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fleet anchored in the Sound between As they were in want of the dates and the Islands of Lorock and Kishm, on other provisions which we had taken the 26th in Kishm Road, where they in the town, they were readily induced took in some fresh water, and reached to treat and deal for them and findRasul Khymah on the 2d of December. ing themselves safe amongst us, they

Preparations were immediately made acquired confidence, and a friendly for landing, which was effected with, intercourse was established, which was out opposition before day broke on the the more likely to continue, as it promorning of the 3d; on the 4th, the mised advantages to both. enemy's piquets in advance of the fort The Arabs were willing to enter inwere driven in, and the batteries com- to any engagements which the British menced. On the 6th, the breaching authorities inight deem necessary for batteries opened on the fort, and the the suppression of piracy-and as they ships of war on the town. On the 7th, were the more likely to abandon their the firing continued all day, and about predatory habits when relieved from 8 P.M. the enemy made a sortie, suc- every restriction on the more peaceceeded in taking the mortar battery, able modes of obtaining a livelihood, it and carried a field howitzer to some became our interest to encourage and distance towards the fort; but the bat- assist such of them as were inclined to tery was retaken, and the gun brought engage in any honest occupation, and back in a few minutes. On the even- to hold out every inducement to others ing of the 8th, the breach was reported to follow their example. A treaty was practicable, but at an hour too late to accordingly concluded upon these prinstorm. On the morning of the 9th, the ciples. storming party advanced, and found While these arrangements were in the fort and town evacuated.

progress, some doubt arose as to the Being now in possession of the chief true import of the word aman, which place of the pirates, it became neces- became important, as on the decision sary to adopt some political course. of this point rested the terms on which

The great body of the inhabitants Hassin bin Ally, chief of Rasul Khyhad taken up their abode in a grove of mah, had delivered himself up. He date-trees, to which they might have came to us on a promise of amun, which been followed and attacked, and pro- some translated forgiveness, and some bably from 50 to 100 fighting men personal safety. He was at this time a might have been killed and taken ; but prisoner, and complained that his bethe women and children of the town ing kept in custody was a breach of the were also there, and it was worthy of promise of aman. It appeared that this consideration, whether the advantage word admitted of considerable latitude to us in weakening the enemy to the in its use

se-and it was thought more extent which was then in our power, advisable to liberate the Shaik than to would be an equivalent for the misery give room for supposing that the Briwe should necessarily inflict on the de- tish faith had been compromised. fenceless and innocent, and the bur- Independent of this consideration, den we should bring on ourselves by it seemed to be more politic to set him the care of the women and children at large, as he was a man of influence who must fall into our hands.

in his tribe-and having more to lose, In the course of the following day, was more interested than any one else before any decided measures had been in bringing the arrangements to a conadopted, the Arabs sent in their sub- clusion. His tribe, too, during his inission, with proposals for an amica- confinement, manifested considerable ble adjustment; and their chief agreed suspicion of our intentions, which it to come in on a promise of aman, (for- was thought his liberation would regiveness or personal safety.)

Thus circumstances led to a more This calculation proved to be corlenient course of policy than the go- rect; for, on his being set at liberty, vernment had contemplated, or the not only all the chiefs dependent on persons on the spot had made up their or connected with him, but all the ininds to adopt or recommend. predatory chiefs of the coast of Ara

In the course of subsequent com- bia, with only one exception, sent in munications, the Arabs were found to their submission, and entered on nee be more intelligent and more tractable gociations for participating in the bethan they had been represented to be. nefits of the treaty about to be con

VOL. X.

move.

cluded with the people of Rasul Khy, was agreed that Hassin bin Ally and mah.

his followers should march out unarmSultan Bin Suggur, the chief of ed, and deliver themselves up without Shorgah Kuzeeb of Jazereet ul Hum- any other stipulation than that their ruz, the chiefs of Dubaee, Bothobee, lives should be spared. Imaun, and, in short, all except the They were received by a body of chief of Zyah, were engaged in nego- troops, which accompanied them to ciations with us, and were ready to the creek, whence they were embarked accede to any terms we might think it on board the transports as prisoners of necessary to impose.

