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by a soft camel's-hair brush, and the proper flock will be found to adhere in a strong manner. The method of preparing the flock is, by cutting woollen rags or pieces of cloth with the hand, by means of a large bill or chopping-knife : or by means of a machine worked by a horsemill. There is a kind of counterfeit flockpaper, which, when well managed, has very much the same effect to the eye as the real, though done with less expense. The manner of making this sort is, by laying a ground of varnish on the paper; and having afterwards printed the design of the flock in varnish, in the same manner as for the true, instead of the flock, some pigment, or dry colour, of the same hue with the flock required by the design, but somewhat of a darker shade, being well powdered, is strewed on the printed varnish, and produces nearly the same appearance. PAPER, blotting, is a paper not sized, and into which ink readily sinks: it is used in books, &c, instead of sand, to prevent blotting ; and also by apothecaries for filtering. PAPIER mache. This is a substance made of cuttings of white or brown paper, boiled in water, and beaten in a mortar tili they are reduced into a kind of paste, and then boiled with a solution of gum arabic or of size, to give tenacity to the paste, which is afterwards formed into different toys, &c. by pressing it into oiled moulds. When dry, it is done over with a mixture of size and lamp-black, and afterwards varnished. The black varnish for these toys, according to Dr. Lewis, is prepared as follows. Some colophony, or turpentine, boiled down till it becomes black and friable, is melted in a glazed earthen vessel, and thrice as much amber in fine powder sprinkled in by degrees, with the addition of a little spirit or oil of turpentine now and then : when the amber is melted, sprinkle in the same quantity of sarcocolla, continuing to stir them, and to add more spirit of turpentine, till the whole becomes fluid; then strain out the clear through a coarse hair bag, pressing it gently between hot boards. This varnish, mixed with ivory black in fine powder, is applied in a hot room on the dried paper paste, which is then set in a gently heated oven, next day in a hotter oven, and the third day in a very hot one, and let stand each time till the oven grows cold. PAPILIO, in natural history, butterfly, a genus of insects of the order Lepidoptera: antennae growing thicker towards
the tip and generally ending in a knob; wings when fitting, erect, the backs meet. ing together over the abdomen; they fly in the day-time. The number of species under this genus (not less than 1200) renders it necessary to divide the whole into sections, which are instituted from the habit or general appearance, and, in some degree, from the distribution of the colour on the wings. We shall give the arrangement according to Linnaeus, which in this instance exhibits an attempt to combine, in some degree, natural and civil history, by attaching the memory of some illustrious ancient name to an insect of a particular cast By this plan there are five divisions, viz. 1. Equites upper wings longer from the posterior angie to the tip than to the base : antennae frequently filiform. The Equites are, Trojans, having red spots or patches on each side their breasts; or Greeks, without red marks on the breast, of gayer colours, in general, than the former, and often having an eye-shaped spot at the inner corner of the lower wings. 2. Heliconii wings narrow, entire, often naked, or semi-transparent; the upper ones oblong, the lower ones very short. In some of the Heliconii the under wings are slightly indented. 3. Danai, from the sons and daughters of Danaus. These are divided into D. candidi and D. festivi; the wings of the former are white, of the latter they are variegated. 4. Wymphales; wings denticulate of these there are the gemmati and th: phalerati; the one having eye-shaped spots either on all the wings, or onto upperer lower pair only; the others have no spots on their wings, but, in general, a great variety of colours. 5. Plebeii. small; the larva often co" tracted. These are divided into the " rales, wings with obscure spots; and to urbicole, wings mostly with transpare" spots. Among the Equites Troes, the P. Priamus should take the lead, not only" the corresponding dignity of the o but from the exquisite appearance's i animal itself, which Linnaeus considere as the most beautiful of the whole Pol". lionaceous tribe, this admirable Po" measures more than six inches o wing's end to wing's end; the . wings are velvet-black, with * * band of the most beautiful gro. and of a satiny lustre, drawn from . shoulder to the tip, and another"
lower part of the wing, following the shape of that part, and of a somewhat undulating appearance as it approaches the tip : the lower wings are of the same green colour, edged with velvet-black, and marked by four spots of that colour; while at the upper part of each, or at the part where the upper wings lap over, is a squarish orange-coloured spot: the thorax is black, with sprinklings of lucid green in the middle, and the abdomen is of a bright yellow or gold colour. On the under side of the animal the distribution of colours is somewhat different, the green being disposed in central patches on the upper wings, and the lower bein marked by more numerous black as well as orange spots. The red or bloody spots on each side of the thorax are not always to be seen on this, the Trojan monarch. The P. Priamus is a very rare insect, and is a native of the island of Amboyna. P. Philenor: wings tailed black, margin of the upper ones varied with white and black; lower ones glossed with green, seven fulvous spots beneath, each surrounded by a black line, and marked with a small white lateral dot. Body black; breast and abdomen spotted with white. Not uncommon in the United States. Among the Equites Achivi, the P. Menelaus may be considered as one of the most splendidly beautiful of the butterfly tribe. Its size is large, measuring, when expanded, about six inches; and its colour is the most brilliant silver-blue that imagination can conceive, changing, according to the variation of the light, into a deeper blue, and in some lights to a greenish cast: on the under side it is entirely brown, with numerous deeper and lighter undulations, and three large ocellated spots on each wing. It is a native of South America, and proceeds from a large yellow caterpillar, beset with numerous upright, sharp, black spines. It changes into an angular chrysalis, of a brown colour, and distinguished by having the proboscis projecting in a semicircular manner over the breast; from this chrysalis, in about fourteen days, proceeds the complete insect. The P. Machaon is an insect of great beauty, and may be considered as the only British species of Papilio belonging to the tribe of Equites. It is commonly known among the English collectors by the title of the swallow-tailed butterfly, and is of a beautiful yellow, with black VOL. IX.
