Page images

then the drops of rain crystallize in sion or appetite, satisfies; of any the form of snow, which invests the unlawful, in flames. Thus water earth with a downy covering, in- allays, alcohol increases, thirst. As creasing, like the furs of animals, the means of preparing the food in thickness and fineness, in propor- of animals, especially of man, the tion as we advance nearer the pole. value of water is inestimable. Count Beneath this warm mantle, delicate Rumford was of opinion that water plants repose in perfect security, does not always act merely as a sol. while the most bitier frosts are ra. vent, but sometimes is itself convertging without ; and the rivers, lakes, ed into food, since his soups, prepar. and seas, first bridged over with ice, ed for the poor of Bavaria, seemed and then protected with this thick to possess a greater amount of nutricovering of snow, are kept SO ment, than could be accounted for warm, even in the polar regions, as from the solid maiter present. As to afford a safe and happy dwelling a medicine, the virtues of water are place for the numerous tribes of beginning to be more generally acaquatic animals, which inhabit their knowledged, and we know not yet the waters. But our limits forbid us to full extent of its healing powers. In pursue farther the chemical agen- the form of medicinal springs, its cies, and we proceed to consider, virtues have long been tested. Many

3. The PhysiolOGICAL properties are the subordinate offices which of Water.--Chemistry respects mat. water performs for the animal sys. ter without life ; Physiology, living tem, in lubricating the eye, softenmatter, and hence takes cognizance ing the organs of respiration, and, of those properties and relations of under the forin of perspiration, both water, which appertain to the vege sensible and insensible, regulating table and animal kingdoms. Every the temperature of the body, and one is witness how essential wa. discharging from it many principles ter is to the vegetable world ; even unfriendly to life and health. the most careless observer of nature, 4. The MECHANICAL PROPERTIES sees how plants flourish and grow of Water, alone remain to be conunder the genial influence of dew sidered. and rain, and how they wither and By its mobility, water secures its decay when this aliment is denied perfect equilibrium or level, so es. them. Chemistry and physiology sential to the safety of the inhabitants teach us why the presence of water of the land, and carries into peris so needful to plants and flowers, petual execution the fiat of the Alsince it both supplies a large part of mighty : “ Hitherto shalt thou come the material of which vegetables are and no further; and here shall thy composed, and dissolves other con- proud waves be stayed.” By its stituents of plants, and thus conveys buoyancy, water furnishes a dwel. nourishment through all their deli- ling place for all aquatic tribes, and cate vessels. To the animal king, and lays the foundation for the whole dom, water is no less a benefactor. art of navigation. By its pressure, As a beverage, it is truly one of when at rest, it furnishes a most ef. heaven's choicest gifts to man and fective and convenient force as in beast. With it the lower animals the hydraulic press; and, when in rest satisfied ; man attempts substi. motion, as in the river or the cataract, tutes; but, for the most part, to his supplies to man an exhaustless fund hurt. Nature testifies her intentions of mechanical power, ready to turn by the most impressive signals, his machines, and perform all his lashowing here, as in many other bors. Finally, in the form of steam, cases, the supremacy of her law- a mechanical power is evolved that the exercise of any lawful pas. from water, the use of which has

likened man to the Genii of ancient in their multiform operations. The fable.

physiologist asserts his claim to wa. When the naturalist contemplates ter, as affording 10 plants their most water under all its forms in internal essential aliment, that on which dereservoirs, in springs, rivers, lakes, pend their full development, their seas, and oceans; when he surveys perfect growth, and the beauty and the beautiful “circulatory system” fragrance of their flowers; and as by which it rises into ethereal vapor, supplying to animals their beverage, io scatter its treasures over the veg- and to man, especially, the menstruetable and animal kingdoms, in dew, um of his food, his medicine, his luxrain, and snow ; when he considers urious baths, and his life-giving founwhat tribes of aquatic animals it tains. At last, the mechanical philosmaintains ; when he sees how large opher claims water to turn bis maand important a part it forms in the chinery, to bear his ships, and to beautiful and sublime of nature, roll his cars. The ocean wave and whether glistening in the dew-drop, the cataract are his, by the vast sailing in clouds of majestic forms force they put forth; and the gushand various dyes, or shining in the ing fountain and flowing river are mountain lake, and reflecting the his, by the mechanical laws which heavens from its surface, or winding they illustrate ; and, finally, water through fertile valleys in graceful is his by the wonderful powers of streams, or thundering in cataracts, steam, which it folds within it, the or, finally, rolling in ocean waves ; greatest of all auxiliaries to the feein view of all these relations to ble physical powers of man. Natural History, the naturalist feels The lover of universal nature, that the world of waters is all his with a more enlarged vision, com. own. But the chemist is no less prehends in his view the relation of sure that water was created for him, water to all these different departwhen he looks at its remarkable ments,--to Natural History, to Chemcomposition, constituted, as it is, of istry, to Physiology, and to Mechantwo such important elements as ical Philosophy, and he, only, it is oxygen and hydrogen ; when he that duly estimates the treasures that contemplates its endless affinities, its lie buried beneath it. powers as a solvent, and its capacity After such an examination of the of assuming the different states of "riches of the natural world” as ilsolid, liquid, and æriform, and thus lustrated both by the powers and the regulating the temperature of the productions of nature, we are preglobe, and guarding it against dan- pared for the inquiry, whether in gerous excesses of heat and cold; conformity with the prevailing opinand when, in short, he sees how all ion, the world was made for man,the chemical arts require the aid of an inquiry which we hope to resume water as indispensable at every step in a future number.

