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of skulls, with the required organs of the shell after the removal of the properly displayed, for the purpose of kernel. It is not too much to expect, having caps made of all sizes to suit therefore, that the possessors of those the growth of the infant cranium. A craniums which have made a noise in search in the tombs of great men, the world, or which have been the whose excellence in any art or science cause of the celebrity of their propriewas known and ascertained, might in tors, may leave them as a legacy to their this view be attended with very bene- admiring countrymen ; but it would ficial consequences; but as in ceme- be far more patriotic, certainly, were teries where thousands are annually they now to give them up to the moburied, the confusion of skulls and deller, before old age evaporates the bodies is such in a few years, that one cranial contents, or an additional de would not be able to identify even their posit of osseous matter fills up some of own bones, the effects to be derived the cavities on which eminence defrom skulls drawn from this source, pends. The Duke of Wellington, for could never be accurately depended on. instance, the first general in Europe, It has therefore struck me, that a more and who has so often bazarded his life certain way of procuring models would for the benefit of his country, would, be to have them made from the crani- I am certain, have no objection to have ums of existing talent, where talent is his body shortened a few inches to prowanted, or from the head-pieces of mute so much good, and thus be the patriotism and incorruptible integrity, matrix of a hundred future Wellingif any such should be found to exist in tons; and I feel quite confident that the country. In my speculations on this none of our own celebrated countrysubject, I at first thought that remo- men, and we have a good many, would ving the integuments from the outside hesitate for one moment to sacrifice of the cranial covering, or scalping our their heads to the future and certain imcelebrated countrymen for the purpose provement of their native land. In place of making casts from the bones of their of one Stewart, and one Scott, (at preheads, would be sufficient; but as ana- sent the brightest luminaries in our tomists assert that skulls are not every- Scottish horizon,) we might, in a few where of the same thickness, there years, have hundreds of the one, and may exist bumps and depressions on thousands of the other; and provided which the talents depend, only to be we were wise enough to keep the modiscovered by an internal examination dels in our own hands, (for they have

Hag. “ Cruel to my inferiors I never was; but I rejoiced to pull the lofty down, to make them on a fair level with their brethren in the world. Whatever I did, I never looked back to my former crimes with regret, as I never thought that was of any use.' P. 167.

“I laid one low with my pistol. Whether I have bis murder to answer for,!I cannot tell. But I fear my aim was too true, and the poor fellow looked dead enough.". P. 32.

“ Before he had time to challenge me, I hit him a very smart blow on the head with the butt-end of my whip."---P. 109.

“Our only object was liberty—not to murder poor Thomas Morrin."-P. 167.

Phren. “ The greatest errors have arisen from a great self-esteem, a large combative-
ness, a prodigious firmness, a great secretiveness, and a defective love of approbation.
No others of the faculties appear to possess an undue degree of energy or deficiency."-
P. 160.

“ Your nature is, in many respects, different from your actions."-P. 169.
“ Your sentiment of Justice is not remarkably defective.”—Ib.
“ Your sentiment of benevolence is great,” &c.—Ib.

We have quoted these latter passages to shew what an excellent man Haggart was, but for his unfortunate convictions, and as additional proofs of the soundness of the theory which our correspondent has so eloquently advocated. Though it has been insinuated to us in more than one quarter that the observer must have been either blind or “ lushy,” when he made observations so little in accordance with the registers of the criminal courts ; and though we have heard it remarked as an odd manner of characterising the profession of robbery, seduction, and murder, to term it merely “ a sporting line of life,yet as David, according to the indications of his cranium, was • an honourable man, and his observer is known to be “ an honourable man," we make no farther remark, than by repeating with Mark Antony, that “ so are they all,- all honourable men.”-C. N.

no such heads in any other country,) tained in his thoracic cavity? and does an era in Scottish literature might ar- not a cannon-shot through the breast rive, far more splendid than the age put a stop as effectual to the operations that boasted of Hume, Smith, and of soul, as if it had been directed to Robertson. Or, say that the worthy the head ? All that the phrenologists managers of our city corporations, and say is, that particular powers of mind the Sheriffs of our counties, were to or soul have been proved to manifest lay their heads together, and resolve themselves in peculiar developements to deny county and civic privileges to of the bones of the head; and all that every one who should not choose to I say is, that by my glorious invention, have their childrens' heads cramped (as I have no doubt it will be termed into these approved models; and if by after ages,) the growth and devethe General Assembly of our Nation- lopement of these bones may, in early al Church should add the weight of life, from their yielding quality, be their influence to the scheme, and de- made to accommodate themselves to ny church-privileges to the noncon- the display of any required faculty of formists, I have little doubt that the mind. native enterprise of our countrymen, There is a strong argument from guided by such craniums, would soon analogy, which may be here mentioned acquire the government of the world, in illustration of the doctrine now proand lay the foundation of an empire of pounded. Trees, it is well known, greater extent, and of infinitely more when left to take their own mode of power, than any that has yet existed. growing, always delight to luxuriate

