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of students, such assistance is of immense advantage: the more regular and extensive the discipline, the greater is always the result in power of voice.

For these reasons, it will be of the utmost service, as an efficacious mode of training, to repeat, with due frequency, previous to commencing the following exercises, the organic functions of breathing, in its different forms, as before suggested, and the yawning, coughing, crying, and laughing modes of utterance, on the “tonic elements," and on words selected from the “ exercises in enunciation.”

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I. Pathos and Gloom, or Melancholy, united with Grandeur.

1. O Sun! to Ossian thou lookest in vain; for he beholds thy beams no more, whether thy yellow hair floats on the eastern clouds, or thou tremblest at the gates of the west. But thou art, perhaps, like me,

- for a season: thy years will have an end. Thou shalt sleep in thy clouds, careless of the voice of the morning."


of men

“ Seasons return:

But not to me returns
Day, or the sweet approach of even or morn,
Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose,
Or flocks or herds or human face divine;
But cloud, instead, and ever-during dark
Surround me, from the cheerful ways
Cut off, and, for the book of knowledge fair,
Presented with a universal blank
Of Nature's works, to me expunged and razed,
And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out!"*

“With eyes upraised, as one inspired,
Pale Melancholy sat retired,
And from her wild sequestered seat,
In notes by distance made more sweet,

Poured through the mellow horn her pensive soul;

And, dashing soft from rocks around,

Bubbling runnels joined the sound:
Through glades and glooms the mingled measure stole;
Or, o'er some haunted stream, with fond delay,

Round a holy calm diffusing,

Love of peace and lonely musing,
In hollow murmurs died away.”

2. Solemnity and Sublimity, combined.


As the long train
Of ages glide away,

the sons of men,
The youth in life's green spring, and he who goes
In the full strength of years, matron, and maid,
The bowed with age, the infant, in the smiles
And beauty of its innocent age cut off,
Shall, one by one, be gathered to thy side,
By those who, in their turn, shall follow them.

“ So live, that when thy summons comes to join
The innumerable caravan,

that moves
To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take
His chamber in the silent halls of death,
Thou go not, like the quarry-slave at night,
Scourged to his dungeon; but sustained and soothed
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave,
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams."

2. (Solemnity and Sublimity, combined with Tranquillity.)

“ Yet not to thy eternal resting place
Shalt thou retire alone, nor couldst thou wish
Couch more magnificent. Thou shalt lie down
With patriarchs of the infant world, — with kings,

The powerful of the earth, - the wise, the good,
Fair forms and hoary seers of ages past,
All in one mighty sepulchre. - The hills,
Rock-ribbed, and ancient as the sun, the vales,
Stretching in pensive quietness between;
The venerable woods, - rivers that move
In majesty, and the complaining brooks
That make the meadows green; and, poured round all,
Old ocean's gray and melancholy waste, -
Are but the solemn decorations all
Of the great tomb of man.

The golden sun,
The planets, all the infinite host of heaven,
Are shining on the sad abodes of death,
Through the still lapse of ages. All that tread
The globe are but a handful to the tribes
That slumber in its bosom. Take the wings
Of morning, - and the Barcan desert pierce,
Or lose thyself in the continuous woods
Where rolls the Oregon, and hears no sound
Save his own dashings, — yet the dead are there ;
And millions, in those solitudes, since first
The flight of years began, have laid them down
In their last sleep : the dead reign there alone.”

3. Reverence, and Adoration.*


These are Thy glorious works, Parent of Good, Almighty! Thine this universal frame Thus wondrous fair, — Thyself how wondrous then! Unspeakable! who sitt’st above these heavens To us invisible, or dimly seen Midst these Thy lowest works. Yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought And power divine !"

* The appropriate tone of devotion is uniformly characterized by "effu. sive orotund” utterance.

“ Thee, Father, first they sung, omnipotent,
Immutable, immortal, infinite,
Eternal King; the Author of all being,
Fountain of light, Thyself invisible
Amidst the glorious brightness where Thou sitt'st
Throned inaccessible, but when Thou shad'st
The full blaze of thy beams, and, through a cloud
Drawn round about Thee, like a radiant shrine,
Dark with excessive bright, thy skirts appear,
Yet dazzle Heaven, that brightest seraphim
Approach not, but with both wings veil their eyes."


“Thou, dread Source,
Prime, self-existing cause and end of all
That in the scale of being fill their place,
Above our human region or below,
Set and sustained, — Thou, who didst


the cloud Of infancy around us, that Thyself, Therein, with our simplicity awhile Might'st hold, on earth, communion undisturbed, Who from the anarchy of dreaming sleep, Or from its death-like void, with punctual care, And touch as gentle as the morning light, Restor'st us, daily, to the powers of sense, And reason's steadfast rule, - Thou, Thou alone Art everlasting !"

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I. DeclamatoryStyle.

1. Oratorical Invective. “ By, the order of the House of Commons of Great Britain, I impeach Warren Hastings of high crimes and misdemeanors.

I impeach him in the name of the Commons of Great Britain in Parliament assembled, whose parliamentary trust he has abused.

“I impeach him in the name of the Commons of Great Britain, whose national character he has dishonored.

I impeach him in the name of the people of India, whose laws, rights, and liberties he has subverted.

I impeach him in the name of the people of India, whose property he has destroyed, whose country he has laid waste and desolate.

“I impeach him in the name of human nature itself, which he has cruelly outraged, injured, and oppressed, in both sexes.

And I impeach him in the name and by the virtue of those eternal laws of justice, which ought equally to pervade every age, condition, rank, and situation, in the world.”

2. Oratorical Apostrophe and Interrogation. “O Liberty! — O sound once delightful to every Roman ear! - O sacred privilege of Roman citizenship!-- Once sacred, now trampled upon. But what then? Is it come to this ? Shall an inferior magistrate, a governor, who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, bind, scourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen ? Shall neither the cries of innocence expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, nor the fear of the justice of his country, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who, in confidence of his riches, strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance?

3. Vehement Oratorical Address.

They tell us, sir, that we are weak, unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. Sir, we are not weak, if

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