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tion, (the votes by which the choice the opinions of your fellow.citizens is finally made being the votes of in your own state so divided that it stales as represented in their electo- can not be known, till the votes are ral colleges, and the votes of indi- counted, which side is to prepon. vidual citizens being given not for derate? Is there a possibility, on the president directly but for the the one hand, that the six votes, or presidential electors,) it may on that the twelve, or the thirty-six, which very account be so much the better the electoral college of your state for the purpose of illustration. is to give in the final election, will

You are inquiring then, in refer- be given for the candidate and the ence to the election of a president, party that are pledged to put the how your vote may be given so as country upon some new career of to tell most effectually for the true crime, or pledged against some great welfare of the country. We give and salutary reformation ? And is for your guidance these suggestions; there also a possibility, on the other and it is for you to say whether they hand, that your ballot and the baldo not commend themselves to your lots of those with whom you have common sense and to your con- some influence and who will be likescience.

ly to go with you, will be just what is 1. Is there any great question con- wanted to turn the scales the other cerning the public welfare, which way, and to make out a plurality this election will decide? Does the for a different ticket? Suppose that, question of a war with Britain or in such a case, you and your friends, with Mexico, or the question of the instead of uniting to defeat the canextension of the area of slavery, or didate that has pledged himself to a the question of abolishing the in- policy of wickedness and mischief, famous slave-trade in the District of permit yourselves to be controled by Columbia, or the question of sweep- party discipline; and accordingly, ing away all the old corruptions of bewildered with the idea that the the Post-Office Department,-hang cohesion of your party is the first trembling in the scales of this elec- thing to be regarded, you give your tion? Is one of the two leading ballots for him ; and your ballots candidates pledged one way, and determine the vote of your state, his party with him ; while the other and the vote of your state detercandidate and his party are pledged mines the election. Or suppose that the other way? And is it a matter of instead of casting your ballots in doubt which of these two candidates such a way that they shall be of some will be successful? Is it obvious avail in the counting, you throw them that the defeat of one particular away upon some third ticket, with candidate, whose prospects of suc. precisely the same result. There cess are such as stimulate his friends is one of these United States, whose to every effort, is the only human electoral votes, four years ago, possibility of preventing that great turned the scale for the immediate national mischief and wickedness annexation of Texas and for all the to which he is committed ?

crimes and mischiefs which that 2. Supposing this to be the case, measure could not but draw after you come next to the question, it. The electoral college which gave whether your ballot and your per. those fatal votes was chosen not by a sonal influenee in your legitimate majority, but only by a plurality. Of sphere can make any difference in that plurality there were thousands the result. Is the result doubtful so who gave their ballots, protesting far as your own state is concerned ? against the impolicy and the iniquity --for you know, it is there only that of the measure to which their canyour ballot can be counted. Are didate was pledged, and which was

in fact the one great issue. Had sion for war and the mad admiration
they then broken their shackles as of military glory? Is there any way
they have since done—had they in which my vote will tend to the
then voted manfully against the disorganization and dispersion of
nomination of their party, all the those great factions which have
results would have been reversed. turned politics into a meaper game
There would have been no immedi- than that of the cock-pit, and all the
ate annexation—no Mexican war- offices and honors of the Union and
no squandering of a hundred and of the states into one great fund of
fifty millions of our treasure-no corruption? Is there any way in
slaughtering of twenty thousand of which my vote can tell against the
our citizens—no extension of the demoralizing practice of conferring
area of slavery—and no “old Rough honors and emoluments upon un-
and Ready” to be hurraed into the worthy men? In the case now
presidency. Nay, had those other supposed, such considerations as
thousands in that same state, who, these are the great considerations
instead of meeting the question really by which your action may reasona-
at issue, yielded themselves up to bly and safely be determined.
be governed by a narrow formula If other questions arise, of which
-had those men who threw their we have taken no notice, let it be
votes away upon a ticket for which remembered that we have not at-
they knew there was no chance of tempted a complete analysis and
success-voted for that other lead discussion of the subject, but only
ing candidate whose pledges were to offer such thoughts of our own
for peace and against the madness as may stimulate inquiry in other
of immediate annexation, they would minds, and may lead in the end to
have saved their country.

a full and exact investigation in 3. The two preceding questions some other quarter. Far less do are often to be answered in the

we attempt to give the mechannegative. If it so happens that there ical rules of duty that shall superis no great issue of peace or war, sede the necessity of thought; we of freedom or slavery, of justice or would rather waken our readers to iniquity, involved in the choice be the conviction that in such a matter tween two leading candidates ;-or as this they can not perform their if it so happens that there is no duty at all without thinking and indoubt which way your state will go, quiring earnestly for themselves