It has been objected, I believe, to in the wild irregularity of unshapely the system of Gall, Spurzheim, and and unpruned branches; though it is Company, that its direct tendency is quite well known to the skilful garto lead to the doctrine of Materialism; dener, that they can be made to asa : but I see no just grounds for the ob- sume the form of a fan or a cone on jection. If the soul is independent of walls, or expand horizontally on espathe body, and if the bumps and de- liers, at the pleasure of their early inpressions on the human cranium be structors, and still, after all, be trees, the work of this invisible agent, it and bear fruit better than in their wild should rather, I think, afford evidence uneducated state. Now, I will not do of its independent power, that it can my fellow-creatures the injustice to make room for the display of its pecu- suppose, that they are less susceptible , liar faculties, without consulting the of cultivation than plumb or cherrymass of matter or the bones where it trees, or that the bony covering of is supposed to have its temporary re- their thirty-three propensities is hardsidence. But as all the demonstrations er than holly or boxwood, or more of soul are only known to us through untractable than the teak or “ knotted the medium of body, it is absurd to oak." But further illustration is unsay that we can know any thing of this necessary ; the very mention of the divine essence, excepting in connexion circumstance must carry conviction to with its corporeal seat. Wine is wine, the mind of the unprejudiced observer whether in a hogshead, a flask, or one of nature. of Day and Martin's blacking-bottles; It may be objected to the magnifiand soul is soul, whether we suppose cent discovery now enunciated, that its seat to be in the belly, the head, or the soul may not choose to occupy a the feet. Was ever a philosopher heard habitation moulded to a certain shape, of, who could invent theories, or illus- and that, if forced to reside in a house trate facts, without the assistance of she does not like, she may sit sullenhis stomach, and the apparatus con- ly in her cell, and disappoint the hopes

* By the bye, why is the soul always of the feminine gender, and the mind neuter ?

The Soul, secure in her existence, smiles
At the drawn-dagger, and defies its point.
Hark, they whisper-Angels say,

Sister Spirit, come away ? I hope some of those metaphysical writers, who bewilder themselves and confound others, by the indiscriminate use of the terms soui, mind, brain, thinking principle, and so forth, would answer the question. My own soul, I am convinced, is an independent masculine spirit, which shall survive long after the pulpy attributes and bony faculties of phrenological minds shall be crumbled to dust.

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of those most interested in her future at the expence of the Societies for the display. That this may happen in Suppression of Vice, to our new settleone case out of a thousand may be ments on Melville Island, where their considered as possible ; though it is ingenuity might have room for its not very likely that the occupier of a display in contesting with the arctic common-place rotundity would be bear and fox the right of property in content to lose the pleasure of think- each other's bodies. Were this “coning like Newton or Bacon, merely out summation," so “devoutly to be wishof dogged moroseness, which would ed,” to take place, a committee of Gall hurt nobody but itself. But even were and Spurzheim's followers in London, this case to be more common than can and the same in Edinburgh, superinbe supposed, the certainty of prevent- tended by their publishing disciples, ing the growth of evil propensities is might be established, for the purpose sufficient to counterbalance the loss of picking out all the disturbers of sowhich society might sustain from this ciety with villainous propensities, precause ; and, to carry on the allusion to vious to their shipment, and the Brithe training of plants, the manure of tish millennium might instantly comeducation which would in many cases mence, by the shutting up for ever of be applied to heads already predisposed those receptacles of vice and misery, to excellence, might raise their posses- the Newgates, and Bridewells, and sors to such heights of knowledge, that prison-houses of every denomination. the average of the whole population As in every great revulsion of pubmight be equal to a Locke, and not lic opinion, or change of public sentia interior to a Pope or Addison. ment, certain classes are sure to suffer,

