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defiance all the laws of rhetoric, and life, then Shenstone and Burns were in their similes and metaphorical al- not poets. If these productions, issulusions, mingle heaven and earth, ing from the lazy retreat of some sea and air, in one formless chaos ? lily-fingered votary, portray human Are we to pass by without ever feeling, and the ebbings and flowreading the inscriptions, written in ings of human life, whether gentle deathless characters, upon the proud or simple, then “Scots wha hae monuments of Grecian, Roman, and wi Wallace bled," “ Logan Water," British fame? Are Homer, Virgil, “The Riggs of Barley," and the Horace, Shakespeare, to be set “Birks of Aberfeldy," are rant and aside as obsolete, as having fallen folly, and affectation. For, relating too far behind the age, to be worthy as they do to the same objects in naeven the perusal of common read. ture and the heart, while differing ers? Or, are the very laws of so totally in their very elements of thought and feeling, and those which being, if the one is natural, the other have hitherto governed physical na- must be factitious. But it may be ture, convulsed and changed in the objected, that every poet is not a whirl of business and progressive Burns. True, indeed; but every spirit of these restless times? Must poet is, by common consent of man. we yield every association, sacred kind, a child, a copyer, a devotee of to the scholar's heart, to be distort. nature. We complain of the differed, while it is blended with the com- ence, not in degree, but in kind. All mon-place details of what the writer, these quaint affectations, these stiwhether he be authorized or unau- fled emotions and suppressed sentithorized, may choose to consider ments, that were called into being every-day life? Are those play for the sole purpose of being strangrounds of the memory, where we gulated and murdered ; such spasms, have lingered so long, and in the and theatrical flourishes, to express shades of which we spent our child. the simplest thing in nature ; such a hood, to be bereft of every tree and paralysis of passion, upon the plain. every fountain ? Is there to be no est matter of fact topic, about which longer an echo from the dell, a the mind can be occupied, if we breeze from the hill, a spring gush. may use the language of Dr. Young ing from beneath the rock? Is that upon so trivial a subject : pure love, which warmed the tender

"Resembles ocean, into tempest wrought, breast of Miranda and Desdemona,

To waft a feather, or to drown a fly." to give place to slipshod, sentimental stories, told in the style of the nur. We hope and believe that the day sery, beginning in nothing, and end. is not remote, when, amid the coning in nothing?

vulsions that attend the old order of

things in Europe-our own country, " What think ye, a bard 's a mere gossip who placed high above the reach of these of the every day feelings of every one else ?" desolating tides our own country,

which has already given the “ lyre But we are told that these efforts of heaven another string," will en. are Acadian, that they are only pas- fold in her embraces at least one son, toral, and should be treated as such who shall strike the poet's harp, or in our estimation of them. In reply, touch the strings of the lute, with we say, if these are pastoral, then the bold hand or gentle skill of a the Bucolics of Virgil are not; if master. these are images of rural and sylvan



The Island of Jamaica is one of plains, sultry ; but at an elevation the largest of the Antilles, and much of a few hundred feet, the therthe most important of the British mometer seldom indicates a greater West India possessions. It lies be- degree of heat than 90°, and the tween the 17th and 19th degrees of nights are comfortably cool. The north latitude, and the 76th and 79th atmosphere is moist; the dews very degrees of west longitude. It is esti- heavy; and the mid-day sun, everymated to contain 6,400 square miles, where powerful. The temperature and is, therefore, about as large as varies with the elevation, and, in the the state of Massachusetts.

high mountain region, fire is com. The face of the country is ex. fortable in the morning and evening tremely diversified. The island for most of the year. Frost, snow, rises gently from the sea in exten- and ice are unknown, except that sive savannas, here and there bro. imported by Mr. Artice of Boston. ken, by spurs from a strong central The salubrity of the mountain air mountain range, which traverses the is not excelled within the tropics ; island, and rises, as it approaches but the general influence upon Eu. the east end, to the elevation of ropean constitutions is debilitating. 7,800 feet. Many of the slopes of Since the days of Cromwell, the the western, and middle sections, are island has been a dependency of the gentle, and surpassingly beautiful; British crown, and, though many but the mountain scenery of the Spanish names are retained, the Eng. eastern, is bold, precipitous, and lish language is universally spoken. grand. There are few valleys or This beautiful island, thus briefly table lands, the peaks are detached introduced 10 the reader, is the thea. cones, rising in rapid succession, ter of one of the most interesting and separated by deep ravines, experiments ever made in behalf of through which, during the wet sea. humanity. Its population is some. sons, torrents rush with resistless what less than half a million of souls, fury. There is seldom a heavy rain of which, till the year 1834, nine. unaccompanied by loss of life, at tenths were African slaves. The sta. some of ihe numerous fords of the ples cultivated by them, were sugar, island, and often at those which are rum, coffee, ginger, and pimento. dry for nine months in the year. Missionary operations were com