[blocks in formation]



This is the title of a discourse, the others as its complement, and founded on Matt. xvi: 18. “On all so arranged that the absence of this rock will I build my church”- any one is seen in the manifest imdelivered at the dedication of the perfection of the system. Chapel built by the church of the Having embraced certain funda. Disciples in Boston, March 15, 1848, mental truths of the Gospel-if inby the pastor of the church, the deed he has embraced them with Rev. James Freeman Clarke, a gen. his heart-he will not rest until he tleman distinguished in that class of has discovered the whole sisterhood Unitarians who have of late years of Christian doctrines. The exermanifested a tendency to return cise of a living faith in any one to evangelical principles. Speak- truth of revelation, involves that doing of what orthodoxy has, in which ing of the will of God, to which the Unitarians are deficient, he the promise—" he shall know of the says:

doctrine”-is made. “lt understands the meaning of the

Of this discourse we can say withGospel, as differing from the law, better out qualification that it compares than we do, and sees its special adapta- favorably in point of ability with the tion to the needs of the sioner, as we have not generally apprehended it.


best productions of the American sees that God actually came into the pulpit. In truthfulness it excels world in Christ, infusing a new life-ele- many sermons of louder pretensions ment, commencing a new movement, be- to orthodoxy, abounding with free, ginning a new series of inttuences. Hence it perceives that Christianity is

earnest and profound thoughts, and really a supernatural gift, coming from containing but little, from which we above the natural order of things, and are obliged entirely to dissent. that those who receive it are actually The title indicates the author's born into a higher life. Thus it trangforms duty into love ; instead of a con

plan. He treats of the Church, scientious effort to do right, it creates a

first, historically; then, critically ; grateful affection, which carries us for- then, prospectively. ward, as the advancing tide bears a navy on its bosom. It animates man with the

He passes in review the origin of power of faith in unseen and eternal

the Christian church, its organiza. things, and so gives an energy and force tion, and the corruption which sucwhich no merely earthly considerations ceeded the primitive age. can produce."-p. 21.

We have room for a single exIn accordance with these views, tract only, on one of these points. Mr. Clarke seems to have more

“The organization of the early church sympathy with the orthodox sects,

was partly adopted from that of the Jer. than with some Unitarians, and we ish synagogue worship, and was partly should be less surprised to hear that originated as any necessity occasioned he has renounced Unitarianism and

it."-p. 8.

“ We see, in this instance," (the elecembraced fully thc doctrines of tion of the seven deacons, Acts vi,)“ how Christ's supreme divinity and aton- gradually the organization of the early ing sacrifice, than to learn that he Church arose. Ii wus not fired immatahas abandoned the prayer meeting by the apostles—but each part of it came

bly from the first in canons and rubries and ceased to preach the necessity when it was wanted, and was based on of "the washing of regeneration and the reason of each particular case, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.” was confirmed by the assent of the whole

multitude. There is a relation between the doc

"Such was the Church of Christ at trines of Christianity, each requiring first--simple in its organization, noble in


its aim, full of a profound life and an im. but is deficient in conscientiousness, in mense energy. Ils only creed was faith truthfulness, in a regard for man as man. in Christ. Its organization was flexible, Unitarianism, with all its defects, can enlarging as its wants were multiplied. teach Orthodoxy a lesson. If it learns It was a living, loving, and working of Orthodoxy to see God in Christ, it may Church."-p. 9.

teach it to see man in Christ. It may

teach it humanity while it learns piety, Coming down to our own times, may teach it conscientiousness while it he speaks of the two main tenden- learns penitence and faith. And if that cies which“ have resulted from the Christianity did not differ from previous

seems a small matter, remember that divisions of Protestantism, one a religions by creating a more fervent piety backward tendency toward Roman. so much as in creating a deeper and purer ism, the other a forward tendency

humanity."-pp. 21, 22. toward

a greater individualism. He then declares, that the TransThe tendency toward Romanism, cendental or Spiritual movement of he regards “as only an eddy in the our day must be received by the stream of the church's progress;" comprehensive church of the fuand the tendency 10 a greater indi- ture. vidualism he ascribes to the indif.