It is impossible for one mind to the opposition to the measure from conceive all the objections which may those interested in the existence of be made by the ignorant, or those who crime, or who derive their chief supare so wedded to old notions as to port from the commission of vice, consider no innovations as improve- might be overcome by granting them ments. But it would ill become the annuities equal to the amount of their projector of so magnificent a plan for annual profits. Or, if this should be the future, not to su gest something thought to fall too heavy on the nationlikewise that may aineliorate the ex- al income, the measure might be paristing race of human beings, and, at tially delayed till the present race of least, banish vice and crime, if it do office-holders wore out. Leaving a few nothing more, from our native country. culprits in every county for a certain liIf the prevailing disposition of mind mited period, the criminal courts and can be infallibly ascertained, accord- the officers of police, the keepers of ing to Phrenologists, by the exa- jails, and the public executioner, would mination of the outside of the head, have no more reason to complain of the might not the British Parliament do stagnation of trade, than other honest something worse than pass an act, dealers in mercantile commodities for which shall oblige all individuals of a long time post; and those respectthis empire, of whatever age, to sub- able and useful matrons, who keep mit their rotundities to the required markets of beauty for the unwived examination ; anıl those found with part of the population, might be reorgans hurtful to the community stricted in their calling to the disposal could then be separated from the ge- of their present stock. From the usual neral mass, and prevented from dis- termination of crime, the frail nature turbing the peace of society by their of beauty, and the accidents to which furtive or murderous propensities ? it is exposed, I do not see that, from Crime would thus be crushed in the these causes, the millennium need be bud, and the infant murderer, or the delayed beyond a very few years. confirmed thief, might pay the forfeit In those cases where the buinps on of their intended crimes long before the skull do not form an infallible their little arms were able to wield a criterion, (for it must be allowed that rush, or their eyes distinguish one this mode of judging of propensities species of property from another. The sometimes fails) the assistance of those grown up wicked people might be put acute observers of human nature, the to death without mercy, for the safety Bond Street and Police officers, ought of the good ; or, if this were thought to be called in, before deciding finally too cruel, they might be transported, upon a moral delinquency; and, as a

last resource, a jury of Spurzheimists their horses ;- yet all these, I insist, would settle the matter in a way not are but exceptions to the general rule, to be called in question. Though the and are by no means to be considered examination of the skulls of great men as of any consequence in the estimahas, in a few cases, thrown discredit tion of the phrenetic or phrenological on the theory, by even the most acute hypothesis. phrenologists sometimes finding the To conclude, (for I do not wish to eranium of a thief to belong to the exhaust the subject,) it may be menmost beneficent person, and a mur- tioned, as an additional argument for derer’s bump on a head overflowing the introduction of metal caps, or with the “milk of human kindness," mind-regulators, that the heads, where yet these are but exceptions to the no superior purpose was required, general rule,-mere tricks of nature might be formed so as better to suit to perplex philosophers. It is a very the various occupations of men than ill constructed theory, indeed, that can- those in common use. Might not the not explain things much more per person intended as a teacher of maplexing, and fortunately here the ex- thematics, for example, have his seat planation is not difficult. In craniums of thought moulded into the shape of of this sort, the organs undisplayed a triangle, a cone, a cylinder, or any possess sufficient controul over the other form which might be of use to externally prominent ones to counter. him in his demonstrations of Euclid, act their mischievous tendency ; and and thus save the trouble of tracing although the head of Shakespeare, ex- illustrative diagrams ? those intended amined by the doctrines of the crani- to carry weights on this part of their ologists, palpably wants all the organs bodies might have the upper surface which should have contributed to form of the cranium formed into a horizona mind capable of “exhausting worlds tal plane ; while soldiers, intended for and imagining new ones ;"- although parade, might have it elongated to a Milton, by the same theory, looks very cone or cylinder, which would add like as if he could steal a horse; Dryden some inches to their stature. But these might be mistaken for the keeper of a details I willingly leave to the comcountry ale-house; and Swift, Pope, mittee of Parliament, who will bave and Gay, as three fellows whom it to arrange the provisions of the bill ; would be unsafe to meet upon an un- only suggesting, as it is my own disfrequented road ;-although Sir Isaac covery, that the act should be intiNewton and Dr Adam Smith, accord- tuled, both in the warrant for the ing to Spurzheim and Co., may be set money which I am sure to receive down as tailors in no great estimation ; from Parliament, and in the Journals Joseph Addison as an irreclaimable of the House, “ An Act for hastening rake ; David Hume and Edward Gib- the British Millenium, and for the bon as portly coachmen, with heads revival of the Golden Age." as smooth as the hind-quarters of

CHAPTER III.

