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E, as in eve, occurs, also, in the sound of ee in eel; ea, in eat ; ie, in field ; ei, in seize.

E, in end, occurs in the form of ea, in head.
E, in err, is the same sound which occurs in heard, and

in firm.

Y, except its peculiar sound in ye, is but a repetition of i, long or short; thus rhyme, hymn, &c.

0, in old, is repeated in oak, course, own, &c.

Oo, in ooze, and oo, in foot, recur in the sounds of o, in move ; u, in true ; 0, in wolf; u, in pull; ui, in fruit, &c.

The diphthongal sound oi, as in oil, is heard, always, in oy. The sound of u, in use, occurs also in the form of iew in view ; eau in beauty.

The diphthong ou, in our, is repeated in the sound of ow in down, &c.

F, as a sound, recurs in the form of ph and gh; as in phrase, laugh, &c.

J, and g“ soft,” are, on the other hand, but combinations of the sounds of d, and of z, as in azure.

Ch, in church, are but repetitions of the sound of t and sh.

The sound of sh is found also in the words, nation, gracious, ocean, &c.

C, “ soft,” is identical with s.

S, is, in multitudes of instances, but a repetition of Z, as, for example, in houses, diseases, &c.

The sound of k is repeated in the form of c, "hard ; ” ch, as in chorus ; and q as in queen.

N, in ink, is identical with ng.

X, in either form, is but a repetition, in sound, of ks or gz; thus ox, example, &c.

It is unnecessary, however, to enlarge on these inconsistencies in the forms of our language. It is sufficient, perhaps, for our present purpose, to suggest the fact, that the orthography of words may sometimes afford no guidance to orthöepy, but, rather, may apparently mislead. The ear should, in all cases, be trained to the utmost exactness and precision, in detecting and seizing the true element of sound, independently of the form or combination of letters, by which it may be represented.

EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION. The mode of performing the subjoined exercises, is as follows:

1. Pronounce, three times in succession, - with full

“declamatory” “orotund" utterance; clear, firm, “radical” opening, and delicate but distinct “vanish; and with the downward slide of the voice, as at the close of a sentence, - the whole word containing the first element; thus “ A-11." A-11.” A-11."

2. Enunciate, as above, the sound of the element, by itself, apart from the other letters of the word; paying close attention to the correct position of the organs, as mentioned before, and to the perfect precision and distinctness of the sound.

3. Let all the other elements be practised in the same



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Tonicz.Simple Elements.

11. O-r; 1. A-ll;

12. O-n; 2. A-rm; 3. A-n;

Compounds. 4. E-ve;

13. A-le; (original element 5. Oo-ze;

and 4.) L-oo-k;)

14. I-ce; (3. and 4.) 6. E-rr;

15. Old; (original element 7. E-nd;

and 5.) 8. I-n;

16. Our ; (10. and 5.) 9. Ai-r;

17. Oi-l ; (12. and 8.) 10. U-p;

18. U-se; (4. and 5.) II. “ Subtonics."

Simple Elements. 2. M-ai-m;

9. G-a-g; 3. N-u-m;

10. V-al-ve; 4. R-a-p;

11. Z-one; 5. Fa-r;

12. A-z-ure; 6. Sing;

13. Y-e; 7. B-a-be;

14. W-oe; 8. D-i-d;

15. L-ull;

Compounds. 15. TH-ine;

16. J-oy.

III. Atonics.

1. P-i-pe; 2. T-en-t ; 3. C-a-ke; 4. F-i-fe;

Simple Elements.

5. C-ea-se;
6. H-e;
7. Th-in;
8. Pu-sh.

Compound. 9. Ch-ur-ch.


Initial Syllables. The following syllables should be practised in the same modes as the elements in the preceding exercises. Both or all of the component sounds, should, in each case, receive distinct attention.

Bl, cl, f, gl, pl, spl ;
Br, cr, fr, gr, pr, spr, tr, str, shr ;
Sm, sn, sp, st.

Final Syllables. ld, If, lk, lm, lp, Ise, ls, (lz,) lt, lve ; m'd, nd, nce, ns, (nz,) nk, (ngk,) nt ; rb, rd, rk, rm, rn, rse, rs, (rz,) rt, rve ; rb’d, rk’d, rm’d, rn'd, rs'd, rv'd ; sm, (zm.) s'n, (zn.) sp, st; ks, ct, k’d, (kt,) f'd, (ft.) p'd (pt ;) d'n, k'n, p'n, v'n; ble, (61,) fle, (,) gle, (g1,) ple, (pl.) dle, (d1,) tle, (t1,) rl; Ist, nst, rst, dst, rdst, rmdst, rndst ; bl'd, pld, rld; ngs, ngst, ng'd; bles, (blz,) cles, (clz,) fles, ( fiz,) gles, (glz;) sms, (zmz,) s'ns, (znz,) sps, sts; stles, (slz,) stens, (snz.)




WORDS, to be practised in the same style as the preceding exercises on syllables, - each component element kept perfectly clear and distinct.

I. Tonic Elements. Simple Sounds. One error, often made in the following class of words, is to pronounce them nearly as if written oall, &c. Sometimes, we hear the coarse error of dividing the sound of a, in such words, into two parts thus O-ŭll, fo-úll, &c. To a cultivated ear, this sound is peculiarly displeasing, as associated with low and slovenly habit.

1. A, as in A-11. *All

aw Awful Water ball ward

lawful daughter call

draw dawning slaughter.

2. A, as in A-rm. The two current errors in this class of sounds, are, 1st, - as in the local usage of New England, - flattening it down to to a, in an ; - 2d, as in the custom of the Middle States, making it as broad as a in all. The former style causes the pronunciation of “ fărm," "părt," făther : the tter, that of “ fawrm," "pawrt," fawther.” Harm Bar

Mart Balm Daunt farm

dart calm haunt charm far

part palm launch.

3. A, as in A-n. Common errors : 1, a flattened down to e, in end, nearly; thus, “ Dence, pess, the local usage of the Middle States ; — 2d, a made as broad as a, in arm; thus, “Dânce," (as if darnce,)“ pâss," — the customary fault of New England. Add Band Mass Last Slant Dance had hand

pass mast chant lance mad land

grass past grant glance

4. E, as in E-ve. There is seldom any error made in the enunciation of

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such words as the following, except the slight one arising from not distinguishing between the longer sound of ee before a “subtonic,” as in feel, and the shorter, before an “ atonic,” as in feet. The explosive force of the organic action, in executing

atonic,” compresses the preceding vowel : the gentle and gradual sliding of the ee into a “subtonic," allows it a longer duration. Theme Feel Heed Week Feet Deep

heel need meek meet keep keen peel

feed speak street sleep. 5. 00, as in Oo-ze; 00, as in L-00-k. The sound of this element, needs attention to the same distinction as in the case of ee. Before a “tonic" element, it is prolonged, — before an atonic,” it is shortened. The difference is exemplified, for the former, in tool, – for the latter, in took. Cool Boom Moon Hook Hoop Boot fool loom

nook loop hoot pool

rook stoop root. Exceptions. Good, wood, stood, which have the oo short, though before a subtonic."





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6. E, as in E-rr. The just, not overdone, distinction between urn and earn, is the object to be kept in view, in practising on the following words. This class of sounds is so liable to mispronunciation, that it needs close and repeated attention. See remarks on the “ tonic" element, e in err, in the discussion of the elementary sounds. Err Serve * Earth * Firm

Mercy Merciful erst earl gird

terminate herb stern pearl girl

servant perfectly



7. E, as in E-nd. The common error in the following class of words, is

* The same element with e in err, though differently spelled.

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