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they perform any useful part in the are content to allow these facts to sustenance of animal life.

speak for themselves, while we ex“The cultivation of the earth, amine briefly another feature of the therefore, is confined to those narrow same district, without which our strips of land which are within the view would be very imperfect. By level of the waters of the streams, examining any map of ordinary acand wherever practiced in a com. curacy, we find in this district of munity with any success, or to any country, what Fremont calls the extent, involves a degree of subor. Great Basin. With the map of this dination and absolute obedience to a enterprising traveler we could de. chief, repugnant to the habits of our fine more accurately the boundaries people. The chief who directs the of this singular and isolated region; time and quantity of the precious and in the want of that, must conirrigating water, must be obeyed tentourselves with such authorities as implicitly by the whole community. are within our reach. On most maps A departure from his orders, by a for want of better knowledge, it is waste of water, or unjust distribution put down as the Great Sandy Des. of it, or neglect to make proper em. ert, and until Fremont's partial exbankments, may endanger the means ploration its real character was un. of subsistence of many people. He known. This traveler has twice vismust therefore be armed with power ited it, and yet in his last report adto punish promptly and immédi- dressed to the Senate, he speaks of ately.

it as “deserving the full examina“The profits of labor are too in- tion of a thorough exploration." adequate for the existence of negro Fremont says explicitly that it is slavery. Slavery as practiced by “a basin of some five hundred miles the Mexicans, under the form of in diameter every way, between peonage, which enables the master four and five thousand feet above to get the services of the adult while the level of the sea, shut in all around in the prime of life, without the ob- by mountains, with its own system ligation of rearing him in infancy, of lakes and rivers, and having no supporting him in old age, or main. connexion whatever with the sea.”+ taining his family, affords no data Here then we have in this basin and for estimating the profits of slave la- its broad rim of mountains between bor, as it exists in the United States. two and three hundred thousand No one who has ever visited this square miles, which is about one country, and who is acquainted with third of the entire conquest. Fre. the character and value of slave la mont proves that it is not given up bor in the United States, would ever entirely to sterility. “Mountain is think of bringing his own slaves here the predominating structure of the with any view to profit; much less interior of the basin," and " its genwould he purchase slaves for such eral character, with exceptions, is a purpose. Their labor here, if that of desert. The plains are sandy they could be retained as slaves, and barren. The bases of the moun. among peons, nearly of their wn tain have a “ belt of alluvial soil," color, would never pay the cost of and that with considerable uniformtransportation, much less the addi- ity. The basin has two large lakes, tional purchase money."*

the one salt, and the other fresh ; Our readers will remember that and “on the east of these, along we have thus passed along the south. the base of the mountains, is the ern border of our new territory as usual bench of alluvion, which exfar as the Snowy Mountain ; and we tends to a distance of three hundred

* Emory's New Mexico, p. 98.

Fremont's Geog. Memoir, p.7.

dant grass.

miles, with wood, water, and abun- ritory on which to plant and extend

The salt lake is about slavery; a war costing the poor seventy miles long, and the Utah man's life with a multiplication truly about half that. On this bench of frightful. Our pollutions are not land the Mormons have already be drank from the brimming cup of gun a settlement, and made such wealth to constitute their apology. headway, that “on the 1st of April And as we glance over the bulk of of the present year they had three our acquisitions already described, thousand acres of wheat, seven saw we are almost maliciously reminded and grist mills, seven hundred hous- by some scoundrel-whisperer at our es in a fortified enclosure of sixtyear, of a scene in Milton, “ a grove acres, stock and other accompani- hard by,” “laden with fair fruit." ments of a flourishing settlement.” The climate of the Basin is said to

On that prospect strange

Their earnest eyes they fixed" be excellent, and the rains generally “Yet parched with scalding thirst and hunger sufficient for the purposes of agri- fierce," culture.

"greedily they plucked

The fruitage fair io sight, like that which grew And yet these documents, pub. Near that bituminous lake where sudom lished by the Senate of the United

flamed; States, declare the greater portion Deceived; they fondly thinking to allay

This more delusive, not the touch, but teste of this third part of their conquest to

Their appetite with gusi, instead of fruit be a useless desert, having the small

Chewed bitter ashes, which the offended taste

With spattering noise rejected !" est capacities for furnishing necessary subsistence for population. Prob- The hand of Providence has held ably a dozen counties in the buck. the balance here, and while she eye state actually have more acres held has flung such a mist before of arable land than this immense ac- the eyes of the rapacious barterers quisition east of the Sierra Nevada. in this bargain, that they fancied this We have mountains and plains of immense territory of desert to be an rolling sand-hills, interspersed with Eden of such unrivalled fertility, that here and there a patch of ground all the south might see berself which has a soil sufficient for agri- more than reproduced in new slave culture; and even here, in the ma- states. jority of cases, the streams must be A few more words and we have dammed for irrigation, as an indis- done. The only redeeming feature pensable condition. Were the twen. of this hard bargain, is found in that ty-five thousand men alive, whose part of Upper California which lies lives this iniquitous war has cost the between the Sierra Nevada and the United States, the territory-aside Pacific coast, and as this part of the from Upper California proper territory is better understood than bought with their blood, would hard- the rest, we shall be as brief as posly furnish a sufficiency of produc.sible concerning it. In round numtive land to give each of ihem a bers, this district contains between quarter of a section! We have not seventy-five thousand and one hun. done so well as old England in her dred thousand square miles; that is

