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French chirurgieus. Their flesh is valued. P. chavaria is as large as a dunghill cock, with legs extremely long and strong, and toes so lengthened as to entangle in each other in its walking, on which account its usual movement on the ground is slow, and without the assistance of its wings it is incapable of running. Its flight, however, is rapid, and it is able to swim with ease. Its princial residence is about Carthagena in outh America, where it is usual for the breeders of poultry to keep one of these birds tame, which attends their flocks as sentinel, and effectually, secures them from birds of prey. Its immense spurs are dreaded and avoided, even by the vulture. It is said to feed on vegetables. PARROT. See Psi TTACUs. PARSON, signifies the rector of a ehurch. He is in himself a body corporate, in order to protect and defend the rights of the church by a perpetual succession When a parson is instituted and inducted into a rectory, he is then, and not before, in full and complete possession. A parson has regularly during life the freehold in himself of the parsonagehouse, the glebe, or land annexed to the parsonage, and the tithes and other dues; but these are sometimes in the hands of an appropriator, and then there is a vicar, who is endowed with a portion of the glebe and of the tithes. PARTS of speech, in grammar are all the sorts of words which enter the composition of discourse. The grammarians generally admit of eight parts of speech, viz noun, pronoun, verb, participle, adverb, preposition, interjection, and conjunction. See GRAMMAR. PARTHENIUM, in botany, a genus of the Monoecia Pentandria class and order. Natural order of Nucamentaceae. Corymbiferae, Jussieu. Essential character: male, calyx common, five-leaved: corolla of the disk one-petalled: female, corolla of the ray five ; on each side two males, with one female between, superior. There are two species, viz. P. hysterophorus, cut leaved parthenium, or bastard feverfew, and P. integrifolium, entire-leaved parthenium; the former is an annual plant, growing naturally in Jamaica, where it is called wild wormwood; it thrives very luxuriantly in the low lands; it is observed to possess similar qualities with feverfew ; it flowers here in July and August,
PART1, PARTIE, PARTY, or PARTED, in heraldry, is applied to a shield or escutcheon denoting it divided or marked out into partitions. The French heralds, from whom we borrow the word, have but one kind of parti, the same with our parti per pale, which they simply call parti; but with us the word is applied to all sorts of partitioning, and is never used without some addition, to specify the particular kind intended : thus we have parti, or parted, per cross, per chief, per pale, per fess, per bend dexter, per bend sinister, per chevron, &c. PARTICIPLE. See GRAMMAR. PARTICLE, in physiology, the minute part of a body, an assemblage of which constitute all natural bodies. See AroMrcAL philosophy. It is the various arrangement and texture of these particles, with the difference of cohesion, &c. that constitute the various kinds of bodies. The smallest particles cohere with the strongest attraction, and compose bigger particles of weaker cohesion, and many of these cohering compose bigger particles, whose vigour is still weaker; and hereupon the operations in chemistry and the colours of natural bodies depend, and which, by cohering, compose bodies of sensible bulk. The cohesion of the particles of matter, the Epicureans imagined, was ef. fected by the means of hooked atoms; the Aristotelians, by rest; but Sir Isaac Newton shews, that it is done by means of a certain power, whereby the particles mutually attract and tend towards each other. By this attraction of the particles he shews that most of the phenomena of the lesser bodies are affected, as those of the heavenly bodies are, by the attraction of gravity. In investigating the actions exerted be. tween minute particles of matter, we must distinguish them as acted upon by the force of aggregation, or the force of chemical affinity: hence the distinction between the integrant and constituent particles of bodies. The constituent parts are substances differing in their nature from each other, and from the substance which they form. The integrant parts are precisely similar to each other, and to the general mass, which is composed by their union, or, in other words, they are the smallest particles, into which a substance can be resolved without decomposition; while decomposition is always implied in the division of a body into its constituent particles. The integrant
parts are united by the force of aggregation, the constituent parts by chemical af. finity. Hence chemists say that simple bodies consist entirely of integrant parts, all their particles being alike in their properties. But compounds may be considered as consisting both of integrant and constituent parts; and it has been supposed, that when an attraction is exerted between two compound substances, it is between their integrant parts, not their constituent principles, and that it is the combination of the former which constitutes the substance formed by their union. Panticle, in grammar, a denomination for all those small words that tie or unite others together, or that express the modes or manners of words, usualol. by grammarians under these t parts of speech, viz. adverbs, Footions, interjections, and conjunc0ns. , PARTIES, are those which are named in a deed or fine, as parties to it. See INE. PARTITION, is a dividing of land, de*tended by the common law or custom, among coheirs or parceners, where there *re two at the least. PARTITION, in music, the disposition of the several parts of a song set on the *me leaf, so as upon the uppermost rang“s of lines are found the treble; in another, the bass; in another, the