. and no chance that your vote will Duty and thought are intimately have any effect on the issue ;—then connected with each other. A crea. the question of your duty may be ture made for duty is a creature determined by other considerations, made for thought. The science of which under the former hypothesis doing right in all the complicated were in abeyance. Your vote in relations in which men live and act, such a case may be regarded not as never be reduced to a few a power that is to affect the result, self-applying formulæ by which the but as a testimony that is to bear necessity of deliberation, inquiry upon the formation and utterance of and analysis shall be done away. public opinion. In such a case, ques. The practical and prudential undertions like these demand a serious standing, perceiving fitnesses and consideration. Can I give my voie, tendencies, and the relation of either alone or by agreement with means to ends, can not be safely others, in such a way as to testify trusted unless it is invigorated by a against slavery? Is there any way living and healthy moral sense ; and in which my vote may be made effec on the other hand, the moral sense, tive as a testimony against the pas. if it does not constantly summon to



its aid and hold under its control all diseased, and loses its vital sympa. the thinking powers,-if it indolent- thy with Him, the Infinite Wisdom, ly and slavishly yields itself to the who " is light and with whom is no dominion of one narrow formula and darkness at all.” another,--becomes perverted, dull,



The Genius of Scotland ; or Sketch. its results. We believe it will make

es of Scottish Scenery, Literature American literature more liberal and Religion. By Robert TURN- and catholic than that of England.

Third edition. New York It will also enrich it with a variety and Pittsburg. Robert Carter. and copiousness which the literature 1847.

of no other country has seen. The

Scotchman, the German, and the The emigrant leaves his early Sclavonian, may be expected to home, and yet in a most import acquaint us with their world of ant sense brings it with him. The thought and feeling, and to make scenery on which his eyes first open- familiar to us their peculiar national ed, and with which his senses in spirit. childhood were familiar, never fades The work before us was writ. from his recollections. It haunts ten by a native of Scotland, who his memory through all his life. The has been favorably known as a manners, domestic and social, with writer, for his pleasant style and which his earlier years were encom- generous enthusiasm. A year or two passed as with the atmosphere, seem since, after his return from a visit the only natural and rational man. to his native land-in which bis ners. The early recollections of youthful remembrances had been the great men of his country; the revived, and his youthful enthusigreat in arms, in literature and re. asm had been re-inspired-he was ligion, are invested with an inter- prompted to write the volume before est which he can not transfer to the us—the object of which should be heroes of his adopted land.

“in an easy, natural way, to give It is not surprising that he should his readers an adequate conception desire to communicate to others of the Scenery, Literature and Reli. these recollections which are to him gion of Scotland.” The uniqueness so dear, and the feelings which these of the design is only surpassed by the recollections inspire. "If he have an felicity of its execution. There are ardent temper, he longs to excite woven together the incidents of perthe sympathies of others, in the sonal adventure-conversations with things which interest him so intense. Scottish peasants—descriptions of ly, and can not avoid the effort to scenery—with sketches of Knox, introduce them to his new friends, Burns, Wilson, and Chalmers, and and to explain his love for his early others. This various matter might home. If he can write, it is not at seem to involve confusion and dis. all surprising that he should seek by order; but the writer has managed a book to lead his adopted country to express himself in a style so natmen to understand the secret of his ural and flowing, and to pass from attachment to the land of his Fathers. one to another of his various themes,

We honor this impulse. It is by transitions so easy and graceful, generous and elevating. We value as to produce an instructive and de

lightful volume. We only do jus- tion of profane history as “ Philosotice to our view of it, when we say, phy Teaching by Example." that in every good sense with none Several of the leading incidents that is bad, it is a truly " readable" in sacred history, are here considbook. It would seem that some skill, ered in their relations to the funda. and perhaps not a little sacrifice of mental principles of morality, and principle, would be required to write to both the moral and the providensketches of men so different as Knox, tial government of God. These io. Wilson, Walter Scott, Burns, Chale cidents, in themselves so fitted to mers and Duncan, in such a way as arrest attention, are thus brought be. to make the one compatible with the fore the mind in an attractive and other-or so as to satisfy the admi- instructive manner, and are applied rers of the one without displeasing to the use for which they were those of another. We can not see chiefly recorded. The style of the that Mr. Turnbull has failed in prin. author is lucid, and sometimes ele. ciple. We are quite sure he has gant; occasionally too rhetorical for not failed to put the most generous the general character of the work. construction upon the faults of the He commonly avoids vexed ques. men whom he criticises. He has also tions in theology; though in considexplained the secret of their popu- ering the “ origin and issues of sio," larity with his countrymen, and in in the first chapter, he seems to be so doing has done much to enable needlessly confused for want of just the American to read them with the views of free agency. Regarding eye and heart of a Scotchman. The the fallen angels as having been genial yet unobtrusive religious feel. "created holy,” he can not conceive ing that runs through this volume, is “ how pride, or any other sinful honorable to the writer as a clergy. emotion, could find an entrance to man. It would have been dishonora. their hearts.” But he wisely, though ble to him not to exhibit it ; and yet ungrammatically disposes of the subthe piety is natural rather than pro. jeci by saying, “no matter in what fessional, which is a rare merit, and way the angels fell-here is the one that deserves our praise. Such fact; and it is equally unphilosophie contributions as this volume to what cal, as well as undevout, 10 reject is called our "lighter literature,” it because we are not able to explain have a greater value than at the first synthetically all the phenomena in view they seem to possess; and which it is concerned."