war, leaving all their property, women, But Hassin bin Ally, in his hill and children, in Zyah. fort of Zyah, saw all the surrounding It would be difficult to convey any chiefs submit, without indicating the accurate idea of the distressing scene slightest desire to follow their exam- which presented itself on entering the ple. He was a man advanced in years, place. Above three hundred women, and lame from a former wound; but with a great number of children, found his intellect was active and acute, his themselves in the possession of an spirit was high, and he was an enthu- enemy they had been taught to dread siast in the cause of his religion. and to abhor, without the presence of

He denied having been engaged in even one man to afford them the seinany depredations on the seas, and re- blance of protection. presented the impolicy and injustice As the Arabs themselves make no of disturbing an old man of peaceful prisoners, but put to death all who habits, devoted to religion and retire- oppose them-no persuasions could inment, who was possessed of no trea- duce these unfortunate creatures to sures, and sought for no power or believe that their husbands and faauthority. He said that he had forti- thers were yet alive. It was thought fied the hill of Zyah to defend himself advisable to collect them in one great and his people against the attacks of court, to secure them from the insults the Bedowins of the hills, who were of the soldiers ; but when it was prohis enemies, and expressed a belief posed to them, they all screamed out that our hand was against him only that we were driving them to slaughon account of his religion.

ter. But though he held this language, In the crowd and confusion, the it was well known that he was one of members of families were separated, the most active depredators, and the and each seemed to think that all the most wealthy and ambitious of all the others had perished; children lost chiefs of the coast.

their mothers, and were unable to reIt was in vain that we represented cover them. Even babes were lying our desire to avoid interfering with his here and there, with no one near wbo religion, and our readiness to secure owned them. him in the possession of all his proper- Night fell on this scene of confusion ty, if he quietly permitted us to destroy and distress, and kept them in doubt the fortifications of Zyah, and deliver- as to the fate of others, and dreadful ed up such of his boats and vessels as suspense as to their own. Fatigue and we might think it necessary to de- darkness, disappointment and despair, mand. He only answered that he and by degrces brought silence, broken at his people would die for their religion times by a scream of terror, raised on —that he knew well our superiority the slightest commotion or alarm. in men and in means, but that the re- In the morning they were somewhat sult of battles was in the hand of God, more calm ; the children had lost the who was stronger and mightier than feeling of immediate danger, and were

even cheerful; provisions were distriAs all attempts to induce llassin buted amongst them, and every one bin Ally to treat as the other Shaiks strove to contribute to their confidence had done, were found unavailing, it and comfort. It was found necessary, was determined to march a detach- however, to destroy the place in which ment against him.

they were collected as it was a part of After a creditable resistance of three the defences of the town; it therefore days, a flag of truce was sent from the became necessary to remove them to fort at the moment the troops had some distance. been drawn out for the storm; and it It was no sooner intimated that they

we.

must move from the town than the individual Shaik, or chief, including consternation became as great as ever. such articles as could not be inserted They believed that we were about to in the general treaty. put them to death, and it was in vain At the conclusion of these arrange that we endeavoured to persuade them ments, all the chiefs remained in posof the contrary. No entreaty could session of their towns and villages, induce them to move. The confusion except the chiefs of Rasul Khymah, became as great as at first. The rain and Zyah. The former place was difell in torrents, and added to the mi- rected, by the instructions of governsery of their situation. Though the ment, to be tendered to the Imaum of distance to which they were to be Muscat, and in the event of his detaken was only a few hundred yards, clining to garrison it, it was to be offerall our efforts were unsuccessful. ed to the Pacha of Egypt. It was neces

It was found that of the prisoners sary also to leave a force in the Gulf, sent on board the transports, a consic and as Rasul Khymah had long been derable number were cultivators, who considered the head-quarters of piracy, had taken up arms on the occasion, and it was thought that more confidence who had not been personally engaged would be given to traders by our conin any predatory excursions ; it was tinuing to occupy a place of so great therefore humanely determined to send note. It was therefore determined to them on shore for the protection of the leave a force, for the present at least, females. These liberated prisoners in that place. arrived at the time when the greatest Hassin bin Ramah, however, reconfusion prevailed among the wo- tained every thing he had formerly men and children. With their assist- held, excepting the town of Rasul ance, however, confidence and order Khymah, and a few detached towns were restored ; and if any thing could situated amongst the date groves forcompensate for the misery of such a merly mentioned, which it was necesnight as the preceding, the meeting sary to retain from their commanding that day might be considered a com- the best water. pensation. Even those whose hus- The chief of Zyah, on the other bands did not return, were consoled hand, was still a prisoner with his folby assurances of their safety, and the lowers, and a question arose regarding hope of meeting them again.

