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cal, is plain from the experiment of has gone on steadily improving, and Lord George Hill, in the Gweedore in this way land within ien or iwelve district on the sea-shore of Donegal, miles of Florence returns 3 per cent. referred to on p. 269. In that dis- and beyond that distance 41 per cent. trict, nine thousand people resided to the landlord.” without a market, without a store, Some such scheme as this, by and without many of the necessaries which capital can be well employed of life. Afier Lord George came and labor well rewarded, is what is into possession of the property by needed in Ireland. The first great purchase, he endeavored to abolish requisite is capital-capital to be ihe system of pery leases for the invested upon the soil, so that the sake of introducing a better. At laboring classes can find employ. first he met with much opposition ment for wages. But in order that from the ignorant tenantry, who sup. capital should be invested in Ireland, posed that he meant to deprive them instead of being withdrawn 10 be of their rights. But beginning with employed in England, there must a few, he caused cabins to be erect. be confidence, security, law, a strong ed at regular intervals, and the land government. The present feverish belonging to each 10 be marked off siate of Ireland is faial 10 all plans by diiches, so that each tenant might of improvement. The government know his own boundaries. Next he therefore, having first gained the erected a store at which he agreed confidence of the people by reasonto purchase at the market price, oats able concessions, should favor judiand other produce, engaging 10 sell cious systems of improvement in ag. in turn at the lowest rates whatever riculture, in trade, and in manufac. commodities the tenantry should tures. In our own country we preneed. What now was the result? fer to leave these things to private In 1839, there was paid at the store enterprise. They do not properly for oats raised upon the premises, fall within the province of govern£479 9s. 6ļd., and in 1844, £1100. ment. But with the British governlo 1840, there were among the len- ment in Ireland, every thing is an antry thirty-six competitors for agri. exception. Government must as cultural prizes; and in 1844, there far as pussible, repair the evils of were two hundred and thirty-nine. the unwholesome legislation of cenContrast this state of things with the turies. For example; we have seen description of Gweedore given in bow Parliament in the reign of Willour last article, and see wheiber the iam III. prohibited woollen manurenovation of Ireland is impossible. factures in Ireland. It was a small

“ Tuscany was once in the same compensation for this that the linen destitute state as Ireland. But by manufactures were fostered; for the an arrangement with the nobles, seat of these manufactures was Ul. what is called ihe Meleyer system ster, so that the Protestant interest of husbandry was introduced; the was fostered at the expense of the principle of which is the following. Catholic. These prohibitions have The landlord, in addition to the land, now been removed, but it is the du. finds houses, oxen, and farming im. ty of government, by way of atoneplements, and the tenant seed, labor, ment, to encourage the manufacturand other necessaries. In other ing interest of Ireland till it shall be words, the landlord finds the capital established upon a firm foundation. -The tenant the labor. The crop But the encouragement of govis then equally divided, the tenant ernment should not be limited to taking one half, the landlord the other. From the time that this im.

* Laing's “Notes of a traveler in France, pelus was given to industry, the land Italy,” &c. Quoted by Browne.

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any one interest. The agriculture laborers for wages ?” This plainly
of Ireland is capable of much im. must be the work of time. But a
provement. The soil could proba prerequisite to it is the restoration
bly be made to produce three times of quiet and order in the country.
its present returns. But cultivation And in order to this, the government
should not be stimulated beyond must enter in good faith upon the
capital, or beyond the demands of business of ameliorating the condi-
the market. It should be made for tion of Ireland, as the first great
the private interest of the landlord work to be accomplished. li must
and of the tenant to develop the ag. feel that it has something else to do
ricullural resources of the country in Ireland besides silencing the
in their fullest extent. This may mouth of sedition, and overawing
be facilitated by government boun: the spirit of insurrection. In the
ties, and more especially by agri- sententious language of one of her
cultural societies. But the grand own sons, what is now needed for
measure of government for this pur. Ireland is, “less politics and more
pose, should be the construction of ploughing, less argument and more
railroads, judiciously located, which action, less debating and more do-
should bring the remote parts of the ing.'
country near to a market. If one Facilities for emigration to the
half the money squandered upon colonies would yield some present
public works that will either be relief to Ireland. The emigration
wholly unproductive, or the benefit to this country is already quite as
of which can not be realized for large as is consistent with the good
years, if one-half or one-fourth that either of the country or of the emi-
sum had been given to encourage

grants themselves.
the building of railroads, while the We have devoted so much space
same incidental benefit of affording to the physical condition of Ireland,
labor to the destitute poor would that we can not now enter at length
have been secured, Ireland would upon the topics of education and re.
have been furnished with those ligion as related to the improvement
means of easy and cheap intercom- of her people, but the necessity for
munication which are the life of en- the general education and for the
terprise and of trade.