We ad every successful effort of the kind mire the candor and amiability of merits a generous recompense.

the writer, and commend his book

to those who would see the religion Religion Teaching by Example.- of the Bible developed in its various

By RICHARD W. Dickinson, D.D. relations to human nature.
New York : Robert Carter, 1848.

Fundamental Philosophy, or Ele

ments of Primitive Philosopky; The title of this book does not at once suggest the precise nature of

being the first Division of a Com. its subject. One expects to find in

plete System of Philosophical

Science. From the German of it an exhibition of the power of

William Traugott Kerg, Prof. Christian example ; whereas its ob.

of Philos. in the Univ. of Leipsic. ject is, 10 present some of the prom. inent truths and precepts of religion,

Hudson, Ohio. W. Skinner & in the light of sacred history. It is

Co. 1848. pp. 59. 18mo. rather, religion laught or inculcated This is a faithful translation of by examples; though the author the 132 propositions in Krug's Funmay justify his title, from the defini. damental Philosophy, omitting alto

pp. 456.

gether the explanations, illustrations true philosophy, Krug caught someand proofs, which constitute the thing of their spirit. Yet he did greater part of the original work. not altogether abandon the Kantean The German work was first publish- doctrines, but he attempted, like ed in 1803, 8vo. It passed to a Bouterwek, Fries, Calker, and some second edition in 1819, and to a others, to perfect the system of third, with many improvements and Kant, by modifying its basis, and enlargements, in 1827. The author laying a broader foundation for scipronounces it his hauptwerk," chief entific knowledge. Instead of ad. work; which, he says, must not be mitting, with Kant, that we passiveread cursorily, but must be studied ly receive the crude matter of all thoroughly, if one would fully un. our knowledge of material things derstand the author's system of phi. through the senses, and that we losophy.” We entirely agree with know nothing of the essential na. him in this last remark; for, not ture of their objects, but only their having the original with all its ex. phenomena, or the impressions they planations before us, we read over make on us; and that of supersensi. this little book three times, and were ble things, spiritual beings, animal not then able fully to understand it and vegetable life, &c., we know without recurrence to the same au- nothing but their attributes or pow. thor's great Dictionary of Philoso- ers; Krug supposed we can obtain phy on the main propositions. We true objective knowledge both of therefore regret that the accomplish. sensible and supersensible things. ed translator did not present the en- He makes consciousness the primary tire work to his American readers, source of all true knowledge. For, who can not be supposed very fa- consciousness, as he maintains, is miliar with the Kantean phraseology the Synthesis of Being and Knowl. pervading this book.

edge. In other words, if we can Prof. William Traugott Krug was understand him, in all our acts of educated in the Kantean school, be- consciousness, some object is present came a Professor of Philosophy at to the mind, and we behold it and Wittemberg in 1794 ; at Frankfort have a knowledge of it. This on the Oder in 1801 ; at Königsberg, knowledge may indeed be at first in the chair of Kant, in 1805 ; re- obscure and unsatisfactory; but by moved to Liepsic in 1809, relin- repeated acts of consciousness, and quished his professorship in 1813, a careful inspection of those acts, served one year in the army as a the knowledge becomes clear, disvolunteer, and then resumed his tinct and perfect.—This Synthesis professorship at Leipsic, where he of Being and Knowledge, he procontinued till his death in 1842, at nounces to be a Transcendental Synthe age of 72. He wrote much, on thesis ; or a synthesis the cause or philosophy, ethics, law, politics,' &c., ground of which is wholly beyond and was a pleasing writer, learned, our investigation. It is an ultimate lucid, and accommodating himself fact, and we can not go beyond it. to men of ordinary minds. His This theory Krug first published great Dictionary of Philosophy, in his New Organon of Philosophy, though too subservient to the propa. in the year 1801. He afterwards gation of his particular views, is a more fully developed and defended very useful work.

it in his Fundamental Philosophy, For several years in the early the epitome of which is contained part of life, Krug adhered strictly in the little volume before us. Dur. to the philosophical principles of ing forty years the author labored Kant. But when Fichie, Schelling untiringly to propagate this modifiand others, began to overleap the cation of the Kantean philosophy bounds prescribed by Kant to all But, if we are not misinformed, this

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