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strument used to take all sorts of angles, distances and elevations. PAPAVER, in botany, poppy, a genus of the Polyandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Rhoeadeae. Papaveraceae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx two-leaved; corolla four-petalled: capsule one-celled, opening by holes under the permanent stigma. There are nine species. See Poppy. PAPER, sheets of a thin matter, made of some vegetable substance. The materials on which mankind have, indifferent ages, contrived to write their sentiments have been extremely various; in the early ages they made use of stones, and tables of wood, wax, ivory, &c. Paper, with regard to the manner of making it, and the materials employed therein, is reducible to several kinds; as Egyptian paper, made of the rush papyrus; bark paper, made of the inner rind of several trees; cotton paper; incombustible paper; and European paper, made of linen rags. Egyptian paper was principally used among the ancients; being made of the papyrus, or biblus, a species of rush, which grew on the banks of the Nile : in making it into paper, they began with lopping off the two extremes of the plant, the head and the root; the remaining part, which was the stem, they cut lengthwise into two nearly equal parts, and from each of these they stripped the scaly pellicles of which it consisted. The innermost of these pellicles were looked on as the best, and that nearest the rind as the worst : they were therefore kept apart, and made to constitute two different sorts of paper. As the pellicles were taken off, they extended them on a table, laying them over each other transversely, so as that the fibres made right angles; in this state they were glued together by the muddy waters of the Nile; or, when those were not to be had, with paste made of the finest wheat flour, mixed with hot water and a sprinkling of vinegar. The pelli

cles were next pressed, to get out the water, then dried, and lastly flatted and smoothed by beating them with a mallet; this was the Egyptian paper, which was sometimes further polished by rubbing it with a glass ball, or the like. Bark paper was only the inner whitish rind, inclosed between the bark and the wood of several trees, as the maple, plane, beech, and elm, but especially the tilia, or linden tree, which was that mostly used for this purpose. On this, stripped off, flatted, and dried, the ancients wrote books, several of which are said to be still extant. Chinese paper is of various kinds; some is made of the rinds or barks of trees, especially the mulberry tree and elm, but chiefly of the bamboo and cotton tree. In fact, almost each province has its several paper. The preparations of paper made of the barks of trees may be instanced in that of the bamboo, which is a tree of the cane or reed kind. The second skin of the bark, which is soft and white, is ordinarily made use of for paper : this is beat in fair water to a pulp, which they take up in large moulds, so that some sheets are above twelve feet in length : they are completed by dipping them, sheet by sheet, in alum water, which serves instead of the size among us; and not only hinders the paper from imbibing the ink, but makes it look as if varnished over. This paper is white, soft, and close, without the least roughness, though it cracks more easily than European paper, is very subject to be eaten by the worms, and its thinness makes it liable to be soon worn out. Cotton paper is a sort of paper which has been in use upwards of six hundred years. In the grand library at Paris are manuscripts on this paper, which appear to be of the tenth century; and from the twelfth century, cotton manuscripts are more frequent than parchment ones. Cotton paper is still made in the East Indies, by beating cotton rags to a pulp. Linen or European paper, appears to have been first introduced in England towards the beginning of the fourteenth century, but by whom this valuable commodity was invented is not known. The method of making paper of linen or hempen rags is as follows: the linen rags being carried to the mill, are first sorted; then washed very clean in puncheons, whose sides are grated with strong wires, and the bottoms bored full of holes. Af. ter this they are fermenited, by laying them in heaps close covered with sacking, till they sweat and rot; which is commonly done in four or five days. When duly fermented, they are twisted into handfuls, cut small, and thrown into oval mortars, made of well-seasoned oak, about half a yard deep, with an iron plate at bottom, an inch thick, eight inches broad, and thirty long ; in the middle is a washing block, grooved, with five holes in it, and a piece of hair sieve fastened on the inside; this keeps the hammers from touching it, and prevents anything from going out, except the foul water. These mortars are continually supplied with water, by little troughs, from a cistern fed by buckets fixed to the several floats of a great wheel, which raises the wooden hammers for pounding the rags in the mortars. When the rass are beaten to a certain degree, called the first stuff, the pulp is renoved into boxes, make like cornchandlers' bins, with the bottom board aslant, and a little separation on the front, for the water to drain away. The pulp of the rags being in, they take a. ay as many of the fiont boards as are needful, and press the mass down hard with their hands: the next day they put on another board, and add more pulp, till the box is fuji, and here it remains mellowing a week, more or less, according to the weather. After this, the stuff is again put into clean mortars, and is beaten afresh, and removed into boxes, as before ; in which state it is called the second stuff. The mass is beat a third time, tili some of it being mixed with fair water, and strewed to and fro, appears like flour and water, without any lumps in it; it is then fit for the pit mortar, where it is perfectly dissolved, and is then carried to the vat, to be formed into sheets of paper. But Jat ly, instead of pounding the rags to a pup with large hammers, as above, they make use of an engine, which performs the work in much less time. This engine consists of a round solid piece of wood, into which are fastened several long pieces of steel, ground very sharp. This is placed in a large trough with the rags, and a sufficient quantity of water. At the bottom of the trough is a plate with steel bars ground sharp like the former; and the engine being carried round with prodigious velocity, reduces the rags to a pulp in a very short time. It must be observed, that the motion of the engine causes the water in the trough to circulate, and by that means constantly returns the stuff to the engine. The trough is constantly fed with clean water