the propriety of setting him at liberty: In the course of the afternoon, the The instructions of government had whole moved in a body on the road to provided for the disposal of prisoners, Rasul Khymah, to distribute them- and had not left any distinct discreselves amongst the villages dependant tionary power to set them at liberty. on that place, and on Zyah, where they It appeared, however, that much might all found shelter. One child only re- be gained by doing so. mained on the ground, which had been, We had already given the most deabandoned by its parents, or had per- cided proofs of our power in the rehaps lost them in the siege ; he was duction of Rasul Khymah and Zyah, picked up by one of the soldiers, and and had had the most ample acknowgiven to an officer, who has taken him ledgment of our superiority in the subunder his protection.

mission of all the chiefs. Every day It was gratifying to observe the hu- brought additional arguments in famanity and kindness of the soldiers to vour of the system of conciliation; and these unfortunate creatures. Many of the more that was seen of the nature them amused themselves by distribu- of the country and the habits of the ting provisions among the women, and people, the more evident did it become feeding and assisting the children.- that nothing could have been accomThere was no disposition to take ad- plished by attempting to follow them vantage of their defenceless situation; into the interior. It was found that and it did not appear that any woman little could be done with the people had been injured or insulted. except through the medium of the

After the fall of Zyah, nothing re- chiefs, and that any attempt to set up mained to be done on the coast of Ara- rulers of our own making, must cerbia except to embody, in the form of a tainly fail, from the patriarchal feeling general treaty, what applied to all the of the tribes. chiefs in common, and to make, at the The followers of Hassin bin Ally same time, specific treaties with each were only about 200 in number, and were not therefore to be dreaded for obviously desirable to gain their contheir power. Though the Shaik was a fidence as much as was in our power. man of influence, he had no power in In consideration of these arguments, his hands, and his residence was in the it was at last decided that the prisonvicinity of Rasul Khymah, and could ers should be set at liberty, and Hassin be taken at any time. He had no power bin Ally returned once more to rule in to do harm, and might be made the Zyah. instrument of doing much which we Having garrisoned Rasul Khymah wanted to effect.

with 1200 men, the expedition proIt appeared, too, that the liberation ceeded to the other ports, and having of the prisoners would demonstrate the destroyed the boats and fortifications, lenity of our intentions, and confirmas stipulated in the treaty, took its the confidence of the Arabs. If it was leave of the coast of Arabia, and crossdetermined to endeavour to engage ed the Gulf to the Persian side. them in peaceful occupations, it was

TIMBUCTOO AND MUNGO PARK. [We have received the following interesting communication from Glasgow. Our correspondent describes the author as deserving of the fullest confidence, mentioning the names of several gentlemen on whose affairs he was engaged in the Mediterranean; and, from our own knowledge of their characters, we are perfectly convinced they would never countenance any person capable of attempting to impose on the public. The little narrative itself has an air of simplicity and truth, very unlike a fictitious story, and it was not drawn up, as we are informed, with a view to publication ; indeed, the incidents which it describes are not important, except with reference to the bold, but unfortunate traveller on whose fate they seem to throw a little light. C. N.]

On the 1st June, 1820, I sailed from into the interior of Africa ? He answer Tangiers to Genoa, accompanied by ed, the only obstacle he knew was the Hagi Mahomet Alibabi, a Timbucton unhealthiness of the climate. I then merchant, who had along with him asked what course he would recommend eight Moors, two as companions, and to a European who wished to penetrate six as attendants. This merchant was into Africa ? He said, that he considerone of twenty-five adventurers, who, ed the best way for a person with such a according to a practice prevalent in wish would be, to join a company of traMorocco, left Fez for Timbuctoo, with velling Moors at Morocco, conforming the view of entering into speculations to their habits and forms of devotion. with the natives, and of collecting gold He added, that if a European adopted and silver, with which the sands of this course, under the Emperor's prothat place are said to abound. He re- tection, which could be easily procured sided there for twenty-five years, and by a recommendation from our governso detrimental did the climate prove, ment, he would be subject to no danger that in that time he buried twenty- save such as arose from the climate. three out of the twenty-four compa. He stated, that the journey from Fez nions who had accompanied him. At to Timbuctoo occupies two months. the end of this period he returned to Continuing this conversation, I asked Fez, and was now proceeding thence him whether he had ever heard of any to Mecca on a pilgrimage to the Pro- Christians visiting Timbuctoo? He phet's tomb. Along with him he had said that he did recollect of a boat, in gold, silver, elephants' teeth, gems, (una barca) manned by Christians, adand the like merchandise, what I va- vancing towards Timbuctoo by the ri. lued at about 8000l. sterling, and ver. The king, hearing of its approach, which I understood to be the product sent a canoe to inquire regarding their of his industry at Timbuctoo. object, and to demand duties. A dis

