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bors, but its subjects did not abandon munity to witness immediate results their iniquities.

from their labors and sacrifices; and The standard of piety is very low, the glad news of extensive revivals, throughout the island, and especially and of pentecostal admissions, was in the larger churches. So hastily hailed by the whole nation with ungathered, from such materials, it bounded joy. Peculiar sanctity was can not be expected that the life of inferred in the case of those misgodliness should be manifested by sionaries, who rapidly gathered ihem, nor is it. The enthusiasm of large churches, and the reverse-a grateful feeling has subsided. The want of zeal and holiness, feared for, influence of the missionary, as the and, in some instances, attributed to protector and friend of the op- others, who, by a more careful and pressed, is gone. The people have judicious process—by restraining acquired many artificial wants, and the fervor of feeling, and requiring these have taught them the value some intelligent views of the gospel, and uses of money. The restraints and a holy life, as well as strong of religion have become irksome- professions of love to “ Massa Jesus" general worldliness and selfish grati. prior to admission, built up smaller, fication, that were held in abeyance but purer churches. This, no doubt, by the first gushings of free feeling, acted as a stimulus to gather large have resumed their sway. The bodies. Add 10 this, the sympathy progressive intelligence of the peo- of the missionaries for the newly ple enables them to perceive that emancipated people ; the readiness paying a monthly“ duty," and take with which they yielded themselves ing a ticket; marriage, joining the to all the external observances of rechurch, baptism, and the Lord's ligion ; the impossibility of knowing Supper, are not the seals of grace, any thing of the daily walk of indinor passports to heaven. These, viduals among thousands ; with the with the depressed state of the island, servility and hypocrisy of the peorendering it difficult to obtain con. ple; their unconquerable repug. tinuous employment for fair wages, nance to disclosing each other's and the increasing use of intoxica. faults; their great earnestness to ting liquors, have produced a reac- gain admission to church fellowship, tion, which may yet scatter in frag- and the facility with which it is ments many of the large churches. gained in some of the large denomi.

There are exceptions to these re- nations; and the wonder will rather marks. Among much of "wood, be, that the churches are not larger hay, stubble,” there are many truly and more numerous. The most lax pious, devoted persons, who can disciplinarians have rejected many give a reason for the faith that is in applicants. them. They will be found to be, both in number and intelligence, The question is often asked, rather in the inverse ratio of the size “ What will be the influence of the of the churches to which they be present embarrassments, upon the long; for, where a charge of several future history of Jamaica ? Can the thousand ignorant people is com- island recover from them ?” mitted to a single missionary, it is We may hazard an opinion, that impossible to give particular instruc. its future history will be its most tion to any of them.

fruitful, most peaceful, and most We do not, in these statements, happy. The estates must pass

from charge the missionaries with de the absentees, who now hold them signed delinquency, or want of faith. for a mere moiety of their estimated fulness. There was an earnest de- value under the colonial system, sire manifested by the English com. when they enjoyed the monopoly of

the English market, and come into ishing total abstinence societies at the possession of thrifty resident pro- their several stations; but their inprietors, who will manage them fluence is local, and the tremendous without the intervention of attorneys, disturbing force of the established and overseers. The enormous gov. church, seems to blast every attempt ernmental expenditure and weight to coalesce for any general reform. of taxation will be greatly reduced Efforts have been made, but they by the action of the rising yeomanry, have failed; and they will continue ai the ballot box or hustings. Com- to fail, till the missionaries shall petition will reduce the price of liv. abandon wine and malt, and fancied ing, and the thrist and economy that dignity, and heartily unite their in. have already been induced by the fluences against this vice. The sucspirit of freedom, will rid the island cessful result of such a union is not of its greatest curse, the reckless. doubisul. ness and extravagance of slavery. There are other vices to which

These very desirable reforms are the peasantry are peculiarly exentirely feasible; and, once accom- posed; but they sink into insignifi. plished, Jamaica can not but he cance, when compared with intemprosperous.

perance, and some of them live only Within the past five years the by the rum bottle. There are cheertemptations to intemperance have ing indications of a revival of total increased rapidly. Rum shops have abstinence principles and zeal, and multiplied in every direction; and, there is ground of hope, that ere unless their influence can be de. long the various bodies of dissenters, stroyed, all the horrors of drunken- with their churches, will organize a ness lie directly in the pathway of general total abstinence movement, the peasantry. Unhappily the mis- and earnestly labor to rid the island sionaries, at the time of the eman. of this moral pestilence. Should cipation, generally used intoxicating they originate such a movement, and liquors themselves, and thus lost the conduct it to a happy issue, the time fairest opportunity of turning the is not distant when the arguments people from this snare. Since that for freedom will find illustration in time, many dissenters have become an intelligent, industrious, and happy total abstainers, and there are flour community of emancipated slaves.