The island is rising rapidly from menced at an early day among the the ocean, and is evidently of recent slaves of Jamaica. In 1754, the date. Marine fossils of existing Moravians established themselves in species may be found high up in the the parish of St. Elizabeth's; and in interior, many hundred feet above 1789, Dr. Coke, the coadjutor of the level of the sea. Limestone is the venerable Wesley, organized a abundant. Trap rocks, and an ex. Methodist mission in the city of tinct volcano, are said to exist in the Kingston. The missionaries, how. higher mountain region, though Sirever, were hated as dissenters, and

T. De la Bache, an eminent English jealously watched, lest they should geologist, after a scientific tour, manifest sympathy for the negroes. found no evidences of volcanic ori. With the greatest difficulty they gin, and pronounced the formation maintained their position, and so coralline.

little progress had the missions made, The climate is hot, and, in the that, in 1816, they had little more



than a nominal existence. Among of tremendous power in the hands of the earliest religious teachers, was the leaders; for, under their tuition, an obscure negro from the state of the people came to regard them Georgia, probably a refugee slave as passports to heaven, to be obduring the war of the American tained at any price, whether of Revolution, who, in the latter part of money, virtue, or honesty. It can the last century, found his way to not be wondered at, that, with such the island, and began to preach in teachers, and such machinery, the city of Kingston. The early Christianity assumed the degraded operations of this man, George form of a licentious superstition, Lisle, are involved in great obscu- nearer akin to African heathenism, rity ; it is certain, however, that by than to pure and undefiled religion. his zeal and address he gained ready In 1817, a new era dawned upon access to the slaves, despite the Jamaica. The wars that had desoefforts of the planters; for, on the lated Europe had happily terminarevival of missions in 1816, the sectted. The slave laws had been he had established, known as the modified, and a favorable reaction “Black Baptists,” was found in all in the religious aspect of the island parts of the island, and its cardinal followed. An active sympathy was principle, immersion, universally re- awakened among the English disgarded as the seal of inevitable sal. senters, in behalf of the colonial vation. To obviate the evil of his slaves. Existing missions were exclusion from the estates, he se. strengthened, and the Baptist, Pres. lected the most intelligent slaves he byterian, and Independent bodies, could find, and gave them messages successively organized strong misto their fellows upon the estates. sionary operations among them. These messengers gathered the peo. The missionaries were protected in ple together, often secretly, and by their persons and labors, by the night, and delivered to them the government; and, notwithstanding word they had received. In process the contempt and obloquy heaped of time, the messengers became an upon them by the planters, they established order in the church, and prosecuted their objects with ra. were termed “ leaders.” To a large pidly increasing interest, and influextent they were the only medium ence, among the people. The Bapthrough which the preacher could tist missionaries occupied the most communicate with the people, and prominent position. They had, on the power they exercised, at first their arrival, entered at once into sub-pastoral, soon became an iron the labors of Mr. Lisle, and they despotism over the bodies and souls nearly absorbed his followers in of their classes. For the most part, their extensive arrangements for they were the drivers, the boat- covering the ground. They objected swains, and other prominent slaves to the " leader and ticket” system on the estate ; always ignorant, and he had organized, and would have often grossly licentious, brutal men. suppressed it, had they hoped for

Mr. Lisle gave to each person success in the effort ; but it was connected with him, a monthly feared that the attempt would de ticket, or small pasteboard card, stroy their influence, and disband certifying the nature of the connec- their churches, they therefore adoption, whether as a communicating ted it. It has, no doubt, been very member, or merely an “inquirer," much modified in their hands, yet it by which was meant a regular at is still regarded by the missionaries tendant.

of all the other bodies as a most ma. These tickets, perhaps an inno- lignant element in the religious concent device at first, became engines stitution of the island; as demorali

zing as it is powerful. It has been resumption of power by the civil the bane of some of the large Bap- authorities, they immediately institist churches, and it may yet prove tuted an investigation into the causes the ruin of all.

of the rebellion, which, however In the fall of 1831, there were unsatisfactory, fully exonerated the forty-four dissenting ministers in the missionaries and their churches, island. Cheering success had at- from any participation in it. It is tended their labors. Many churches worthy of remark, however, that it had been gathered; some schools broke out in a district extensively established; temporary erections influenced by missionary agencies, had given place to substantial chap. and in the very midst of mission els and residences; the various sta. churches. tions were “ lengthening their cords Both parties appealed to the mothand strengthening their stakes," er country. The issue was fairly and religious influences and im- made up, that dissenting missions to pressions began to permeate the

the the slaves must be abandoned, or mass; when, sudden as the light. slavery must cease, and a verdict ning's flash, every effort was pal- was demanded of the British public. sied ; churches were scattered; The demonstration of their essential buildings destroyed, and the labors antagonism was complete, and the of years apparently annihilated. appeal moved the whole empire.