spots or patches along the upper edge of |. superior wings: all the wings are bordered with a deep edging of black, decorated with a double row of crescentshaped spots, of which the upper row is blue, and the lower yellow : the under wings are tailed, and are marked at the inner angle or tip with a round red spot, bordered with blue and black. The caterpillar of this species feeds principally on fennel, and other umbelliferous plants, and is sometimes found on rue. It is of a green colour, encircled with numerous black bands, spotted with red, and is furnished on the top of the head with a pair of short tentacula of a red colour, which it occasionally protrudes from that part. In the . of July it changes into a yellowish-grey angular chrysalis, affixed to some convenient part of the plant, or other neighbouring substance, and from this chrysalis in the month of August proceeds the complete inSect. P. Turnus: wings tailed, both surfaces alike, yellow, with a black margin and abbreviated bands; angle of the tail fulvous. It is very common in the United States, and is figured by Cramer under the name of Alcidamas; bears considerable resemblance to the preceding species, but, besides other differences, it is larger. Of the division called Heliconii, the beautiful insect, the P. Apollo, is an example. It is a native of many parts of Europe, and is of a white colour, with a semi-transparency towards the tips of the wings, which are decorated with velvetblack spots, and on each of the lower wings are two most beautiful ocellated spots, consisting of a carmine:coloured circle, with a white centre and black exterior border. The caterpillar is black, with small red spots, and a pair of short retractile tentacula in front: it feeds on orpine, and some other succulent plants, and changes into a brown chrysalis, covered with a kind of glaucous or violetcoloured powder. Of the division entitled Danai Candidi, P. Palaeno is a familiar example. The wings entire, yellow, with a black tip, fulvous margin, and red fringe on the edge; lower ones with a silvery dot beneath. The antennae are red. Extremely common in every part of North America, and in many countries of Europe. The larva is a little hairy, green, with yellow lines and black dots. P. Nicippe: wings entire, fulvous, tipt P
with brown; upper pair with a short black transverse line near the middle of each : lower one beneath, speckled with reddish. Inhabi, North America, and is about the size of the preceding.
Among the Nymphales Gemmati, few can exceed in elegance the P. Antiona, a species that appears in the United States earlier in the season than any other butterfly: it is not unusually seen before the snow has disappeared from the ground: Mr. Wilson alludes to this insect, when he says
“When first the lone butterfly flits on the wing.”