The hardest problem man has to dental juxta-position, an accumuladeal with, is out of many to make tion of chance-gathered materials, one. But it is a problem nature is without any principle of arrangeever gloriously resolving; for or. ment; in the other, growih from a ganization, which separates by an seed, which has life within itself, inintelligible boundary the worlds of volving potentially all that is after. life and death, is her great mystery wards unfolded. When this seed is and work. The formation of a mass quickened, and germination takes by the aggregation of particles, (as place, there is a process of assimi. many rocks have been composed, lation begun, in which the plant each of which is a confused, ce- gathers ils nourishment from the mented heap,) is quite a different earth, and air, and light, and incor. thing from the production of a plant. porates the foreign substance with In the one case, there is mere acci- itself as a living, homogeneous part VOL. VI.



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of its own system. With the pro- ting blood, the beating heart, the gress of growth, many organs with thinking brain, and all else that bedistinct functions appear, each ad. longs to this temple of an immortal mirably adapted to its specific pur. spirit, wiibin which a thousand propose, and all co-working harmoni. cesses are continually going on, ously towards the accomplishment which is formed for dominion over of the end for which all exist. The the world without, and bears stamped root that abstracts nutriment from upon its countenance the intellecthe earth by its delicate fibres, the tual image of ils Maker. sap vessels of the stem that convey

It is thus that nature is ever solv. this to every part, and the leaves, ing the problem of national unity. with their broad surfaces, for carry. But we see, also, amongst the infe

. ing on respiration, different as they rior animals, a law of fellowship, by are in structure, are all necessary to which they are grouped together in the final result, the ripening of the tribes, organized into commonseed.

wealths, made obedient to leaders, We may see a beautiful illustra. in other words, a social unity-and tion of this law of organization, as we look to find something analogous well as of the lower principle of to this in the structure of humanity, outward and mechanical arrange. We can imagine men in a state of ment, (of which crystallization is isolation, each the sole occupant of an example,) in the divine record of a planet; but this would not be the the creation. The elements of all highest form of human life. Man, bodies were first brought forth, as existing in separateness and solinaked elements, “ without form and tude, could not allain that position of

dignity and blessedness, which he

holds when he is associated with Outrageous us a sea, dark, wasteful, wild."

others under laws that bring him But, step by step, laws were im. into new relations. The planets

, pressed on the chaotic mass, and which make up our solar system, This goodly universe rose out of the might have been created entirely io. watery abyss, with its blue o'erarch. dependent of each other, each with ing firinameni, its seas, its solid land, ils own motiup upon its axis ; but and their unsummed wealth of vege. they subserve nobler uses, now that table and animal life. This world they revolve in harmony around a of ours is just an organized chaos. common center. Their arrange. And that which we see in the lower ment under a new law gives them spheres of creation, is typical of the new forces, and takes nothing away. higher; for all nature prophesies of The sun, encircled by tributaries, 10 Him who is its lord, and sets forth which he imparts light, and warmih, the more glorious mystery of His and motion, holds a higher place being in its manifold symbols. than if banished to a point from Physiologists tell us that the human which no ray, or influence of atbody is the epitome of all organized traction, could ever reach any part budies, while it far surpasses them of the creation. So, to be a father

, all in the number its parts, their a giver of life, a defender and guide close relation to a common center, to other beings, is a higher and more and the powers of its various organs. blessed thing, ihan to be an isolated A handful of shapeless dust, as

creature, sustaining no relations to worthless as that we read on, be. others. Nor need union with others came, through the organizing power under a law, destroy individuality of the principle of life inbreathed by by absorbing the personal element the Creator, the solid, bony frame, into a mass. The stones which are the network of nerves, the circula. set in the arch lose nothing of their

distinctive qualities, but acquire household there is no mere juxtapowers by the combination which position of equals, but a grouping of they had not before. They remain all around a central organ, from the same in size, and shape, and which they receive law and blessing. properties; but when so placed as This was the beginning of the buildto realize the idea in the mind of the ing up of society, and from this it is architect, they become a new crea. easy to trace the steps by which all tion. They were a heap of stones politics have been formed. In the lying confusedly together; they are infancy of the world, when the law now a majestic, self-sustaining arch, of primogeniture prevailed, the throwing iis span across some mighty household naturally and speedily river, and strong to sustain the enlarged itself into the tribe, (the papressure of thronging multitudes, triarch ruling over his remote dewhile tall ships sail securely be. scendants,) and its growth was like neath.