at one end, while the dirty water from the rags is carried off at the other, through a hole defended with wire gratings, in order to hinder the pulp from going off with the dirty water. When the stuff is principally prepared as above, it is carried to the vat, and mixed with a proper quantity of water, which they call priming the wat. The vat is rightly primed, when the liquor has such a proportion of the pulp, as that the mould, on being dipped into it, will just take up enough to make a sheet of paper of the thickness required. The mould is a kind of sieve, exactly of the size of the paper to be made, and about an inch deep, the bottom being formed of fine brass wire, guarded underneath with sticks, to prevent its bagging down, and to keep it horizontal; and further to strengthen the bottom, there are large wires placed in Parallel lines, at equal distances, which form those lines visible in all white paper, when held up to the light: the mark of the paper is also made in th’s bottom, by interweaving a large wire in any particular form. This mould the maker dips into the liquor, and gives it a silake as he takes it out, to clear the water from the pulp. He then slides it along a groove to the coucher, who turns out the sheet upon a felt, laid on a plank, and lays another feit on it, and returns the mould to the maker, who by this time has prepared a second sheet, in another mould and thus they proceed, laying alternately a sheet and a felt, till they have made six quires of paper, which is called a post; and this they do with such swiftness, that in many sorts of paper, two men make twenty posts or more in a day. A post of paper being made, either the maker or coucher whistles; on which four or five men advance, one of whom draws it under the press, and the rest press it with great force, till all the water is squeezed from it; after which it is separated, sheet by sheet, from the felts, and laid regularly one sheet upon andther ; and having undergone a second pressing, it is hung up to dry. When sufficiently dried it is taken of the lines, rubbed smooth with the hands, and laid by till sized, which is the next operation. For this they choose a fine temperate day, and having boiled a proper quantity of clean parchment or vellum shavings in water, till it comes to a size, they prepare a fine cloth, on which they strew a due proportion of white vitriol and rock-alum, finely powdered, and strain the size through it, into a large tub; in which

they dip as much paper at once as they can conveniently hold, and with a quick motion give every sheet its share of the size, which must be as hot as the hand can well bear it. After this the paper is pressed ; hung up sheet by sheet to dry; and, being taken down, is sorted, and what is only fit for outside quires laid separately: it is then told into quires, which are folded and pressed. The broken sheets are commonly put together, and two of the worst quires are placed on the outside of every ream or bundle, and being tied up in wrappers, o of the settling of the vat, it is fit for Sale. Paper is of various kinds, and used for various purposes: with regard to colour, it is principally distinguished into white, blue and brown; and with regard to its dimensions, into atlas, elephant, imperial, super-royal, royal, medium, demy, crown, fool’s cap, and post paper. Fig. 1, Paper mill, is an elevation of an engine paper mill ; fig. 2. a plan ; and fig. 3. a section of it; the same letters refer to all the figures. It is contained in a square wooden chest, A B D E, lined with lead, and divided in the middle by a partition FF; on the front and back of the chest, two short beams, G G, g g, are bolted ; they have long mortices through them to receive tenons, at the end of two horizontal levers, H H, which turn on bolts in one of the beams, G g, as centres, and are elevated or depressed by turning the nuts of two screws, h h, fixed to the tenon, and coming up through the top of the beams, Gg, upon which the nuts take their bearing. Two brasses are let into the middle of the levers, H H, and form the bearing for the spindle, I I, of the engine to turn upon. K, is the cylinder, made of wood, and fixed fast upon the spindle, II; it has a number of knives or cutters fixed on it parallel to its axis, and projecting from its circumference about an inch. L, (fig. 3.) is a circular breasting, made of boards, and covered with sheet-lead, which fits the cylinder very truly, and leaves but very little space be. tween the teeth and the breasting; L M, is an inclined plane, leading regularly from the bottom of the engine trough to the top of the breasting ; and N is another plane but of smaller inclination, leading from the bottom of the breasting; at the bottom of the breasting, beneath the axis of the cylinder, a block, P, is fixed; it has cutters of the same size, and exactly similar to those in the cylinder, which pass very near to those in the