, Asiatic iniquities, drinking up it includes territory equal to nearly -“ demure as at a grace,

twice that of Ohio or New York. Pollutions from the brimming cup of wealth ; Humboldt says it is one of the most Contemptuous of all honorable rule, Yet bartering freedom and the poor man's life The valleys of the American, the

beautiful countries in the world. For gold as at a market!" Here is the prize we gain in a war

Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, originating in the greed for new ter

are very fertile. Fremont, in order

to reach the Arkansas, was com. * Fremont's Geog. Memoir, p. 8.

pelled to follow the San Joaquin

some distance, and keep the rocky ramparts of rock heaven-high berampart of Sierra Nevada on his left, tween us and California, which we some five hundred miles, in order to do not say may not yet be hewn find a pass over them. This made down, but which we do believe will the journey to the Arkansas two long remain untouched. And bethousand miles, which, in due east fore any such scheme can be availcourse, was about nine hundred able or permanent, the savages must miles. During that journey, even in be civilized, or removed, or exterCalifornia, he found many sandy and minated; but judging from the hisbarren plains, proving the country tory of the savages, as seen in our not to be altogether so many square slave states, this last would be the miles of fertility. Facts will prove smallest of obstacles, and easily that many leagues of worthless land shoved aside. mar the excellence of this country. And now, glancing at the country For instance, Fremont says that the over which we have passed so raextensive valley of the San Joaquin pidly, searching twelve hundred “presents every variety of soil, from miles from the head-waters of the dry and unproductive to well wa- Arkansas before we found a countered and luxuriantly fertile.” Be. try which at all deserves the name sides these sterile tracts in the level of being productive and valuable, country, we must also substract the who of us believes that California on broad and rocky slopes of the moun. the Pacific, cut off from our remotains which hem it in its whole test settlements by a vast desert, and length. The climate is remarkably broad, high mountains, can be bound fine, if we except the single draw- long to Washington as a center? back on the highest capabilities for Let it grow and become important, agriculture, its tendency to aridity. in a section of the world where its It is not so faulty in this respect as habits and interesis will be peculiar Lower California, and the country to itself, separated by a journey of east of the mountains already de. three thousand miles from the center scribed. Yet the agriculturalist can of power, who believes such a prize not rely with any degree of cer- will long stay in our grasp ? Intainty on the rains of heaven. To deed, as we have looked at ihe subbe above the fear of drought, he must ject of American conquests, we have irrigate, for which there are facili thought of a fear which was once ties in many parts of the territory. expressed by sea-faring men con

Our government, no doubt, allach- cerning that huge iron steamer, the es the highest importance to the bays Great Britain, that her length was and harbors, which are said to be so great that she was liable to break very capacious and safe. Of these in two on the back of some high the public are sufficiently informed wave, or with her stern on one wave already, and of their prospective and stem on another, with her cenimportance in the trade with East- ter unsupported, she might go to ern Asia. The day when this shall pieces by her own weight. Is there be the case is too remote to call for no danger of the same sort to our remark here. Until a railroad can country, reaching now from Maine be constructed across the continent, to California, a huge, weary length ? these harbors will not be of much Should there come some such a service in that trade, and such ob- storm as the rabid nullificationists of stacles exist to a project of this kind, the South are threatening, we conthat it may reasonably be doubted fess to the painful fear, that on the whether even American enterprise back of that wave we should break will dare to grapple with them for a in two. Or should the ill-fated vés. long time to come. Nature has lifted sel rest on two mountain waves, one stirred by freedom, the other THE IMMENSE BURDENS SADDLED ON by slavery, we should tremble lest

US BY THE ANNEXATION OF TEXAS. she should fall to pieces by her own But if our deductions prove not false unwieldy weight!

concerning the utler unfitness of Such are our prospects in Califor these conquests for the purposes nia, and such the fears to which this they were intended to subserve, we base war has made us heirs—a war thank Him, whose power has been conceived in sin, and brought forth displayed sublimely in heaving up in iniquity—a war commenced for these mountains into such a rugged the extension of slavery, and costing and unproductive confusion, as shall us, who abhor such a result as we forever banish from this territory a do death, TWENTY-FIVE THOUSAND system which traffics in the image MEN, AND ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY- of God, and whose presence, any SIX MILLIONS OF DOLLARS, BESIDES where, is an unmitigated curse.