Improvement of Intellect from Cross-breeds of Genius.

Hey for a lass and a bottle to cheer,
And a thumping bantling every year.

English Song DR SPURZHEIM, in his late duode- are certainly worthy the attention of cimo on Education,* has a chapter on those persons of both sexes who may the “ Laws of Propagation," in which now be disposed to enter into the mahe proposes to improve the human trimonial state; and, were not the subrace by judicious cross-breeding. The ject repulsive for itsindelicacy, I should reasonings contained in that chapter have been glad to have supported my

A View of the Elementary Principles of Education, founded on the Study of the Nature of Man. By J. G. Spurzheim, M.D. Edin. 1821. VOL. X.

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own preconceived opinion by numerous that the junction of a male Milton and quotations from an observer of such a female Addison, a he Dryden and a talents. But as I have an antipathy she Swift, a feminine Pope, and a to scientific bawdry and learned obsce- masculine Otway, would have produnity, whether coming from the pen of ced, by the commixture of talents, a Dr Aristotle or of Dr Spurzheim, I cross-breed of genius to which there only quote the result of the interesting would have been no parallel ? and Bainquiry. “ It is indeed a pity,” says con's sagacity, and Newton's scientific the Doctor, “ that the laws of propa- powers, might, by a proper arrangegation are not more attended to. I am ment of marriages betwixt the memconvinced that, by attention to them, bers of the families, long ere this time not only the condition of single fami- have resolved all the desiderata in philies, but of whole nations, might be losophy, and unfolded all the arcana improved beyond imagination, in figure, of nature. stature, complexion, health, talents, “ It is perhaps of no use to regret and moral feelings. I consider with that the philosophical views which Aristotle,"-Vide Aristotle's Master- guide our graziers in the improvement piece, —" that the natural and innate of the breeds of cattle, and our expedifferences of man are the basis of all rienced jockies in the management of political economy. He who can con- their horses, were not perceived and vince the world of the importance of acted upon ere this time,-and the the laws of propagation, and induce eighteenth century in Britain had, mankind to conduct themselves ac- compared to the rest of the world, cordingly, will do more good to them, enough to distinguish it, without haand contribute more to their improve- ving added to its laurels the discovery ment, than all institutions, and all which I have now the honour of desystems of education !"

tailing. If it had been earlier made, As any improvement of intellect the person who now addresses you from this source, however, is of little would not have had the merit of it, consideration, after the magnificent and this Honourable Society would not theory illustrated in the foregoing chap- have had the envied distinction of reters, I should not now have noticed the cordling in their Transactions, and subject at all, were it not to establish publishing to the world, a secret for my own claim to priority of discovery, its future improvement, even more vaeven on this point. From a paper of luable than the finding out of the phimine read before the Philosophical So- losopher's stone. ciety of Assbury, upwards of two years To put the theory to the test of ago, and which was honoured by the experiment, I now beg to propose the marked approbation of all the mem- appointment of a committee, to confer bers present at its reading, I extract with committees of the other scientific the following passages :

and literary associations throughout “ It will not be denied, that great the kingdom, for the purpose of arranimprovements have been made, during ging the details, and securing to posthe last fifty years, in the breeds of terity the combination of the talents cattle, by the judicious intermixture of we at present possess, by promoting the various qualities of animals, which connexions which, however they may are the objects of the breeders of horse interfere with the partial and shortor black cattle, or the rearers of sheep sighted arrangement of parents, will and the producers of wool. It is also infallibly raise the next age to a prewell known, that Mr Knight, whose cedency of talent over all former ages philosophic experiments on plants have of the world.” been productive of so much advantage I have nothing further to add on the to horticulture, has succeeded in rai- subject. But if a sound and healthy sing new and improved varieties of progeny is an object of concern to any fruit from the junction of allied spe- respectable and beautiful young lady cies. And it is at least a probable con- who may wish a cross with our family, jecture, that the same attention to the I trust I shall not be so unpolite as to marriages of the human race, where reject the advances of youth and beaugenius or valour, or any species of ex- ty. My address is, Sir Toby Ticklecellence may be required, would scarce- toby, of Tickletoby Hall, by Longly fail to have similar results.

town. “ For example, who could doubt

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