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of the country, may be summed up duces all things to their simplest elin this one-to escape oppression. ements, but can not recompose them. It was so with the Puritans, with the It concerns itself not with men, but Huguenots, and with the Roman with man, with humanity in the abCatholics of Maryland; and we be stract, in puris naturalibus-stark lieve it may safely be said of all, naked. It recognizes that in all men that the desire of a larger liberty which is alike, not that which difand of a fairer field, influenced them fers; and deals not with the father, to try their fortunes in the wilder. the child, the husband, the wife, but ness. To escape control in the with the human being. If this be church and the state, to vindicate the overmastering tendency, the ler the rights of conscience, and so to non scripta, of our land, our prosecure personal liberty, was the gress is not towards unity. We deep-rooted principle working se. need to do more than teach every creily beneath, though it manifested man his standing as a man, and se. itself under the most diverse forms. cure for him his freedom and per. There were, at the first, many other sodal rights; otherwise, the mului. elements mingled with this, of a iudes hastening hither from other more conservative and even aristo- lands, that mistake lawlessness for cratical character, which retarded liberty, will not learn from us a les. its developements, and tempered its son of submission to order. It is workings; but we much mistake if, not enough to knock off the old ce. from the beginning, this was not the ment, and lay every stone by itself; differentia of our character and in they must be arranged and com. stitutions, full of hidden life and pacted anew in the stately structure power.

Hence in due time came of society. It is not enough to ihe breaking of our colonial bonds loosen all false and galling bonds, in the war of the Revolution; and if we strengthen not those eternally hence that movement continually ordained of God. The truth seems, gaining ground, though resisted in therefore, to be divided between the beginning by the sages and pat- those parties now contending about riots of our land, seeks to destroy the respective rights of natives and all exclusive privileges, and, of foreigners. Those who desire 10 course, all corporations and organi- see foreign elements less active and zed bodies, and to individualize and influential in the state, best underequalize to the very uttermost. Our stand the ideal of a nation; while boast is that we have freedom, as those who would obliterate all no other nation has it. Liberty and national differences, discern most equality are our watchwords. The clearly the spirit of the age, and act peculiarity of our institutions is, that most in harmony with ihe law of they proclaim and defend the integ- our progress hitherto. It is, indeed, rity of man as a person, and do not a monstrous doctrine, that there is suffer him to be absorbed into the nothing peculiarly sacred in a birth. mass and crushed there, as in the right, and that all the rights and old world. But for that very rea- privileges of citizenship should be son they are deficient in construc- thrown open, like an unfenced comtive power.

The individualizing mon, which every hoof treads down; principle is purely negative, seek but it is quite too late to resist it ing to remove restrictions, to break The ideal is not practicable, and the down superiority, and to place all practicable is far enough from bemen upon the same level of privi- ing the true ideal; but all that is left leges. It is good, therefore, to de- us is to mould, as best we can, the stroy old and worn-out organizations, alien materials that can never be but it can not organize anew. It re- excluded.

A third means of securing na. been loosened, if not broken, by the tional unity, is by a well defined and shock? They could scarcely be permanent territory. By this we separated from their island-home mean, that the nation should have with its rocky cliffs and resounding fixed habitations, and within moder. shores, from the Thames and the ate limits, inasmuch as an over- Severn, from the land which Alfred grown territory and frequent chan- and Elizabeth governed, and which ges of abode, are both unfavorable martyrs watered with their blood, to the cementing of strong attach- without the entire breaking up of ments amongst the people. The their social structure. No doubt the soil upon which a nation is planted, old Saxon energy would bring forth and in the absoluie ownership of some noble fruit again, but England which its independence stands, be- would never reappear. That form comes almost identified with it. of national life which has been There the life of the nation has gradually developing itself for ages folded itself, and made it the theater within the narrow mould of the of the national labors, enterprises, British isle, would never bear transand glories. Places become memo- planting. rials of high exploits, links of union We believe that smallness of ter. with the past, and incentives to no- ritory has much to do with the ble deeds in all coming time. The strength of national attachments. peasant who crosses the field where Concentration gives intensity. The Wallace conquered, the scholar who life of the nation rolls back upon itmakes his pilgrimage to the house self, and becomes fixed and deepwhere Shakspeare was born, and ened. As with the circles in the the Christian who treads reverently pool, which ever widening, do at in a ruined abbey where a holy last so spread themselves abroad, as choir ages ago chaunted the praises to be blended with the watery mass of God,-each feels an influence and disappear, so is it with the enreaching from the dead, and conse- largement of territory as bearing crating the soil on which he stands. on national character. All sense of Every spot becomes associated with mutual connection, all unity of feel. memorable events, and acquires an ing and aim, is gradually lost; and intellectual and moral significancy. you have a collection of neighborThe dead earth is quickened with hoods, instead of a country. The life, and vocal with melodies Aoat- evil is of course aggravated, if this ing from mountain and lake and enlargement of national boundaries river, which speak to the hearts of brings in foreign races. It would men. How must they feel knit to be an evil, even if the population each other, who look with a com- remained homogeneous ; it is incalmon joy or sorrow over their native culably increased, when alien ele. land, bearing engraven upon its face ments are thus introduced into the the story of their nation's greatness body politic. or of its wrongs.