block, but do not touch; this block is fixed by a dove-tail into the wooden bottom of the breasting; it comes through the wood-work of the chest, and projects a small distance from the outside of it, and is kept up to its place by a wedge, Q (fig. 1.); by withdrawing this wedge the block becomes loose, and can be removed to sharpen the cutters, as occasion requires. The cylinder is turned round with great velocity by a small pinion, E, turned by a cog-wheel, which is turned with the intervention of other wheels by a waterwheel, so as to revolve about one hundred and twenty times per minute. This great velocity draws the rags and water with which the engine trough is filled, down between the cylinder and the fixed cutters in the block, P.; and by this they are cut in pieces, and, passing round the partition, FF, come to the cylinder again : the breasting, L, by being so close to the cylinder, and its top so near the surface of the water, prevents the rags getting to the cylinder too fast, and by that means clogging it up, or raising it up from its bearing ; and if any rags come to the breasting rolled up, the action of the cylinder against the breasting tends to open them, and bring them in their proper direction to the cylinder. The screws, h h, are used to raise or lower the cylinder, and cause it to cut finer or coarser, by enlarging or diminishing the space between the cutters in the block, P, and those of the cylinder. A cover is put over the cylinder to prevent the water and rags being thrown out of the engine by its great velocity; it is a square box, a b d e, and has two small troughs at d and e, coming through the sides of the box. fg, are two hair sieves, sliding in grooves made in each side of the box: the cylinder, as it turns, throws a great quantity of the water and rags up against these sieves; the water goes through them and runs down the trough at d and e, and from thence into the end of leaden pipes, h i, (fig 1.) by which it is conveyed away : k l, are grooves for two boards, which, when slid down in their places, cover the hair sieves, and stop the water going through them. A considerable part of the rags thus thrown up by the cylinder, pass quite over it, and go down under it again. The engine is constantly supplied with fair water by a pipe, R, delivering it into a small cistern communicating with the engine; the pipe has a flannel bag tied to the end, to strain the water. In large mills, two engines exactly similar are used, but one set to act finer than the other; the rags are first worked in the coarse one, and afterwards in the fine one; but some mills have but one engine, and alter it to cut fine by the screws, h h. The paper proper for writing should be without knots, without any parts of the stuff not triturated, without folds, and without wrinkles, of a supple texture, its grain uniform and regular, softened in the exchange, and not destroyed by smoothing. The ground of this paper must be extremely white, or shaded with a very light blue, which adds to its natural splendour. It it of great importance that it be fully and equally sized, otherwise the writing cannot be well finished, and the turnings of the letters will be very imperfect. The paper used for drawing, or for coloured maps, is in some mills made from one kind of white stuff, either fine or middling ; in others, from a mixture of three or four kinds of stuff of different colours. The Dutch were not long ago almost wholly in possession of this manufacture. The same qualities are necessary in this paper as in that for writing. The grain, however, must be a little more raised, although softened by the exchange ; for, without this grain, the pencil would leave with difficulty the traces of the objects. Great care is also necessary in the sizing of this paper, that the drawing be neatly performed, and also that the sinking of the ink or colours into the irregularities of the stuff be prevented. The British and Dutch have had the greatest success in manufacturing pasteboard, which they make either from a single mass of stuff on the form, or from a collection of several sheets pasted together. In both cases, the sheets of pasteboard are made of stuff not rotted, and triturated with rollers, furnished with blades of well tempered steel. By the operation of the exchange, and smoothing continued for a long time, the British and Dutch obtain solid and smooth stuffs, which neither break under the folds of cloth not adhere to them. The stuffs not putrefied have another advantage in this species of pasteboard, namely, that of resisting the action of heat, which they experience between the folds of cloth, without wasting or tarnishing, and, of consequence they may be used for a long time. In England they have at least equalled any other nation in the manufacture of this paper; and even in Scotland they have arrived at such a degree of per