thorough evangelization of the peoSomething may be done also for ple of Ireland is so obvious as to rethe improvement of fisheries, for the quire no comment. The system of encouragement of mining, and for national schools is working admirathe reclaiming of waste lands by bly, so that there are few of the ris. draining and by other agencies. ing generation in Ireland who can

In all this it may be thought that not read. The lad of whom we we are prescribing a Herculean task spoke at the beginning of our artito the British government. But our cle, had saved out of the wreck of suggestions cover a wide range and poverty itself, a library comprising do not leave out the important ele- ihe Bible, the Catechism, the Book ment of time. Much of what we of Common Prayer, bound volumes have now proposed could be gradu. of tracts, a grammar, a geography, ally accomplished by private enter. Young's Night Thoughts, and the prise, aided by the sanction and Lady of the Lake. These he unthe credit of government. But the rolled from a torn and dirty hand. hand of government must be dis. kerchief, with evident pride. His tinctly seen in these reforms, to in education was that of the national spire confidence and to ensure suc. school. Mrs. Nicholson testifies that cess. The great problem is, “ How to transform a nation of paupers into

* Richard Bourke.

the national schools are doing much ant missionary being sent every. good. We trust that Tullaghobeg. where through the land, we may ley itself has shared in the general look for the emancipation even of improvement at Gweedore.

the Roman Catholic mind, and the The evangelization of Ireland is moral regeneration of Ireland. yet to be undertaken in such a spirit We turn toward the emerald isle and with such resources as shall with hope ; we wait with patience ; warrant the expectation of success. believing that she will yet shine The system of church dependence forth from the mists that surround upon ihe state being abolished in her, as one of the brightest gems of every form, and the word of God, the sea. with the Bible-reader and the itiner


AGRICULTURAL Chemistry is throw. There is the world before you ; it ing light upon the work of subduing is your field of labor. You will the earth. It is doubtful whether find in it all the materials for your any mind has received the full im- subsistence, though, in consequence port of the command of God to of sin, it will yield its support only Adam, Go forth from the garden, to constant toil. Enter this field and till the ground.' Doubtless and subdue it.

Labor is necessary Adam thought it a hard sentence. to your health, your happiness, and It wore the aspect of a heavy curse. above all, to your character. Make

Thenceforward he was to soil in the rough places smooth; the crook. the sweat of his brow, and not ed, straight; the barren, fruitful. merely to dress the garden. In Your course must henceforth be the earth before him lay his means one of toil and sorrow, alleviated of subsistence, and he must win it with many comforts and joys; flow. by severe labor. Heretofore his ers you will find, though thorns will work had been easy; for God had everywhere spring up. The whole made everything ready at his earth is yours,-subdue it all. By hands. He had only to pluck and faithfully doing this work, you will eat. Now he must dig or starve. acquire not only a livelihood but A flaming sword guarded the en. mental and moral discipline. Idle. trance to Eden ;-he could not go ness and ease will prove injurious, back. He was forced out. Toil both to your physical and moral was now his lot; for a tough soil nature. You have been taught how was to be cultivated, a thorny earth the ground should be cultivated. to be subdued. No terrestrial par. Make it all beautiful like Eden ; and adise, unless hard work could make in that consummation earth and man one, was any longer possible for shall be restored from their ruin, man. When God spoke to Adam, the mission of labor be accomplishhe spoke to the race. The doctrine ed, and the praise of God be uniof federal headship is true here, versal.' if false elsewhere. Adam received Were it within the compass of his commission of labor, as the rep our plan, we might show from nu. resentative of his race. In speak. merous passages of Scripture, that ing to him, God addressed the such is the import of God's sending whole family of man. And the our race forth 10 till the earth. We import of his words, is this ;- believe the earth is to be worked VOL. VI.


