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system never obtained extensive cur. The legal and the medical profesrency among the Germans, being sions no less than the clerical, may held by only one of the numerous be adorned by the highest style of sects of the great Kantean school. Christian character; and in them A modern Greek, the pupil of Krug, no less than in the latter, a most translated the Fundamental Philos- beneficent influence may be exerted. ophy into the language of the mod. The want of piety in a minister of ern Greeks; another translated it the Gospel shocks our moral sense, into Hungarian, and a third into but it is no less really a defect in Polish; but with what effects on the other professions. We need those nations, we are not informed. men of devoted piety at the bar to

plead the cause of justice; and at Posthumous Influence : A Sermon the bed side of the sick, to minister

occasioned by the death of the both to the body and the mind of the Hon. Samuel Hubbard, LL.D., sufferer. It should not therefore be Associate Justice of the Supreme pronounced a dereliction of duty, if Judicial Court of Massachusetts, a young man, considering bis pecu. preached to the Park Street Con- liar talents, tastes and opportunities, gregation, Boston, Sabbath morn- devotes himself 10 the study and ing, January 2, 1848. By Silas practice of law. It may be the field

Aiken, Pastor of the Church. which he is best fitted to occupy; A Good Man Lamented : A Sermon and if he should be successful, one in

preached in the First Congrega- which he can contribute most effitional Church, Canandaigua, N. ciently to the triumph of truth in Y., at the funeral of Walter Hub- the world. The conflict of the bell, Tuesday, March 28, 1848. courts, and the drudgery of busiBy the Pastor of the Church, ness, may be so uncongenial to his 0. E. Daggett: with Notes ap- taste, that he can not be happy in pended.

the profession ; but that he can be

an upright lawyer, and a consistent The excellent men whose mem- Christian, we have no doubt. A proories are commemorated in these fession which has to do with the discourses were lawyers; the first right administration of justice, may distinguished in his profession, and be practiced with integrity, and conboth distinguished for their useful fer important benefits upon mankind. ness, and held in the highest esteem The erroneous views commonly as men of business, as citizens, and taken of this subject,. we ascribe to as members of the church of Christ. the notion, that the great work of They have rested from their la. teaching religion, and guiding men bors; but the salutary influence of to heaven, devolves exclusively on their example, prayers, and chari. ministers consecrated to the work. ties, will long survive them. The As we return more and more to the lives of such men are a sufficient primitive idea of the church in refutation of the prevalent opinion which it was expected that every that young men of Christian char brother would share in the work of acter, if they would be useful in the mutual edification, and in instructing highest degree, must devote them the ignorant, we shall do more to selves to the Gospel ministry. The introduce men of Christian princi demand for preachers may be so ple not only into the Gospel minispressing that no young man of edu. iry, but into the other learned procation, talents and piety, should pre- fessions. Every Christian will then fer another work; but ordinarily be considered a laborer in the videother doors of usefulness may be yard of Christ, and every profesopen to him, so full of promise, that sional man as enjoying peculiar fahe may conscientiously enter them. cilities for doing good.

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THE

NEW ENGLANDER.

No. XXIV.

OCTOBER, 1848.

IRELAND.

In our number for April, we en- We asked a bright Irish lad of deavored to spread before our read. fifteen, the other day, ers, the actual condition of Ireland, What did you use to live upon together with some of the causes of in Ireland ?” her present social degradation. In “ Potatoes, sir.” reviewing the article, we feel, that “ Did you never have any meat notwithstanding the painful array of before you came to America ?" facts which it presents, we have fail. “Never a bit of male, sir." ed to convey any adequate idea of “Did you have no bread eiiher?” the miseries of ihai unhappy land; “Sometimes, when we could'nt and yet the very description which buy the potatoes we would have a to us appears so meagre, has proba. little bread.” bly been read with incredulity by

This was in the summer monihs, those who have never before looked when the old crop of potatoes was upon the fearful picture of a nation exhausted, and the new could not in want. For the sake of suffering yet be gathered; and when of course humanity, we could wish that all we potatoes, from being cheap and have written were a fiction; but as plenty, rose 10 a higher price per in the first instance we made no stone ihan meal, which was cumstatement touching the destitution of monly beyond the reach of the poor. the people, except upon the author. er classes. The “ meal monihs": ity of competent and impartial eye. are always a season of great priva. witnesses, we now find every such tion. Then only in all the year did statement corroborated by facis daily our little Irish lad taste bread, and brought to our knowledge.*

then not because bread could be

afforded, but because potatoes could * Of the thousand and one publications not. We could believe him when which the state of Ireland las called forth

he said, “I'd rather live in this from the British press, only a few have reached us; for most of them were of country, sir, than in That;" for such an ephemeral character as to have though his home consisted only of vanished from the market before our two rooms, neither of them ten feet blank order could be filled. Those which square, dark, solitary and poorly have been received, however, possess a standard value, and others are constantly furnished, without even a comforia. arriving.

ble bed for a family of four, yet he VOL. VI.