THE ETHICS OF RELIGIOUS CONTROVERSY.

That the baneful effects of reli- set against the faith of his opponent. gious controversy, far exceed the Nor does the cause of truth always good effects, and that it deserves for come out of these conflicts unthis reason to be discountenanced by harmed. After the smoke and dust the friends of truth, is a very prev. of battle have passed away, we dis. alent opinion. These evils are in- cover that the victory has not been disputably very great, and very won without a fearful sacrifice, and much to be deplored. Controversy it is often quite doubtful whether, often results in the lasting alienation after all, the advantage is on the of Christians from each other, not side of truth. Bad results are suffionly of the immediate disputants, ciently apparent, but the good conbut of all who take sides with them. tended for, the refutation of error, The more remote effect upon the and the establishment of truth in the world is perhaps an evil of still convictions of men, is not so mani. greater magnitude. It is question- festly attained. able whether there is any other ob- What shall we, then, say of the jection to Christianity which has so defenders of orthodoxy in the Christ- . much influence in strengthening un. ian church? Shall we deny their belief, as the controversies of the title to gratitude ? Shall we say church. The unfairness and bitter. that the peace and purity of the ness of these conflicts bring Christ. church are not indebted to their la. ianity itself into doubt, and the doc. bors ? Shall we frown upon all trines contended for, ofien the most controversy among Christians ? essential parts of the system, into We might, perhaps, be driven to undeserved odium. Nor are the this extreme, if we were forced to true ends of controversy very fre. take the controversies of the church, quently attained as a compensation as they have been for the most part for these terrible evils of the con- conducted, as a type of what they flict. The errorist, who, if he had are by necessity. The unchristian been left to his own reflections and manner in which religious contro. studies, or to the silent influence of versies have generally been carried time, might have come to the light, on, has given them, by way of emi. is hopelessly wedded by controversy nence, the name of polemics ; as at to his own opinions, at least forever the first the Apostle James denomi

nated them, “ wars and fightings." most charitable explanation of the This they ought never to be ; yet this wrong-otherwise we must either they have been for the most part. The deny its existence, or refer it all to parties commonly accuse each other intentional misrepresentation. Al. not only of error, but of dishonesty ; lowance must also be made for the and unhappily there is, in most force of custom. Although the mancases, too much reason for these ner of the controvertist is very apt mutual criminations. Persuaded that to be determined by his inward he is the champion of the truth-set spirit; yet it may be influenced, also, for the defense of the gospel-each by the custom of conducting controconceives himself at liberty to use versies with asperity. This custom, any weapon within his reach to de- long established, has become the fend his own positions, and to carry law of controversy-the mold into the war into the enemy's territory. which it naturally runs and shapes He esteems nothing sacred that itself. The controvertist deems him. stands in the way of what he con- self at liberty to employ any of siders the vindication and triumph the weapons which use has sancof " the faith once delivered to the tioned. Hence the harshness of his saints.” He is prepared to stab the manner is not an infallible index of reputation of his antagonist in any a malignant spirit.

a malignant spirit. He may have a vulnerable point, if that will impair kinderand purer heart than we should the force of his argument with the suspect from the style of his pen. community, and to lacerate his feel- But whatever may be the exact ings by unjust imputations and abu- amount of criminality chargeable sive language, in retaliation for sim. upon theological disputants, the terilar insults, and even without such rible injury inflicted by their conprovocation. He does not scruple flicts upon the cause of Christ, can to supply what is wanting in the hardly be exaggerated. The memcogency of his argument by the hers of Christ have been riven asun. pungency of his wit

. He makes der, not by difference of opinion, himself remembered as an enemy, not by free discussion of their difrather than as a fair and honorable ferences, but by disputation condisputant. He exposes the purity ducted with acrimony and unfairof his faith to suspicion by his un. Misrepresentations, arising, christian spirit, and hatred of him is sometimes from misapprehension, naturally transferred to his creed. sometimes, no doubt, from design, Some allowance, it is true, is to be have been, from time to time, incormade for mutual misapprehension. porated into the literature of the Occupying different positions, and sects, until they have established viewing the subject from different what threatens to be a lasting prejupoints, having rushed to the encoun- dice. If Christians had from the ter without proper consideration, it first conducted their controversies is not surprising that the parties with urbanity, and while they manishould differ in stating the questions fested an earnest desire to commend at issue between them. This would the truth to universal belief, had naturally happen were there no in- shown as conscientious a regard for tention to misrepresent; and it is the laws of controversy-exaggeraproved to be common by the com- ting nothing, and setting down nothplaints of unfairness called forth by ing in malice-expressing toward every controversy.

their opponents none but generous knowledges himself fairly repre. feelings, the whole effect would have ‘sented by his opponent-all com- been good—the evils, which have plain of wrong—and to suppose they made controversy the dread of the misapprehend each other, is the church, would never have been

ness.

No one

ac.

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