back into a garden like Eden, highly ment; for God never designed the cultivated and fruitful, where every tilling of the earth any more than thing shall abound that can minister the dressing of the garden, to be to human happiness. We believe a mere work of the hands ;-the also that the work of subduing the mind and heart were to be cultiearth will keep pace with the pro- vated by the same means. Bot gress of the race in all that is lovely these points will come in more natand of good report, because God urally in another connection, and has appointed this work as one es. we proceed to offer such considera. sential means of the elevation and tions, (waiving the argument from perfection of man. If on account the Scriptures,) as convince us that of the fall, God made the world a man's mission of labor implies the hard field of labor for man's good; complete subjugation of the earth; if hard toil is a necessary means of that fertility and beauty are yet to his recovery, which all grant;-then, take the place of barrenness and it is not too much to suppose that, deformity, to the extent of chang. as the race advances in industry ing the whole earth into an Eden. and skill, and as progress is made The means for realizing this in the art of cultivation, the time change are inexhaustible. Thanks will come when the whole earth to agricultural chemistry, and other will be a garden, and the entire kindred sciences, for putting the race holy. The latter event is fact beyond dispute, that there is no clearly predicted, and in this pre- exhausting the productive resources diction the other is embraced. We of the earth. Indolence and ignomay also confidently anticipate it as rance of the art of cultivation may the result of causes already in ope- long continue to “run out" the rich. ration. Thus far in the history of est lands; but it is now demonstra. the world the subjugation of the ted that intelligent labor can readily earth has kept pace with the gener. restore their fertility. The Maker al improvement of our race. Every of the earth has provided, and every: event which has promoted the ad. where distributed, the means of vancement of man toward his prim- making it indefinitely productive. itive character has resulted in a Within it and around upon its surcorresponding improvement of the face, science points to materials in earth; and every discovery and in- unmeasured quantities, and of easy vention which have imparted a new access, sufficient to produce an impulse to agriculture, has also abundance of the necessaries and reacted favorably upon human pro. luxuries of life, for any amount of gress. Guizot asserts this fact in population : and also for every purhis history of civilization. And pose of taste and ornament. The the fact is more apparent now than pleasure and improvement arising it has hitherto been. Man who from the proper use of these means, was taken from the earth, has his are the sure inheritance of the fu. destiny in this life linked with that ture. God has indeed left man to of the earth. Melioration in his work out for himself this destiny. physical and social condition is in. But in this he manifests his benevodispensable to his intellectual and lence. He designs that we should moral advancement; and he can have the pleasure of discovery to find such melioration only in a more lighten our toil, and labor fit to er: general and perfect cultivation of ercise our faculties. Otherwise lathe soil. More properly, perhaps, bor would have been a double curse. it might be said that such progress He provides the materials and gives in the cultivation of the soil is itself us capacity to discover and use an intellectual and moral advance. them.' Man was placed after the

fall in a part of the world where he of rights have they put forth! could easily gain a subsistence. God gave this earth to man, for Then he knew comparatively little his support; it is his field of labor of the necessary conditions of the and enjoyment. Not only his phys. most productive crops. Nearly six ical necessities, but his happiness and thousand years have passed away, virtue require that it should be apwithout any great progress in sub- propriated according to this original duing the earth. For the earth, design. It must not, it shall not be dependent upon man for its culture, forever turned into a field of can not advance faster than its cul- slaughter, or kept from cultivation tivator. And the “ progress of the for the gratification of the few, species,” thus far, gives little occa. while the millions need it for their sion for boasting. But let us hope. sustenance. Let it be subdued, Nature must have time. God is tilled, dressed, like Eden, for there never in haste. With him a thou- are means of doing it.' sand years are as one day.

A few facts are now settled By means of chemical experi. enough to show that no insurmountments upon the nature of soils, and able obstacles lie in the way of what the constituent elements of all kinds may be considered perfect cultivaof animal and vegetable productions, tion. It is known what the soil, or more real progress has been made what the properties of the soil, in the science of cultivation within must be, lo secure any particular a few years than during all the crop in the greatest abundance. centuries of the past. What is call. A few elementary substances-or ed the age of discovery is passed, what are called such-compose and thal of invention, experiment, everything within and around us. induction and genuine “Baconian The rock and the lily, the savory fruit,” has arrived. The whole draught and the metal goblet which earth has been discovered. Any contains it, the sickle, the grain and school-boy can open his atlas and the reaper, the costly diamond and point to every continent and island, the black coal upon the hearth, con. every ocean, lake and stream, ac- tain some of the same eleinents in curately laid down. That work different degrees and combinations. is done, and Columbus may rest in The mineral has been analyzed, peace. The next great problem is, and its component parts discovered How can the earth be subdued ? so accurately, that the analyzer hav. Its equitable division among nations ing obtained the elements from and individuals, is a subordinate other substances, has produced the question; though what battle-fields mineral itself. It has been demonand law-suits lie in the way of its strated, that all parts. of the animal final settlement! We turn from body are found in the 'food which these contests praying for their mit. nourishes it. And that the ele. igation, and look with hope to the ments of this food are contained in peaceful and beneficent array of the earth, (always taking into view geologists, chemists and practical what is furnished by air and water.) scientific agriculturists, armed with That is, what is called the “princihammers, retorts and spades, the ple of life” in man or in animals, van of an innumerable host of strong produces nothing. All that is apand cheerful men who bear aloft propriated by the life-process in the upon their standard the motio— growth and support of living bodies, “Let the earth be subdued for man.' must be introduced. It is still liter. This body of men from civilized ally true that man comes from the nations, is destined to march through earth, and in his physical nature reall lands. And what a declaration mains strictly earthy. The chem.

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