In the course of much conversation pute ensued, in which the Christians which I had with him, I asked whether fired on the Timbuctons, killing one he thought it practicable to penetrate and obliging the others to retire, who however did so only to await an op- lection ; he had, doubtless, long ceased portunity of revenge. The Christians to employ it as a topic of conversation, then rowed to the shore, at the foot of and, at most, he had probably only a high mountain, and disembarked employed it transiently as such. In there, leaving the boat unguarded. these circumstances, strict accuracy The tide falling soon after, the boat was not to be expected. And if it be was left ashore.

supposed necessary to place the transThe Timbuctons thought this a good action two or three years farther back, I opportunity for revenge, and climbing apprehend that no candid person, who up the mountain, they rolled large recollects the distance in time since it stones upon the boat, leaving it totally took place, and the circumstances of useless.

the narrator, will consider that too In this helpless predicament, the great a latitude has been given. In Christians wandered for some time justice to the merchant, I should alamong the mountains in the greatest lude to the language in which we comdistress. Unfortunately, however, their municated. This was the Spanish, a visit, the catastrophe, and their pre- language foreign to us both, and though sence, united in exciting the imaginary known to us sufficiently for general fears of the Timbuctons. The king purposes, yet not completely, as in those found it necessary to call a council, in particulars which give so different a order to consider the most effectual colouring to a narration. Partly to this means of preventing those consequences circumstance, and partly to the ignowhich these fears had for their object. rance which prevails among the inhaThe general opinion there was, that bitants of the Mediterranean, of the they were spies, and that, if allowed rising and falling of the tide, I attrito escape, they would, in all probabi- bute the mention that is made of the lity, return with an army to take pos- falling of tide on the river. The exsession of the country, and inflict some pression struck me at the time, and I dreadful calamity upon the inhabi- then, and afterwards, questioned him tants. Under this impression, it was on it closely and keenly, till unfore resolved, that they should be immedi- tunately he lost temper on the subately taken and put to death ; a reso- ject, and I was obliged to desist. As, lution which was carried into effect. however, I find that travellers state, The merchant drawing the side of his that great swellings, occasioning somehand across his throat, signified what times inundations, take place on the had been the end of these unfortunate river at Timbuctoo,* I think it not adventurers. When I questioned him improbable that the merchant alluded as to the date of this transaction, he to a subsiding from one of those seemed to recollect by stringing to- swellings. gether, with apparent difficulty, a The character of the merchant, it is number of events. On two occasions, incumbent on me to state, was held in however, when I questioned him on the highest respect among the Moors. this head, he said, he thought that A Sherrif accompanied him, and I what he related had taken place eleven could perceive, that even on him, the years ago; that is, in the year 1809. austerity of the merchant impressed This date will probably be considered awe. At sea, and in quarantine, I by some, as too late to identify the was confined for two months to the transaction with the fate of Mr Park company of the merchant and his comand of his companions. It would sure- panions; and though they proved disly, however, be too much to object to agreeable to me on account of their the story on this account alone. The habits, yet I did not take leave of them merchant was to be considered as a without some of those sentiments of foreigner, he had no personal interest respect for the character of the merin the transaction, no family occur- chant which his countrymen enterrence with which, as we see mothers tained. do, he might connect it in his recol

W. S. C. P. 8.—1 subjoin a short Vocabulary of the Timbucton language:

• MACQUEEN'S Africa, p. 73 ; Lror's Narrative, p. 145.

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