tenor, &c. *they may be all sung or played, either Jointly or separately. PARTNERSHIP, in arithmetic. BllowsHIP. PART.owNERs, are partners inter*ed and possessed of certain shares * a ship. Owners are tenants in com"on with each other; but one or more Joint-owners refusing to contribute their "ota to the outfit of the vessel, can* prevent her from going to sea, *šinst the consent of the majority of the 'Whers, who, giving security in the Admiralty, may freight the ship at their "hexclusive risk, by which the smallor dissentient number of owners will be *cluded at once from any share, either the risk or in the profits. See ShipNG, PARTRIDGE. See TEtnao. PIRUS, the titmouse, in natural history, *Sens of birds of the order Passeres. meric character: bill straight, somewhat '"pressed, strong, hard, and pointed; "trils round, and covered with bristles "med back over them from the base of *bill; tongue truncated, and bristly at
the end; toes divided to their origin, the back one very large and strong. These birds are found in almost every part of the old Continent, from the north of Europe to the south of India, and are highly prolific, laying eighteen or twenty eggs, which they hatch with unwearied patience. They build their nest with particular neatness and skill, and frequently on the extremity of some branch suspended over water, by which they secure it from the attack of various animals, to which it might otherwise fall a prey. They are wonderfully active and alert, rapid and assiduous in their search for insects, on which they principally subsist, under the bark and in the crevices of trees, which they clear of the immense multitudes of caterpillars covering them in spring, and which would totally blast their vegetation. They are in no country migratory, though they occasionally change their residence for short distances. They are impassioned and irascible to a great degree, and when irritated, will display that ardent eye and muffled plumage, which indicate the pa. roxysm of agitation. Their courage is of the first order, as they are known sometimes to attack birds three times their size. Even the owl is by no means secure from their rage, and whatever bird they pursue, their first attempts are levelled at the head, and particularly at the eyes and brains, the latter of which they eat with particular avidity and relish. Gmelin enumerates thirty-one species, and Latham twenty-seven. P. major, or the greater titmouse of Europe, weighs about an ounce. The male and female associate for some time before they begin to build, which they do with the most downy materials, and generally in the hole of some tree. The young continue blind for several days, and after they have left the nest, never return to it, but continue, however, in the same neighbourhood, with the appearance of great family attachment, till the ensuing spring. See Aves, Plate X. fig. 7. P. caeruleus, or the blue titmouse of Europe, is eminently beautiful, and highly serviceable in destroying caterpillars in orchards and gardens. It picks the bones of small birds to the most complete eleanness, and is distinguished by the bitterness of its aversion to the owl. See Aves, Plate X. fig. 8. P. caudatus, or the long-tailed titmouse of Europe, lives in the same manner as the former, and has the same general habits with the rest of the genus, but builds its nest with peculiar care and elegance, securing, in the completest manner, the two important circumstances of dryness and warmth; the silken threads of aurelias constitute a principal article for those purposes. It is active even to restlessness, perpetually flying backwards and forwards, and running up and down the branches of trees in every possible direction. It possesses all the fulness of plumage of the owl. PASCAL, (BLAIse,) a respectable French mathematician and philosopher, and one of the greatest geniuses and best writers that country has produced. He was born at Clermont in Auvergne, in the year 1623. His father, Stephen Pascal, was president of the Court of Aids in his province : he was also a very learned man, an able mathematician, and a friend of Des Cartes. Having an extraordinary tenderness for this child, his only son, he quitted his province, and settled at Paris in 1631, that he might be quite at leisure to attend to his son’s education, which he conducted himself, and young Pascal never had any other master. From his infancy, Blaise gave proofs of a very extraordinary capacity. He was extremely inquisitive, desiring to know the reason of every thing; and when good reasons were not given him, he would seek for better: nor would he ever yield his assent but upon such as appeared to him well grounded. What is told of his manner of learning the mathematics, as well as the progress he quickly made in that science, seems almost miraculous. His father, perceiving in him an extraordinary inclination to reasoning, was afraid lest the knowledge of the mathematics might hinder his learning the languages, so necessary as a foundation to all sound learning. He therefore kept him as much as he could from all notions of geometry, locked up all his books of that kind, and refrained even from speaking of it in his presence. He could not, however, prevent his son from musing on that science: and one day in particular he surprised him at work with charcoal upon his chamber floor, and in the midst of figures. The father asked him what he was doing : I am searching, says Pascal, for such a thing; which was just the same as the 32d proposition of the 1st book of Euclid. He asked him then how he came to think of this: it was, said Blaise, because I found out such another thing; and so, going backward, and using the names of bar and round, he came at length to the definitions
and axioms he had formed to himself. From this time he had full liberty to indulge his genius in mathematical pursuits.
