their seal affixed, ready to be exhibited for the confirmation of the authority delegated by them. Letters patent for new inventions are obtained by petitions to the crown : they go through many offices, and are liable to opposition, on account of the want of novelty, &c. and if obtained, and it can be proved that the invention was not new, or had been made public previously to the granting the patent, they may be set aside. A patent, at the lowest cost, and when no opposition is given to it, will, for fees of office, specification, &c. cost for the three branches of the United Kingdom about three hundred pounds. PATRIOT, “a sincere and unbiassed

friend to his country; an advocate for general civilization, uniting in his conduct through life, moral rectitude with political integrity. Such a character is seldom found in any country; but the specious appearance of it is to be seen every where, most especially in Europe. It is difficult to say how far the term can be used in a military sense, although it is not uncommon to read of a ‘citizen soldier, and a ‘patriot soldier? individually considered, the term may be joist, but it is hardly to be understood collectively A celebrated English writer has left a treatise, entitled, “The Patriot King;' by which he means, the first magistrate of a country, who acts up to the genuine principles of its constitution. It is devoutly to be wished, (human mature being so constituted as to require coercion) that the application of military force could always be in the hands of a patriot king, who is the first soldier in the land, and would of course be entitled to the appellation of a patriot soldier. The convuised state of Europe is such, that no country can do without soldiers. When they are employed to defend, or protect, their native land, they are patriot soldiers.” See James’s Military Dictionary. PATROL, in war, a round or march made by the guards, or watch, in the night-time, to observe what passes in the streets, and to secure the peace and tranquillity of a city or camp. The patrol generally consists of a body of five or six men, detached from a body on guard, and commanded by a serjeant. Patrols are formed out of the infantry, as well as the cavalry. When a weak place is besieged, and there is reason to apprehend an assault, strong patrols are ordered to do duty; those on foot keep a good look out from the ramparts, and those that are mounted take care of the outworks. PATRON, both in the canon and common law, signifies him that hath the gift of a benefice or parsonage. PATRONYMIC, among grammarians, is applied to such names of men and women as are derived from those of parents or ancestors. Patronymics are derived, 1. From the father, as Pelides, i. e. Achilles, the son of Peleus. 2. From the mother, as Phily rides, i. e. Chiron, the son of Philyra. 3. From the grandfather on the father’s side, as AEacides, i. e. Achilles the grandson of HEacus. 4. From the grandfather by the mother's side, as Atlantiades, i. e. Mercury, the

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