The course of things amongst Let us imagine the English na- ourselves in this respect, is of portion to be removed in a body, queen, tentous aspect. The annexation of nobles and people, to some one of Texas, as affecting our nationality, their possessions in the southern was bad enough ; but the annexa. sea ; would not the result show not tion of Mexico would well nigh de. merely that English character, in its stroy it. There would be more polfiner features, is indissolubly con- icy in holding that country as a connected with English soil, but also quered province, than in admitting that the bands which have bound it to an equality of political privilethem in so marvellous a unity, had ges. Such heterogeneous elements can never combine. It is madness good or for evil, faith in unseen to think of comprehending in one things and supernatural powers, has country all that lies between the two been the most active and the most oceans, and of bringing the whole mighty of all the agencies that have of North America within the federal ever been working at the heart of union. Far better than this, had society. The vast overshadowing the western base of the Alleghanies systems of Pagan idolatry, which been washed by the waves of the were indissolubly linked in with all Pacific. The spirit that desires such the institutions of the state, and the an enlargement of our territory, is history of Mahommedanism, which not patriotism, but the lust of pow. burst like a whirlwind upon the er, such as stirred up the French eastern world, but like the whirlJacobins to their frenzied crusade wind did not pass away, show how against all the ancient governments political institutions have been shaof Europe, that they might estab. ped by religious principles. And so lish one vast republic on the ruins. it must be. The earthly and fleet

The prospect is that as a nation, ing elements of man's life are conwe shall soon have forsaken our an- nected with an encompassing etercient seats. The only part of our nity, and must be influenced by that territory which has any strong his. which is higher and more enduring. torical interest, is the Atlantic states, No one can deny the power of faith the old thirteen. There the seeds (the sphere of which is super-terresof our national life were first plant- trial) in matters of which govern. ed, there were our birth-struggles, menis take cognizance. It made there the new-born nation first saw the Jew intractable and rebellious the light. But we are fast remov. under the dominion of Rome; it set ing from them, and in a few years the early Christians, meek and genthey will have been deserted by a tle though they were, in stern renumerical majority of the people. sistance to the idolatrous laws of the That which is now going on, is vir- empire; and, in every age, it has tually a national emigration, for it introduced a new and difficult ele. is more than an enlargement of the ment into political affairs. Where extremities, the cenire remaining men differ fundamentally on that the same; power is going also ; and highest of all questions, they can not soon the nation will be found re- be one in the deepest unity of a moved from the battle-grounds of national life. How much have their fathers, from the soil rich in differences in faith disturbed and glorious recollections, from the only vexed the world! What strifes and links of union with the past, far commotions have they kindled ! away upon the prairies of ihe west, And even where hostile parties have or the plains of Texas, with as lit. proceeded to no such extremities of ile to remind them of the land from violence, yet there can not be that whence they sprung, as there is on inward union, that flowing together the level ocean.

of affections, that acknowledged A fourth means of national unity community of interests, which are lies in oneness of religious faith and essential to the highest perfection worship. The spiritual life of a of a nation. people is their truest, innermost As the spiritual in man, when life ; and unity here is the true awakened, is the controlling part of source of unity in all the outward his being, so Christianity has always spheres of their existence. From exerted a mighıy influence on the this central fountain flow forth the external life of 'nations. Unity in strongest influences to control and the church would both act as a harmould the whole being of man. For monizing principle, and serve as a

