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that of allowing the vowel to approach the sound of a in ale; thus taillfor těll.

get

men

Elk Hence Let Bell Den elm fence

dell else pence yet

fell

pen Ready steady measure pleasure general genuine.

Bed fed led

8. I, as in I-n. The common error of careless articulation, in this element, makes it approach the a of ale; thus, "sainn," for sin. An opposite error, in foreign style, or in bad taste gives seenn,for sin ;

ceetee,” for cătý, &c.
Din
Dim
Bid

Ill Lip Bit fin him did fill

sip hit grim hid

hill tip

fit

tin

9:

A, as in Ai-r. Sometimes carelessly enunciated as a in an, prolonged; thus, ăer," for air ; — sometimes too fastidiously flattened, and reduced to a in ale ; thus “ āerfor air. Bare Fare Hair Stare Barely Aware

lair glare careful dare

pair share rarely repair

care

rare

ensnare

ware

10. U, as in U-p. The error in enunciating this element, is that of forming the sound in a coarse guttural style, which makes it approach the sound of o in on. This fault is prevalent in the usage of the Middle States. Up Bud Gum Dun But Done cup

cud hum gun cut sup mud dumb

hut

none

run

won

11. O, as in O-r. Three errors are extensively prevalent in the mode of enunciating this element : - 1st, a local error of New England, which gives a double sound for a single one,

commencing with o in old, and ending with u in up, or a in an, thus “nõŭr," or nõăr," for nor : 2d, a local error of the Middle States, which makes the sound too broad, and resembling the a in arm; thus “ nár," for nor: 3d, a long and drawling sound, which has a coarse and slovenly character; thus cawrd, for cord. Born

Cork Sort Form cord

fork

short storm lord horn stork

tort

Orb *

corn

scorn

12. O, as in O-n. A prevalent local error of Massachusetts, in the following class of sounds, exists in the words, loss, lost, soft, &c. which are pronounced nearly with o, as in old ; thus loass," loast,"

soaft," &c. and sometimes with a double, instead of a single sound; thus lõăst,&c., for lost. The local error of usage, in the state of Connecticut, verges to the opposite extreme, in such words, and gives, for o, a sound too nearly like that of a in an ; thus “ lăss,&c., for loss. On Mob

Rod Lop

Loss odd rob dog

sop

toss off sob

fog
sod

top

Bog

god +

cross

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13. A, as in A-le. The common error in the enunciation of this element, is that of making its vanish too conspicuous; thusaeel" for ale. An opposite error is not uncommon,

that of omitting the delicate “vanishing” sound entirely, which makes the style of enunciation coarse and negligent. Ace Day Hail Lade Make Came age lay fail

fade sake fame ache nay

wail made take lame

14. I, as in I-ce. The two errors to be avoided in enunciating this ele

* The r of these words is soft, but never silent, as in the style of faulty usage.

+ Commonly mispronounced "gaud," "goad," "gõud," or "gad."

ment, are, Ist, that of commencing it with too broad a sound; thus, “ âece," for ice (řece ;) 2d, that of commencing it with too flat a sound ; thus“ āece," for ice. - See remarks on tonic" elements. Dice Bide Life Lime Fight Dive rice ride rife time light hive vice side wife prime might rive

15. 0, as in O-ld. A prevalent error in the local usage of New England, makes this o too short; thus, "hom,for home.

A common error of the Middle States makes the sound too broad; thus " fârce" for force. Oh Go Bold Home Lone Hope lo cold loam bone

mope foe hold foam stone

grope both ford fort

course gore

boat loath sword

port
force

coat sloth forge sport

pour

dote

WO

SO

more

source

16. Ou, as in Ou-r. The prevailing errors on this element, are "âur," "aur," and “ěur," for our, (o sounding as in done.) The first two of these errors are current in the pronunciation of the Southern and Middle States; the last, in that of New England. Out How Loud Cow Fowl Crown

cloud count howl drown owl

proud gown growl frown

ounce

now

VOW

17. Oi, as in Oi-l. The two errors usually exhibited in enunciating this element, are 1st, beginning the diphthong with the sound of o, in own, instead of that of o, in on; 2d, closing with a sound resembling a, in ale, instead of i, in in. Boil Toil Joy

Coin Broil Rejoice coil soil hoy

join

spoil appoint foil соу toy

loin

groin avoid

18. U, as in U-se, [long, as in the verb, -short, as in

the noun.] The common errors in articulating this compound element, consist in, 1st, turning the whole sound into oo, as in ooze ; 2d, making the diphthong commence with a, in ale, instead of e, in eve, shortened, or the sound of y, Use Tune Feud Cue Human Student Constitution cure dupe hew due useful stupid institution lure fume few

humor stewing revolution

in yet.

sue

[blocks in formation]

2. M, as in M-ai-m. The common error in the enunciation of this element, is that of sounding it too slightly, and in a slack and lagging style. Mime May Move Am Him Hum mad

lamb dim dumb my

must hem rim gum

me

moss

mar

3. N, as in N-u-n. The common fault of enunciation in this, as in the

preceding element, is a want of that force which belongs to energetic and animated utterance. Nine Nay Now An Den Din nigh

pen

kin net

then win

none

new

can

noun

no

man

4. R, as in R-ap. [R initial, before a vowel, or after

a consonant.] The error to be avoided in articulating this element, is that of prolonging it into a "roll,” or that of substituting for it the soft sound of r“ final.” A correct articulation, in this instance, always presents to the ear a firm, clear, and distinct, but very brief sound. Raw Red

Rid Ream Robe Rude Rub rye rent

rim
reel

rule ruff ray rest rip reap

rust Brag Brave Grave Crane Pray Trade Stray brass brain grim crag prate

track stride brad braid groan cry prone

tread strut

rose

roam

rue

5. R, as in Fa-r: [r final, or before a consonant.] The error most frequent in the articulation of this element, is that of omitting it, through inadvertency. This fault is one of the conspicuous peculiarities of the style of pronunciation prevalent among the uncultivated classes of the city of London. But it is not less so, even among educated people, in the United States. The soft r, being one of the few liquid consonants which our language possesses, should never be omitted in enunciation. At the same time, it should never be converted into the opposite r, as in rap, as it often is, in the style of foreigners; neither should it ever be dwelt upon, or prolonged in sound. It is properly but a “vanish,” in its effect on the ear; as its vibrating and murmuring articulation prevents it from becoming forcible or distinct. The tongue should execute it with a delicate motion adapted to its slight and evanescent character. Hare Bar Ear Ire Ore Lure Bur dare fear hire

pure fare hear mire door

pur Orb Arm Earn Dark Pearl Art Burn horn harm fern hark marl dart turn form farm learn lark whirl part churn Murmur former charmer

warbler

car

core

cur

mar

sure

warmer

Exercise on words containing both sounds of R. [The difference in the sounds of the hard and the soft r, should be exactly observed.]

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