The wings are angular, indented, blackbrown, with a whitish border, behind which is a row of blue spots: it differs somewhat from the European specimens, and may perhaps be a distinct species. P. Atalanta; wings indented, black; upper pair with a red band and white spots; lower ones bordered with red behind, in which are black spots. The larvae are often found on the hop-vines, on thistles, &c. Inhabits North America and Europe. Of the last division, termed Plebeii, may be adduced, as an example, a small English butterfly, called P. Malvae, of a blackish or brown colour, with numerous whitish and semi-transparent spots. To this latter division also belongs a very beautiful exotic species, a native of India, and of a most exquisite lucid blue colour, edged with black, and further ornamented by having each of the lower wings tipped with two narrow, black, tail-shaped processes. It is the P. Marsyas of Lin113tus. The larvae of butterflies are known by the name of caterpillars, and are extremely various in their forms and colours; some being smooth, others beset with spines; some are observed to protrude from their front, when disturbed, a pair of short tentacula, nearly analogous to those of a snail. A caterpillar, when grown to its full size, retires to a convenient spot, and securing itself properly by a small quantity of silken filaments, either suspends itself by the tail, hanging with its head downwards, or else in an upright position, with the body fastened round the middle by a proper number of filaments. It then casts off the caterpillar-skin, and commences chrysalis, in which state it continues till the enclosed butterfly is ready for birth, which, libe
rating itself from the skin of the chrysa. lis, remains till its wings, which are at first very short, weak, and covered with moisture, are fully extended: this happens in the space of a few minutes, when the animal suddenly quits the state of inactivity to which it had long been confined, and becomes at pleasure an inhabitant of the air. PAPILIONACEI, in botany, a term applied to certain flowers, from their supposed resemblance to the figure of a butterfly. The term is applied also to the thirty-second order of Linnaeus's “Fragments of a Natural Method.” They are divided into two sections, viz. those that have the filaments on the stamina distinct, and those with one set of united filaments. These piants, otherwise called leguminous, from the seed-vessel, which is that sort termed a legumen, are very different both in size and duration: some of them being herbaceous, and those either annual or perennial; others, woody vegetables of the shrub and tree kind, a few of which rise to the height of seventy feet, and upwards. The herb. ceous plants of this order generally climb; for being weak, and as it were helpless of themselves, indulgent natio has either provided them with tendilī, and even sharp-pointed hooks at their extremities, to fasten upon the neigh. bouring trees or rocks, or endued to stalks with a faculty of twisting them. selves, for the purpose of support, arol. the bodies in their neighbourhood. The pea, vetch, and kidney-bean, afford fa. miliar examples of the appearanco." question. The shrubs and trees of 1. natural family are mostly armed with strong spines. The roots are very loš and furnished with fibres: some gen" have fleshy tubercles, placed at Pro. intervals along the fibres. The *. are cylindric, as are likewise the Yo!"; branches, which are placed alternao. those which climb twist themselves * right to left, in a direction opposite to e apparent diurnal motion of the sus...". book of the large trees is extremely to t and wrinkled, so as to resemble.” ne with long meshes; the wood is ves. in the middle, and commonly coloure or veined; the alburnum is less lo. generally of a yellow colour. The o are hemispherical, without solo * proceed from the branches horio, a little above the angle which too. with the leaves. The leaves * i. nate, and of different forms, being *
simple, finger-shaped, or winged. The flowers are hermaphrodite, and proceed either from the wings of the leaves, as in furze, liquorice, lupin, kidney-bean, &c. or from the extremity of the branches, as in ebony of Crete, false acacia, trefoil, coral-tree, &c. The calyx is a perianthium, of one leaf, bell-shaped, branching out at the bottom, and cut on its brim or margin into five irregular divisions, or teeth, the lowermost of which, being the odd one, is longer than the rest: the other four stand in pairs, of which the uppermost is shortest, and stands furthest asunder. The bottom of the calyx is moistened with a sweet liquor, like honey, which may be deemed the nectarium of these plants. The petals are four or five in number, very irregular, and from their figure and position bear an obvious resemblance in most of the genera to a butterfly expanding its . for flight. The stamina are generally ten in number. These are either totally distinct, as in plants of the first section; or united by the filaments into one or two bundles, involving the seed-bud, as in those of the second and third. In the latter case, where there are two sets of united filaments, one of the sets is composed of nine stamina, which are united into a crooked cylinder, that is cleft on one side through its whole length. Along this cleft lies the tenth filament, or stamen, which constitutes the second set, and is often so closely attached to the large bundle, that it cannot be separated without some difficulty. The seed-bud is single, placed upon the receptacle of the flower, oblong, cylindrical, slightly compressed, of the length of the cylinder of the united stamina by which it is involved ; and sometimes, as in the coraltree, elevated by a slender foot-stalk, which issues from the centre of the calyx. The style is single, slender, and generally crooked. In the pea the style is hairy, three-cornered, and keel-shaped above; by which last circumstance chiefly that genus is distinguished from the lathyrus, in which the style is plain. The stigma, or summit of the style, is generally covered with a beautiful down, and placed immediately under the anthers, or tops of the stamina. The seed-vessel in this order is that sort of pod termed a legumen, which is of an oblong figure, more or less compressed, with two valves, and one, two, or more cavities ; these cavities are often separated, when ripe, by a sort of joints, which are conspicuous in the pods of the coronilla, French honey-suckle, horse-shoe vetch,