58

was decently clothed and well fed, hood had more absolute sway over or as he expressed it, the diet is the mass of society than in Ireland, beller in this country than in that.' By the ignorant, the priest is looked This lad belonged io a Protestant upon as one invested with a divine family, which had lived in compar. sancity; and even those who have alively good circumstances previ- learned to discriminale between the ous to the distress ;' but whose office and the man, have a feeling condition after all, was substantially of reverence for the former that that described on pp. 279–80 of our borders un superstition. April number. *

" What honor you pay to these The rules of the Romish church men,” said Mrs. Nicholson to an respecting fasts, are quite superflu- Irishman of Cork, who was bowing ous, so far as the peasantry of Ire. reverently to a priest. land are concerned, since for them “ Not to the man," said he, " but “ 10 abstain from meats” can be no to what he may have about him. privation. Those rules have force He may have been 10 visit some chiefly with the priesthood, and with dying person, and have some of the the religious orders. Mrs. Nichol. broken body of the Savior with son intorms us, that at Father him!" Mathew's table during Lent, " three

No class of Catholic emigrants kinds of fish, with puddings, jellies in the United States, remains so and fruits, were substituted for pig, long under the surveillance of the beef and poultry;"—and that a priesthood as the Irish. The Ger. more jovial priest, whom she en. miins soon become enfranchised; countered at the same season, was even the German priests are liberal by no means choice of his impreca. and independent in comparison with tions agninst the “blackguard salt their Irish breibren; and national

. herring,” 10 which he had been re. ity often proves to be with each a stricted until he was “scalt intire stronger tie than their common faith. ly;" but the common people would The Roman Catholic religion, welcome the return of ihe forty though not indigenous 10 Ireland, days fast, if it would bring with it has found a congenial soil and ai. so much as a herring to vary their mosphere in the civil institutions monotonous fare of potatoes and salt. and the social condition of the peo

This allusion to the dietetic dis. ple. More ihan eighty per ceni., or cipline of the Roman Catholic between six and seven millions of church, leads us to consider the the population are Catholics;

and whole influence of that church upon this class of population increases in the moral character and the social a larger ratio than any other. The condition of the Irish people. In following curious fact is slated 00 no country of Europe, not in Spain the authority of Mr. Shufio Adair. itself, certainly not in lialy, not even

" A lease tell out, some years since, in the petty regency of Tréves, of a town-land in Anirim, which where the wonder of the Holy had been gramed a century ago tor Coal" was for weeks exhibited to a term of years and three lives. aduring thousands, have the priest. The youngest life, then a baby in

the cradle, lingered above ninely * His father, a gardener, had a lease of

The consideration of the two and a half acres, in Connaught, with

lease was expressed 10 be, the es. a stone coltage and a small barn. Rent tablishment of a Protestant tenantry; £5,12s. per annum. Taxes £3.10s

. and a ritling rent was charged in Wages 5s. a week in pleasant weather

, consideration of the nature of the that he left because he could not pay the expected service. After the usual

fashion, and to meet the griping

years.

rent.

spirit of the lessee's representatives, to the same general results, which subdivision proceeded at a fearful are wirnessed under its undisputed rate. When this lease expired, there infuence in other countries; and were eighteen hundred souls upon that too, notwithstanding it has been the town-land, and not a Protestant brought into contrast and competi. amongst them."