fection in this art, that great part of what they manufacture is sent into England. It requires to be made of a soft and equal stuff, without folds or wrinkles, of a natural whiteness, and with a shade of blue. It must be sized less strongly than writing paper, but sufficiently well to give neatness to the characters. The paper, thus properly prepared, yields easily to the printing press, and takes a sufficient quantity of ink. The stuff must be without grease, and wrought with that degree or slowness as to make it spread equally over the form, and take a neat and regular grain; without this, the characters will not be equally marked in every part of the page; and the smallest quantity of grease renders the sizing unequal and imperfect. Some artists, with considerable success, both to ameliorate the grain, and to reduce the inequalities of the surface, have submitted this paper to the exchange. And it is proper to add, that a moderate degree of exchanging and presssing may be of great service after the sheets are printed, to destroy the hollow places occasioned by the press, and the relievo of the letters. Engraving requires a paper of the same qualities with the last mentioned, with respect to the stuff, which must be pure, without knots, and equally reduced, the grain uniform, and the sheets without folds or wrinkles. To preserve the grain it is necessary that it be dried slowly in the lowest place of the drying house. If it is submitted to the exchange, the effects of it must be moderated with the greatest care, and the action of the two first presses must be equally distributed over the whole mass, otherwise the inequality of the moisture at the middle and sides will expose it to wrinkles in the drying. The sizing of this paper must also be moderate. These circumstances are necessary to make it receive with neatness all the soft and delicate touches of the plate. The soft and yielding paper of Auvergne possesses all those advantages; and accordingly, a great quantity of this and of printing paper were formerly imported into Britain and Holland from France, where they still continue to rot the materials from which they make engraving paper. The wire-wove frame is peculiarly adapted to this kind of paper. Paper for cards must be manufactured from a pret. ty firm stuff, in order to take that degree of smoothness which makes the cards glide easily over one another in using. For this reason the card-makers reject every kind of paper which is soft and

without strength. This paper requires to be very much sized, since the sizing holds the place of varnish, to which the smoothing gives a glazed and shining surface. To answer all these purposes, the rags require to be a little rotted, and the mallets strongly armed with iron studs. There are three methods by which paper-hangings are painted; the first by printing on the colours; the second by using the stencil; and the third by laying them on with a pencil, as in other kinds of painting. When the colours are laid on by printing, the impression is made by wooden prints, which are cut in such a manner, that the figure to be expressed is made to project from the surface by cutting away all the other part; and this, being charged with the colours tempered with their proper vehicle, by letting it gently down on the block on which the colour is previously spread, conveys it from thence to the ground of the paper, on which it is made to fall more forcibly, by means of its weight, and the effort of the arm of the person who uses the print. It is easy to conclude, that there must be as many separate prints as there are colours to be printed. But where there are more than one, great care must be taken, after the first, to let the print fall exactly in the same part of the paper as that which went before; otherwise the figure of the design would be brought into irregularity and confusion. In common paper of low price, it is usual, therefore, to print only the outlines, and lay on the rest of the colours by stencilling, which both saves the expense of cutting more prints, and can be practised by common workmen, not requiring the great care and dexterity necessary to the using several prints. The manner of stencilling the colours is this: the figure, which all the parts of any particular colour make in the design to be painted, is to be cut out in a piece of thin leather, or oil-cloth, which pieces of leather, or oil-cloth, are called stencils; and being laid flat on the sheets of paper to be printed, spread on a table or #. are to be rubbed over with the colour properly tempered, by means of a large brush. The colour passing over the whole is consequently spread on those parts of the paper where the cloth or leather is cut away, and give the same effect as if laid on by a print. This is nevertheless only practicable in parts where there are only detached masses or spots of colours; for where there are small continued lines, or parts that run one into another, it is difficult to

preserve the connection or continuity of the parts of the cloth, or to keep the smaller corners close down to the paper; and therefore, in such cases, prints are preferable. Stencilling is indeed a cheaper method of ridding coarse work than printing; but without such extraordinary attention and trouble, as render it equally difficult with printing, it is far less beautiful and exact in the effect. For the outline of the spots of colour want that sharpness and regularity that are given by prints, besides the frequent extra linea. tions, or deviations from the just figure, which happens by the original misplacing of the stencils, or the shifting the place of them during the operation. Pencilling is only used in the case of nicer work, such as the better imitations of the India paper. It is performed in the same manner as other paintings in water or varnish. It is sometimes used only to fill the outlines already formed by printing, where the price of the colour, or the exactness of the manner in which it is required to be laid on, render the stencilling or printing it less proper; at other times, it is used for forming or delineating some parts of the design, where a spirit of freedom and variety, not to be had in printed outlines, are desired to be had in the work. The paper designed for receiving the flock is first prepared

with a varnish-ground with some proper

colour, or by that of the paper itself. It is frequently practised to print some Mosaic, or other small running figure, in colours on the ground, before the flock be laid on; and it may be done with any pigment of the colour desired, tempered with varnish, and laid on by a print cut correspondently to that end. The method of laying on the flock is this: a wooden print being cut, as is above described, for laying on the colour in such manner that the part of the design which is intended for the flock may project beyond the rest of the surface, the varnish is put on a block covered with leather or oil-cloth, and the print is to be used also in the same manner, to lay the varnish on all the parts where the flock is to be fixed. The sheet thus prepared by the varnished impression, is then to be removed to another block or table, and to be strewed over with flock, which is afterwards to be gently compressed by a board, or some other flat body, to make the varnish take the better hold of it; and then the sheet is to be hung on a frame till the varnish be perfectly dry, at which time the superfluous part of flock is to be brushed off

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