He understood Euclid's Elements as soon : as he cast his eyes upon them. At six- * teen years of age he wrote a treatise on Conic Sections, which was accounted a . great effort of genius; and therefore it . is no wonder that Des Cartes, who had 1 been in Holland a long time, upon read. , ing it, should choose to believe that M. . Pascal the father, was the real author of it. At nineteen, he contrived an admira- « ble arithmetical machine, which would have done credit as an invention to any man versed in science. About this time : his health became impaired, so that he to was obliged to suspend his labours for the space of four years. After this, having s: seen Torricelli’s experiment respecting . a vacuum and the weight of the air, he turned his thoughts towards these ob. “ jects, and undertook several new experi; ; ments, by which he was fully convinced . of the general pressure of the atmo- a sphere; and from this discovery he drew many useful and important inferences. 4. He composed also a large treatise, in . which he fully explained this subject, and o replied to all the objections that had been started against it. As he afterward; a thought this work rather too prolix, and & being fond of brevity and precision, he divided it into two small treatises, one of , which he entitled “A Dissertation on the Equilibrium of Fluids;” and the other, * “An Essay on the Weight of the Atmo. § sphere.” These labours procured Paso * so much reputation, that the gro a mathematicians and philosophers of the age proposed various questions to him, *: and consulted him respecting such diff culties as they could not resolve. "P" s one of these occasions he discovered to s solution of a problem proposed by * * senne, which had baffled the penetrat” & of all that had attempted it. This Po to blem was to determine the curve des” ed in the airby the mail of a coach-who k while the machine is in motion: W* o curve was thence called aroullette," & now commonly known by the nao. * cycloid. Pascal offered a reward of forty pistoles to any one who should give . * tisfactory answer to it. No person *: it. ing succeeded, he published hio. Paris; but under the name of Ad o: o ville. This was the last work which!" A published in the mathematics; ho." k firmities, from a delicate. conso. t though still young, now incre. much, that he was under the neces" * renouncing severe study, and of living so recluse that he scarcely admitted any person to see him. After having thus laboured abundantly in mathematical and philosophical disquisitions, he forsook those studies and all human learning at once, to devote himself to acts of devotion and penance. He was not twenty-four years of age, when the reading some pious books had put him upon taking this resolution; and he e as great a devotee as any age has produced. He now gave himself up entirely to a state of prayer and mortification; and he had always in his thoughts these great maxims of renouncing all pleasure and all superfluity; and this he practised with vigour even in his illMesses, to which he was frequently subject, being of a very invalid habit of body. He died at the age of thirty-nine. His Works were collated and published at the Hague, in five volumes 8vo, by the Abbé Bossu, 1779. Pascal rents, rents or annual duties Paid by the inferior clergy to the bishop or archdeacon, at their Easter visitation. PASPALUM, in botany, a genus of the Tiandria Digynia class and order. Natuhl order of Gramina, Gramineae, or Grasses. Essential character: calyx twoValved, orbicular; corolla of the same ote; stigmas pencilled. There are fif. *en species. All these grasses are of foreign growth, none of them natives of urope, PASSAGE. In stat. 4 Edward III. c. 7. his term is used for the hire a man pays or being transported over any sea or Wer. Various statutes of a local nature *we been passed for regulating the pasoše of particular rivers. By a statute of odward IV. the passage from Kent to Calais is restrained to Îover. Passage, birds of, a name given to those inds which at certain stated seasons of the year remove from certain countries, *d at other stated times return to them *in, as our quails, woodcocks, storks, "ghtingales, swallows, and many other *Poies. The generality of birds that reon with us all the winter have strong "", and are enabled to feed on what *y can find at that season; those which *We us have usually very slender bills, *heir food is the insects of the fly "which disappearing towards the ap*h of winter, compel them to seek "thin the warmer regions where they * to be found. Among the birds of *ge, the fieldfare, the redwing, the "oodcock, and the snipe, come to us in
the autumn, at the time when the summer birds are leaving us, and go from us again in spring, at the time when these return; and of these the two last often continue with us through the summer, and breed; so that the two first seem the only kinds that certainly leave us at the approach of spring, retiring to the northern parts of the continent, where they live during the summer, and breed; and, at the return of winter, are driven southerly from those frigid climes, in search of food, which there the ice and snow must deprive them of.