bird's-foot, bastard sensitive-plant, and scorpiurus : the seeds are generally few in number, round, smooth, and fleshy. Jointed pods have generally a single seed in each articulation. The seeds are all fastened along one suture, and not alternately to both, as in the other species of pod termed siliqua. The plants in this family are in general mucilaginous; from the inner bark flows a clammy liquor, which dries and hardens like gum: the juice of others, as that of the liquorice, is sweet like sugar. Some of the plants are bitter, purgative, or emetic, and some are poisonous. They are, however, emollient, useful in the healing of wounds, and astringent. See Milne’s Botanical Dictionary. PAPISTS, persons professing the Popish religion. By several statutes, if any English priest of the Church of Rome, born in the dominions of the crown of England, came from beyond the seas, or tarried in England three days without conforming to the church, he was guilty of high treason; and they also incurred the guilt of high treason, who were reconciled to the see of Rome, or procured others to be reconciled to it. By these laws, also, Papists were disabled from giving their children education in their own religion. If they educated their children at home, for maintaining the schoolmaster, if he did not repair to the church, or was not allowed by the bishop of the diocese, they were liable to forfeit 10l. a month, and the schoolmaster was liable to the forfeiture of 40s. a day. If they sent their children for education abroad, they were liable to forfeit 100l., and the children so sent were incapable of inheriting, purchasing, or enjoying any lands, profits, goods, debts, legacies, or sums of money : saying mass was punishable by a forfeiture of 200 marks; and hearing it, by a forfeiture of 100l. By statute 11 and 12 William III, c. 4, the Chancellor may take care of the education and maintenance of the protestant children of Papists. By the laws against recusancy, all persons abstaining from going to church were liable to penalties. By 35 Elizabeth, c. 2, a distinction was made against Papists, who, if convicted of recusancy, were fined 201, per month, disabled from holding offices, keeping arms in their houses, suing at law, being executors and guardians, presenting to advowsons, practising law or physic; from holding offices civil or military were subject to excommunication ; could not travel five miles from home, nor come to court, under pain of 1001. Marriages and burials of Papists were to be according to the rites of the Church of England. A married woman convicted of recusancy lost two-thirds of her dower; she could not be executrix to her husband; might be kept in prison during marriage, unless her husband paid 101 per month, or gave the third part of his lands. Popish recusants convict were, within three months after conviction, either to submit, and renounce their religious opinions, or to abjure the realm, if required by four justices; and if they did not depart, or returned without license, were guilty of capital felony; so that abjuration was transportation for life. But during the present, reign the Roman Catholics have been in a great measure relieved from the odious and severe (if not unjust) restrictions formerly imposed on them, by the statutes 18 George III. c. 60, and 31 George III. c. 22, to which, on account of their length and consequence, the reader is referred. The principal effects of these statutes are, to repeal the 11 and 12 William III. c. 4, as to prosecuting Popish priests, &c. and to disable Papists from taking lands by descent or purchase : if they take the oath expressing allegiance to the King, abjuring the Pretender, renouncing the Pope's civil power, and abhorring the doctrine of not keeping faith with heretics, and of deposing or murdering princes excommunicated by the see of Rome. The statute 31 George III. c. S2 has afforded them the most effectual relief, and consists of six parts. The first contains the oath and declaration to be taken ; the second is a repeal of the statutes of recusancy in favour of persons taking that oath; the third is a toleration, under certain regulations, of the religious worship of the Catholics, qualifying in like manner, and of their schools for education; the fourth enacts, that no one shall be summoned to take the oath of supremacy prescribed by statutes 1 William and Mary, st. 1. c. 8; 1 George I. st. 2. c. 13; or the declaration against transubstantiation required by statute 25 Charles II. c. 2; that the statute 1 William and Mary, st. 1. c. 9. for removing Papists, or reputed Papists, from the cities of London and Westminster, shall not extend to Roman Catholics taking the appointed oath ; and that no peer of Great Britain or Ireland, taking that oath, shall be liable to be prosecuted for coming into his Majesty's presence, or into the court or house where his Majesty re
sides, under statute 30 Charles II. st. 2. c. 1. The fifth part of the act repeals the laws requiring the deeds and wills of Roman Catholics to be registered or enrolled ; the sixth excuses persons acting as counsellors at law, barristers, attorneys, clerks, or notaries, from taking the oath of supremacy, or the declaration against transubstantiation. But it is advisable to take the oath of 18 George III. 30, to prevent all doubts of ability to take by descent or purchase. As the statute 1 William and Mary, St. 1. c. 18, called the Toleration Act, does not apply to Catholics, or persons denying the Trinity, they cannot serve in corporations, and are liable to the test and corporation act. They cannot sit in the House of Commons, nor vote at elections, without taking the oath of supremacy; and cannot present to advowsons, although Jews and Quakers may. But the person is only disabled from presenting, and still continues patron. It seeino they may serve on juries, but Catholic ministers are exempted. They also are entitled to attend the British factories, and their meetings abroad, and may hold offices to be wholly exercised abrol, and may also serve under the East India Company, or in the army abroad; and o sixtieth régiment is chiefly composed." persons who cannot serve in England, by reason of the officers being many of the Catholics. This account of the . the laws against Papists, is extrao from an able review of them given by Mr. Butler, a Roman Catholic, in his Notes upon Lord Coke's Commento : Littleton's Tenures, and which is.” ". found also in Tomlin's Law Diction* last edition, title PAP1st.