model for the institutions of the state. astical bodies, growing out of the A spiritual and ecclesiastical union agitation of a great moral and politiwould prepare the way for a politi. cal question that touching domestic cal union. It was most happy for slavery-forebodes a more complete Europe, that, at the time its institu- alienation of affection, a more raditions were slowly forming, after the cal loosening of common ties, bedissolution of the Roman Empire, tween different sections of our union, the church was not broken up into than has yet been ; and it needs no conflicting sects, but had, to a great sagacity to foretell that, if the bonds extent, united, both in government of a common Christianity are broand in doctrine. When society was ken, none other will long be strong in a chaotic state, the ecclesiastical enough to hold us together.* element was all that was stable, and In fine, this is our ideal of a pait formed a barrier against the break. tion. That it should have a central ings of anarchy, and kept the princi- power, as the symbol and organ of ple and the example of order before the national life, to which all the the eyes of that lawless time. Men parts should be subordinated, and learned to go up to one altar in their around which the national affections holy worship, and to be subject to should cluster ; that it should inone system of spiritual discipline, crease mainly from itself by the before they were brought together natural law of growth, and thus se. into the unity of the state. And as cure the inestimable benefits of a the church was the nucleus around common ancestry, and a common which European Society crystals language ; that it should occupy the lized, so, when it is broken up into same country, from age to age, factions, and the spiritual life of the with ever-strengthening local attachpeople is decomposed and dissipa. ments; and that, through oneness ted, we see a sure forerunner of in faith and worship, it should have political ruptures and dissolution. one spiritual life, as the true source The real weakness of England, and sustaining strength of all out(under the appearance of amazing ward unity. Great as our shortstrength,) and her chief difficulties comings may be, when tried by this of administration, grew out of her ideal, we have most hopeful feelings fierce religious quarrels. Ireland as to our ultimate destiny. The poand the education question supply sition assigned us, in the grand proofs enough of this.

scheme of Providence, seems to forIn this means of national unity we bid, for the present, the perfection are deficient. Our land is a sort of of a national constitution. Our work battle-ground, where all faiths are has been to subdue the wilderness, meeting in morial conflict. The and to people it with teeming life. church neither exemplifies the law, Year by year the abodes of civilizanor conveys the influences of unity; tion are moving swiftly towards the but her divisions introduce an ele. Pacific; and the pioneers are al. ment of discord into the state, and ready scaling the summits of the hinder the close cementing of the Rocky Mountains, or winding their people in the bonds of a common way through its defiles towards the life. The great religious denomi. vallies of the Columbia. We are nations of our country are cracking strewing the continent with materials and crumbling more and more, and to be worked up hereafter. But the these inner spiritual dissensions ne. lower forms of national existence cessarily propagate themselves in the outer circles of social and politi- Catholic, nor an Episcopalian, he can not

* As the writer is neither a Roman cal feelings and interests. The

he suspected of any party aims in the exschism in one of the largest ecclesi- pression of the foregoing views.

will not always satisfy us. Already gest liberty, in letting the glowing do we see a longing for a higher metal run at its own wild will, and unity in those schemes of associa. form itself into ragged and unsightly tion which are becoming so rife-- shapes. But a change will come-schemes unsound in principle, and not, perhaps, till the evil has reached utterly impracticable-but growing its consummation, the storm passed out of a feeling of desolateness, a over the face of the land, and the sense of isolation. So loose are the shock of the earthquake opened the ties which now bind men together. abyss beneath our feet. For the We have been seeking to build a so- present seems to be the time through. lar system with the centrifugal force out all lands, of the breaking up of alone. We need, and the need is the old foundations, and of the over. beginning to be felt, another power flowing of the old landmarks. But that shall draw men towards a com. the storm shall cease, and the floods mon center, and make them to move abate, and the hills and the green in harmonious orbs around it. The earth appear; and then shall the peculiarity of our institutions has glorious destiny be accomplished for lain too much in leaving men to which we are reserved in the plans of themselves, in giving them the lar- an all-comprehending Providence.

MODERN FRENCH LITERATURE.*

This is a useful and seasonable well received by the leading Brit. volume. It originated in a sugges. ish reviews. In his preface, the an. tion of William and Robert Cham. thor expresses the conviction," that bers, of Edinburgh, who have of the English public is liable to be late done so much for a really pop- misled, with regard to French literular literature in Great Britain. ature, by the injustice of a partial, These publishers were persuaded, capricious fame, and by the venality that “this full account of the re. of the public press.” He adds, that spectable literature of France, drawn it is his belief, that the estimate of up from an extensive, and minute French literature current among the knowledge of the subject, might better classes in England, is unjust help to promote a good understand to the best writers of France, and ing between France and England.” that these classes are in a great de.

M. de Véricour, who is a mem- gree ignorant of the higher and bet. ber of the Archæological Society of ter tone which French literature has Rome, and the Historical Institute assumed, in connection with the ve. of France, was formerly a profes. ry great change for the better which sor at the Royal Athenæum in Paris. the French people have experienHe has resided several years in ced during the present century.

To England, and written an Essay on correct this mistaken and unjust Milion and Epic Poetry, which was judgment, by introducing to the ac.

quaintance of his readers the better * Modern French Literature. By L.

writers who have appeared in France Raymond de Véricour, formerly Lecturer since her first revolution, and by ap. in ihe Royal Athenæum, Paris, &c. &c. prising them of the improved state 10 writers prominent in late political their works are at once the cause and Revised, with notes alluding particularly of thought and feeling of which events in Paris ; by William Staughton Chase, A.M. Boston: Gould, Kendall the effect, is the desigo of this rol& Lincoln, 1848. 12mo, pp. 448. ume. It is difficult to predict whether

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