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effect arising from the “drift” of the “slide." Let the reader repeat the sentence, and observe the prodigiously increasing force and loudness of the same words, as they succeed each other, and he will perceive, at once, the effect of the “drift” of mere force, or “loud concrete.” Let the passage be read once more, with the attention fixed on the perpetually recurring and increasing “compound stress ; ” and the “ drist” of “stress" will be sufficiently understood. The analysis might be pursued still farther ; but the suggestions now dropped will serve to indicate the mode of reading for the purpose of tracing a

drift." The student may now return to page 241, and read aloud, for the sake of a wide contrast in “drift,” the tender, pathetic, and "chromatic” lines illustrative of “ feminine grief and sorrow,” in which will be found all the opposite “ drifts” of recurring semitone,

"subdued” and softened force, gentle “ median stress,” and other prevailing properties of kindred character.

Exercises of this description may be performed on any of the examples contained in the book, which are of sufficient length to admit of recurrence of “expression,” and, consequently, of “ drift.” No exercise can be more useful either for imparting a thorough knowledge of elocution, or securing its best effects; and none can be more useful for eradicating any false habits of “expression, such as are popularly called tones, — in the style of an individual, or of professional bodies and classes of men.

The defective mode of instruction in elocution, which at present prevails in schools and higher places of learning, leaves much to be done by every student, not only by way of acquisition, but in the more arduous task of self-correction; and in no department of elocution is this process of self-culture and self-advancement so APPENDIX.

rtant to all, or so sure to the diligent, as in that of analysis and practice for the detection of errors, and the correction of faults in the management of the voice, as regards “ expression."

[Our desire to render this manual conducive, as far as possible, to a perfect development of the voice, induced us to solicit the aid arising from the perfect discipline to which the organs are subjected, in the elementary practice of the art of music. Professor G. J. Webb, of the Boston Academy of Music, has, in compliance with our request, furnished the following directions for the cultivation of perfect purity of tone, the want of which, in elocution, is a prevalent fault, both in public speaking and private reading]


It is important that the pupil, at the very outset of vocal study, should have the ability of appreciating purity of tone. Unless he has some distinct perception of it; in other words, unless a model of pure tone has been formed in his own mind, all merely physical effort to acquire it will be likely to fail.

The practice of the scale in swelling tones, is chiefly relied upon by teachers of vocal music, for developing the voice, and for acquiring purity, mellowness, flexibility, and an adequate breadth of tone.

Immediately before singing each sound, breath should be taken so as completely to inflate the lungs ; and after pausing an instant with the chest well expanded, the sound should commence with firmness, but with great softness, then gradually augmented to the loudest degree, succeeded by being as gradually diminished to the degree of force with which it began. Each tone should be prolonged from eighteen to twenty seconds.

This exercise, as a general rule, should be continued for about two months ; singing the scale daily about four times.

In the delivery of the tones of the “chest register," the air ought to escape without touching the surfaces of the mouth; the tones of the "medium register,” are best acquired by directing the air a little above the upper front teeth : — in those of the “ head register,” the air is directed vertically.

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To adapt the above exercise to the Contralto and Bass voice, it must be transposed a third or fourth lower. This mark ff pp.


is designed to indicate the swelling tone; the double comma before each note, the place for breathing


Exercise I. - A SEA VOYAGE. - Irving.

is on

- the 16


wave :

[This extract exemplifies, in its diction, the forms of narrative, descriptive, and didactic style. The emotions arising from the subject and the language, are those of tranquillity, wonder, admiration, pathos, and awe.

The first of these emotions prevails through the first two paragraphs, and produces, in the vocal “expression," "pure tone, ' decreasing gradually from gentle “expulsion” to effusion : the “ force” is moderate : " the stress, at first, unimpassioned radical,” gradually changing to a soft “median: "'the “ pitch middle notes,"

“ diatonic,” in prevalent " intervals of the second," varying from the “ simple concrete" to the “

the “ movement is “slow,”. the pauses moderately long, -the “ rhythm” requires an attentive but delicate marking.

Wonder is the predominating emotion expressed in the third paragraph. It produces a slight deviation from perfect“ purity of tone towards “ aspiration”: the “ force” increases gently, after the first sentence : a slight tinge of vanishing stress pervades the first sentence; an ample “median” prevails in the first two clauses of the second, and a vivid - radical” in the third clause; and, in the third sentence, a stronger vanishing stress” than before, becomes distinctly audible, in proportion to the increasing emphasis : the " pitch" of this paragraph is moderately " low," at first, and gradually descends, throughout, as far as to the last semicolon of the paragraph ; — the “ slides"

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are principally downward “seconds and thirds": the ment” is “slow,” excepting in the last clause of the second sentence, in which it is “ lively”; the pauses are long; and the “ rhythm” still requires perceptible marking.

Admiration, is the prompting emotion in the “ expression” of the fourth paragraph. — After the first sentence, which is neutral in effect, the voice passes from

pure tone

to“ orotund," as the “ quality” required in the union of beauty and grandeur : the force passes from “ moderate" declamatory”: the

stress becomes bold“ median expulsion”: the “middle pitch,” inclining to “ low,” for dignity of effect; and downward io thirds” in emphasis : the " movement” is “moderate ; ;' the pauses correspondent; and the " rhythm somewhat strongly marked.

The fifth and sixth paragraphs are characterized, in " expression,” by pathos and awe. The first two sentences of the fifth paragraph, are in the neutral or unimpassioned utterance of common narrative and remark; the next three sentences introduce an increasing effect of the “pure tone” of pathos; the last three of the paragraph are characterized by the expression of awe carried to its deepest effect; and the preceding pure tone, therefore, gives way to aspiration,” progressively, to the end of the paragraph. The “force,” in the first part of the paragraph, is "subdued " - in the latter, it is “ suppressed”: the " is “median,” throughout, -gently marked in the pathetic part, and fully, in that expressive of awe.

pitch is on “middle” notes, inclining high, in the pathetic expression, and “low,” descending to “ lowest," in the utterance of awe; the “melody” contains a few slight effects of “ semitone,” on the emphatic words in the pathetic strain, and full downward " slides" of is third” and “ fifth,” in the language of awe.

The 56

movement” is “slow,” in the pathetic part, and “

very slow” in the utterance of awe; the pauses correspond ; and the “ rhythm” is to be exactly kept in the pauses of the latter, as they are the chief source of effect.

The first two sentences of the sixth paragraph, are characterized by the expression of deep pathos, differing from that of the first part of the preceding paragraph, by greater force, lower notes, fúller

stress," slower 56 movement,” " and longer pauses. The “expression” of the third sentence passes through the successive stages of apprehension, or fear, awe and horror, marked by increasing aspiration” and force, deepening notes, slower 6 movement,” and longer pause, so as, at last, to reach the extreme of these elements of effect. The fourth sentence expresses still deeper pathos than before, and by the increased effect of the same modes of utterance. In the last sentence, in which awe combines with pathos, the “ expression becomes yet deeper and slower, but without increase of " force.”

A similar analysis should be performed on all the following pieces previous to the exercise of reading them. The analogy of

The 66


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