In the year 1830, the free colored On the part of the planting interests population had, after a violent strug. there was a tremendous array of gle, wrung from an unwilling legis. wealth, talent, and influence; but lature, the concession of equal rights. the moral sense of the nation was Soon after, a report was extensively aroused, and truth triumphed. On circulated among the slaves that the the 22d September, 1833, the Im. king had set them free ; but that the perial Parliament passed the Emanplanters, like the Egyptian Pharaoh, cipation Act, by which all the negro had refused to let them go. They slaves in the British colonies, came resolved to strike for liberty. An into an apprenticeship state on the insurrection was organized, and so 1st August, 1834, to continue, in the wisely and secretly conducted, that case of the domestic slaves, till 1st it was not even suspected, till the August, 1838, and of the field slaves, fatal night on which the torch was till 1st August, 1840, at which periapplied, and the whole northwest ods they severally became absolute. district of the island was illumined ly free. The bill granted the option by blazing cane-fields, and sugar- of immediate emancipation to those works. Martial law was proclaimed, colonies whose legislatures should and the miserable negroes were

elect it, but all chose the apprenbutchered by hundreds. Few whites ticeship, except the small Islands of were slain, but upwards of six mil. Antigua and Bermuda, which, as sublions of dollars' worth of property sequent events have clearly shown, was destroyed by the insurgents. wisely preferred the alternative. In the frenzy of the moment, the It also granted an indemnity of missionaries were denounced as the twenty millions sterling to the plantauthors of the rebellion. Vengeance ers; not, as has sometimes been demanded its sacrifice ; and, in turn, represented, as the purchase price the planters became incendiaries. of the slaves, but to reimburse them They madly fired the chapels and for any losses they should sustain dwellings of the missionaries, and by the operation of the act. The thus added to the destruction more intermediate system worked badly. than two hundred thousand dollars It was the source of endless heartworth of mission property. On the burnings and bitterness, and more than once called forth stringent and perity of the island. Unhappily the stinging despatches and regulations new system has been judged by the from the Colonial Office. The negro same tests. The successful or adhoped for freedom. The new sys. verse working of the emancipation, tem mocked him with the name, is made identical with the increase while it wrung from him ten hours or diminution of the number of hogsof unrequited toil, daily. The plant- heads of sugar, puncheons of rum, ers wanted unpaid labor, and it and bags of coffee, ginger, and pimocked them with the promise, mento, shipped to England.

And while it wrenched from their grasp still more unhappily, it has been the slave whip, by which alone they complicated with other influences could coerce it. This unnatural adverse to the prosperity of the is. stale fretted every one sore; and as land, and the disastrous results of the experiment of freeing them in all, have been laid to the account of classes was regarded as hazardous, emancipation. The staple exports if not dangerous, it was resolved by have greatly decreased. Property all parties, to relinquish to the field has ruinously depreciated; and of slaves two years of their servitude, course the agricultural and financial and let all go out free on 1st August, interests of the island have been ex. 1838.

tremely embarrassed ; there have The advent of unconditional free. been many failures, and much dis. dom was anticipated by the differ. tress : all ihis is unquestionably true, ent classes, with the intensest emo- -and because it has in the order of tions of fear, hope and joy. It was time occurred subsequently to the ushered in by voices of devout emancipation, it is presumed that it thanksgiving and praise, and was has wrought all this ruin, and that marked by all the order of a solemn the emancipated classes are idle and festival. Not a voice was raised in lazy, refusing to work, and utterly riot; not an arm nerved by revenge. unworthy the blessings conferred It was a sacred sabbatical jubilee.

Thę sugar cultivation is the great A revolution such as that which interest of the island. The sugar has passed upon Jamaica must de- estates, (merely called " estates" in velope its tendencies and influences contradistinction to coffee properin the generations which follow, ties called "properties,") are very rather than in those which witness it. large, and have heretofore been very The degrading superstitions, habits, valuable. They lie along the saand usages of the slaves, may be vannas, and vallies and gentle hill modified in the present generation, sides of the island. Near the cen. but they can be eradicated only by ter, are the “works,” embracing the continuous efforts of successive the “

the “great house," the proprietor's ages; yet ten years have elapsed residence--the“ basha's (overseer's) since the advent of unrestricted free house," the “ boiling house," "cur. dom, and we may reasonably en- ing house." “mill" (for expressing quire aster the results that have thus the cane juice), “ trash house," and far been attained.

distillery. The drainings from the

curing house, the dregs from the Under the old system, the whole boiling house, and the sweets from slave population were held to labor immature, injured, or rat eaten for the supply of the British market. canes, with an indefinite amount of They were producers only. Hence, filth, tobacco juice, dead mice, rats, the tabular relurns from the cus. &c., are turned into the “rum well,” toms, indicated the amount of labor and are manufactured into the “rum performed, and measured the pros. crop," at the distillery.

upon them.

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