that of the banyan tree, whose This may illustrate the possibility branches root themselves in the of uniting mankind under laws, earth, and become, in turn, the pawhich, without destroying the per rents of encircling groups, till a huge sonality of the individual, shall ele. forest springs up around, all intervate him into a higher region of ex- twined, and bound together by the istence. Man is not like a chemical law of an ever-circulating life. element, which, in combination, may Hence we see the false hood of disappear altogether ; nor like an that doctrine of the social compact, irresponsible animal, which is sub- which teaches that men originally jected to laws wholly from without, entered into society because of the and for the sole benefit of another; inconveniences of living in solitude, but he is a person, made in the and that it was a mere matter of image of God, a partaker of reason, voluntary agreement. Men never possessed of a responsible will, and stood isolated and independent, as ihus exists, in some sort, from him. this theory represents them: they self, and for himself. The problem were born into the household, and is how to organize these personal the household grew into the nation. elements, while we recognize and It was never lest to their choice, secure their distinctness; or how to whether to associate themselves or place men under a common system, not; they were associated by a law without crushing man, and making coeval with their existence, and from him the particle of a mass.

which they could never be freed but The law of the nation can not be by an act of rebellion. understood without reference to the But though the household is the structure of the household, which germ of the nation, there is a generic existed before it in the order of na. difference between them. The state ture. In the union of the first pair is something more than an enlargeby the act of God, the household ment of the family. The one is for was established ; and every one that the training and government of chil. has since been born, has been born dren, the other for the government a member of it. Each one is brought of men. The one is an ordinance into existence, not as an individual for the defense and nurture of that simply, a solitary, independent ele. period of man's life, in which his ment, but as a child bound in the personal existence and self-sustain. closest relationship to two parents, ing energy is slowly evolving itself ; and placed under their rule. Their but, while admirably adapted to this organization is begun, through a di. end, it can not furnish a sphere wide vine law, predetermining the place enough for the developed powers of and the functions of each. In the manhood. It is the nursery of man; but men do not always need to re- development. Within a parrow cir. main in the nursery. The young cumference, the relation of each seedlings require for a time the part to the center is most close and sheltered enclosure and the garden- strong. That it was the divine purer's watchful care ; but if you leave pose to separate mankind into disthem in their crowded ranks too iinct nations, was early shown by a long, you have a stinted growth. direct and supernatural interposiTransplant them, and give them tion. When “the whole earih was room enough, and each becomes a of one language and of one speech," wide-shadowing tree, whose roots and men began to build a city and a clasp the earth in a strong embrace, lower to be the capital of a univer. and whose branches wrestle vicio- sal empire, he confounded their riously with the storm. So the dis. language, and so compelled them to cipline appointed for infancy, and go forih in separate families and most needful for it, would dwarf tribes in search of new habitations. manhood. In those eastern mon- We believe that in that preter. archies, (as China,) where the state natural breaking up of society, the is nothing more than the household law of the household was honored ; expanded, and the paternal char- and that the nations, which grew out acier overshadows the regal in the of that convulsion, were not mixed chief magistrate, the government is multitudes, chance-gathered, like an intrusive despotism, and the peo. the motley wrecks which the temple remain children, overshadowed pest strews upon the shore, but races by an all-monopolizing power, which of a common origin, bound together leaves them no room for growth, by the ties of kindred. It would be and keeps them in perpetual in. impossible to trace their history from fancy.

that time, for emigration, wars, and A nation may be defined with the results of commerce, have sufficient accuracy for our present changed all national boundaries a purpose, a number of families, so thousand times, and broken up and great as to exceed the limits of a mingled together the great nations tribe, formed into a body politic, of antiquity, till their identity is al. which has within itself the exclusive most lost. Nor does it fall within right of jurisdiction over the terri- our purpose lo show the origin of the tory which it permanently occupies. nations of Christendom out of the The physical siructure of the globe ruins of the Roman Empire, minnecessitates the existence of man- gled with the rude institutions of its kind in distinct and separate nations. northern conquerors, and to point Its seas, and gulfs, and lakes, its out how, through the power of trackless deserts and lofty mount- Christian faith, the rich and various ains, are natural barriers and boun- products of European life were daries, which may, indeed, be par- evolved out of the darkness and tially overcome by the stern ambi- chaos of those convulsive times. tion of dominion, as when Rome Our design is simply to speak of marched steadily on to the conquest National Unity as involved in the of the world, or the Asiatic chief. idea of a nation, and to show by tains swept over numberless lands; what means alone a vital and per. but yet do hinder the formation of manent union can be given to many a universal inonarchy. And if we parts, and a territory be transformed compare the tribes of Greece with into a country. the overgrown monarchies of Asia, There is a blind spirit of cosmowe shall see that many centers of politism, disguised under the fair national life are most favorable to name of universal philanthropy, personal freedom and intellectual which wars against national distinc

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