tion with one of the worst specimens There are in Ireland four Caiho. of Protestantism ihat has been prolic archbishops, one for each of the duced since ihe Reformation. The provinces,- Ulster, Leinster, Mun. Roman Catholic church in Ireland ster, and Connaught; their sees are has done little to elevate the people ; Armagh, Dublin, Cashel and Tuam. She has not been as the church of A similar arrangement forinerly ex. Christ ever should be, a vitalizing isted in the established church; but and reforming power in society ; of late the archbishoprics of Cashel on the contrary, while in the favora. and Tuam have been reduced to ble position of a champion for the bishoprics. In addition to the four people against political and social archbishops, there are twenty-four proscription, she has yet done much bishops and two thousand six hun. in various ways to keep them in dred and fifiy-five clergy of the that state of depression to which Romish church: the whole body centuries of mal.government have of whom are supported directly reduced them. We charge it upon by the people; the priests receive the Roman Catholic church in İre. ing, on an average, £100 per an. land, as a high crime, that while num, though many of them have a possessing almost unbounded influ. much larger income, and employence and authority over the people, several curates and other assistants. while having the moral training of The number of parish priests is the nation in her hands, she has not nine hundred and eighly three, of elevated them in intelligence and in curates, one thousand three hundred virtue, in spite of bad legislation and sixty-two, of regular clergy of and of a vicious social economy. the religious orders, ihree hundred.* Amid all the anarchy, the corrupAs the ancient estates and revenues tion, the oppression, with which Ire. of the Caiholic church in Ireland, land has been cursed, there was were long since transferred to other rce from which a redeeming hands, the only present sources of influence should have gone forth; revenue, are the fees for the cele. a church strong in the confidence bration of births, marriages and and in the affections of the people, masses, Christmas and Easier dues, should have diffused among thein and other voluntary offerings. Of the leaven of knowledge, of peace, course it is for the interest of the of order, of industry, and of a pure clergy, to promote the increase of moraliiy; should have developed population, by encouraging early their intellectual and moral strength: marriages, and to keep the people should have educated them for free. in a state of dependence on their dom; should have led them out from favor for spiritual blessings. In ibis barbarism into the front ranks of way the Romish system, always civilization. But the Roman Cain. costly and severe in its exactions, olic church in Ireland, with a pliant has contributed to the social degra. nation to be molded at her will, so dation of Ireland. I: has there led far from fulfilling the high mission

of their social regeneration, has riv. Batterly's Complete Catholic Di. eted upon them also the chains of rectory, Dublin, 1848. The number of spiritual despotism, and made ihem the religious orders is probably greatly underrated, as also the income of the

more absolulely the victims of su. priests.

perstition and of priestly domination

one sourc

than any other people in Christen- success affords a striking illustration dom.

of the manner in which even suPuritanism, under oppression, perstition may be made auxiliary to worked out far different results, not a wholesome moral reform, and only for its immediate adherents, also of the stupendous enginery of but for the English nation and for the Roman Catholic hierarchy for all mankind. Proscription, acts of good or for evil. The temperance uniformity, fines, imprisonment, the movement in Ireland did not originstar.chamber, the pillory and the ale with Father Mathew; it had al. scaffold, all these served only to de. ready enlisted the sympathies o velop inore powerfully the princi. even the Catholic population, wher ples and the energies of the despised he entered into it, against the wishes, sect: and to make them at length or with only the reluctant approval the very fountain-bead of all that is of many of the clergy; but the re. great and good in English history. suli illustrates the power of the re. Why has not Romanism done the ligious element among the people. same for Ireland ?

The Catholic clergy of Ireland, But though we charge it as a have been accused of instigating recrime upon the Roman Catholic bellion, and even of denouncing inchurch in Ireland, that while she has dividuals from the altar, as worthy had it in her power to do so much of the knife or the bullet of the for the renovation of society, she assassin. In some instances, un. has, in fact, done so little; and doubledly, this has been done. But though we feel that in some respects the influence of the clergy as a body. she has aggravated evils which she has been upon the side of peace should have removed, we are hap. and order; they have done much 10 py also to express the conviction, further the conciliatory policy of that in other respects her influence O'Connell. The Catholic Prelaies, has been salutary upon a people at their annual meeting at Dublin, whom she has atiended almost with. Oct., 1847, presented an address to out intermission in their slow march his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant, from barbarism toward civilization. in which they allude to the rights of Indeed it would be dishonorable to property in these terms: “ The whatever of Christian truth she yet legitimate rights of properly so ne. relains, to suppose it otherwise. She cessary for ihe maintenance of so. has done noi a little of late years, for ciety, we have ever felt it our duty the education of her youth, for the re- to recognize and inculcate. The lief of the poor, the aged, ihe infirm guilty ouibreaks of violence and reand the orphaned, and for the re- venge which sometimes upsoriunale. moval of particular social and morally disgrace the country, we deplore evils. In what other country, and and reprobate; but, in justice to their under what other system, could a general character and habits, we single individual have procured five feel it our duty to declare our conor six millions of signatures to the viction, that there is not on earih a temperance pledge ? The labors people who exhibit more respect for of Father Mathew, though not law and order under unheard of pristrictly ecclesiastical, were immeas. vations, than the people of Ireland:" urably promoted by the sanctity and they furthermore express their which pertains to him as a Capuchin, anxiely, “10 preserve the souls of to his blessing, and to the medal which he had consecrated.* His taken the pledge, and whin walked ser:

eral miles to Father Mathew 10 procure

a dispensation from his row; but when A story is told of a man who felt his jold that the blessing cust be resord, appetite for drink reluruing after be had he was frightened into perpetual sobriely.

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