Those in D have the bill straight, simple, tapering : as the
Alauda Parus Columba Sturnus. Motacilla
PASSERINA, in botany, sparrow-wort, a genus of the Octandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Vepreculae. Thymelez, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx none; corolla four-cleft; stamina placed on the tube; seed one, corticate. There are nineteen species, chiefly natives of the Cape of Good Hope and New Zealand. PASSIFLORA, in botany, passion:flower, a genus of the Gynandria Pentandria class and order. Natural order of Cucurbitaceae. Essential character: styles three : calyx five-leaved ; petals five ; nectary a crown ; berry pedicelled. There are thirty-seven species, of which we shall notice the P. caerulea, common or blue passion flower. This tree rises in a few years to a great height, with proper support, the shoots often growing to the length of ten or twelve feet in one summer : at each joint is one leaf, composed of five smooth entire lobes; their footstalks are nearly two inches long, having two embracing stipules at their base; from the same point issues a long clasper, or tendril; the flowers come out at the same joint with the leaves, on peduncles three inches long; they have a faint scent, lasting only one day; fruit egg-shaped, the size and shape of the Mogul plum; when ripe, of the same yellow colour, inclosing a sweetish disagreeable pulp, in which are lodged oblong seeds. The blue passion-flower grows naturally in Brazil. It is now become the most common species in England, being sufficiently hardy to thrive in the open all". These beautiful plants were unknown till the discovery of America; they are found in various parts, both of the continent, chiefly of South America, and the islands. PASSION, or the Passions. The latter term serves to express those sensations of the soul excited by pleasure and pain; which two principal feelings are divided into a variety of branches, and those we shall endeavour, in the succeeding pages, to explain, as far as our limited powers will permit. The passions are, in a great degree, selfish ; and yet, fortunately for the gene
ral benefit of the human race, they are far from being entirely so. Fear may be said to be entirely confined to self-love, in many instances, but this passion is frequently extended in a secondary state to an apprehension for the well being of others, in whose happiness we feel deeply interested; and yet it may admit of doubt whether the idea of being deprived of some previously experienced pleasure may not influence and promote our apparently disinterested affection. Indeed there are philosophers who attribute all our passions and actions to the sole motive of self-love, though we hope and trust erroneously. Various theories have been published, by which their authors have endeavoured to elucidate the manner in which the passions are excited in and act upon the soul, the agitation of which is expressed in many different modes by the features and muscles. Indeed, the language of this ethereal and inexplicable spirit speaks through every fibre, and each passion is known to an indifferent spectator, without the intervention of an explanatory sound. It would seem from the sudden and involuntary experience of agitation, that the passions were implanted in the soul as sentinels watchful for its safety, and that of the person it inhabits. Were this the truth, some have observed, it might be supposed, that every impulse would be found correct and proper: sad conviction, however, proves, it is added, that nothing can be more ill-founded than such a supposition, as not an individual exists at this moment, who has not discovered, that he has feared where he ought to have esteemed, hated when he ought to have admired, loved when he ought to have detested, and in numerous instances been blinded either by misconceived partiality, or equally unjust prejudice. Such, at least, is the decision of unthinking persons; those, on the contrary, who do justice to the Creator, feel and acknowledge, that the passions are the most correct of sentinels, particularly when guided and governed by the superior gift of reason. Accident may have distorted the features, and deranged the graceful turn of the limbs of an unfortunate individual; by this means he becomes an object of disgust, and he probably resembles the wretch who commits midnight assassination, or secretly stabs reputation by malicious inferences: let this unhappy person meet unexpectedly with two others, who have never seen him before, one un