" It will be received, not for its denials ference of the church to the claims

or negations, but for its noble sight of an of humanity.

infinite worth in man, of a divine power In the last division of his dis

in the human soul. Man, trampled into

tbe earth by the crushing heel of the ty. course, Mr. Clarke treats of the ele.

rant, is lifted up and placed a little lower ments of the church of the future.

than the angels as soon as God's ideas are He believes that the church is to be

found in him. That God is now in the what it ought to be ; and this church world, that he is ready to inspire us by

his Spirit, that he is uniformly near, the in his opinion will take “into itself light within us, the life of our life—these as independent but harmonizing ele. are the teachings of transcendentalism, ments all the tendenceis which now

for the sake of which we can easily overappear embodied in different sects.'

look its extravagant opposition to mira

cles, and what seems to me its unreasonEach sect will recognize in others able denial of the supernatural element some qualities in which it is itself in history.”—p. 22. deficient; and they will all come All these classes of professed together on the broad ground of a

Christians Mr. Clarke expects will common Christianity without requir- yet stand together on a common plating of each other a concession or

form; and that platform he declares compromise of their particular ideas.

to be, faith in Jesus as the Master. I Guided by this spirit, he thinks,

We have thus put our readers in the future church will receive into possession of the main ideas of this itself the three leading parties of his able discourse. We have abstained own community-the Orthodox, the from criticism, intending to present Unitarians, and the Spiritualists.

our own views on the leading topics, Having stated in a passage which from which it will be seen how far we have already quoted, page 418, they accord with those of the auwhat orthodoxy has in which Unita. thor, and in what respects we differ rians are deficient, he speaks in the from him. following terms, of what he pro- We are particularly pleased with nounces to be the defects of ortho. his views of the origin and organidoxy-defects which he thinks the zation of the Christian church. We Unitarian movement was sent to sup- hold with him, that when the church ply:

came, “it came as a necessity. The "Orthodoxy undervalues man's nature Apostles and disciples did not found and capacities; exalting the Son, it does

a church, but found themselves in a not worship the Father; it does not see God in Nature, God in History, God in church. They were driven togethProvidence. It creates a fervent piety, er by outward persecution—they


were drawn together by an inward liberty, equality and fraternity-diimpulse.” Of course the church vesting the Christian, not of rights exists as a necessary form of Chris- conferred by rubrics and capons, tianity-agreeably to the expectation for none such were known in the and will of the Master. It is a Apostolic church, but of liberty to brotherhood, united by a common serve God, as a free and equal faith, by common attachments, by member of the Christian family. common hopes and aimsmin one Every other view of the constituword, by a common character, a tion of the Christian church, is secspirit of obedience to God. We tarian and exclusive ; this is cathoare, therefore, not to look into the lic and comprehensive. It leaves New Testament for ecclesiastical each association of believers to fol.

The only rules of church low its own sense of duty in respect order are the PRINCIPLES of CHRIS- to discipline and government, with TIANITY, the binding force of which no other authoritative guide than the extends to the church just as it ex• nature of Christianity itself. It re. tends to all human relations. These cognizes every such association, principles are comprehended under formed for the observance of Chris. the general terms, liberty, equality, tiap ordinances, as a visible church fraternity. Every member of the of Christ, whatever may be its par association is to be the judge of his ticular organization—whether its own duty, and to be free in the pro- government is lay or clerical; fession and practice of his faith. whether monarchical, aristocratic or Every member is to be equal to popular. While it maintains, that every other, precisely like the citi. the organization of the church ought zens of a Republic; and the rights to be conformed to the principles of of office are likewise to be conferred liberty, equality and fraternity, it by popular vote, and held subject does not pronounce a different or to the will of the community. Every ganization fatal to the being of a member is to be a brother-as a church. It is not indispensable to brother to give and receive advice the existence of a church, that the and admonition--as a brother to bear members composing it should be a his part of the common burdens—as free and equal brotherhood. A a brother to promote the common church does not cease to be a church good and the good of each individual by being divested of some of its in particular. These principles are a rights. sufficient guide in ecclesiastical mat. This view of the church of the ters. Any rules or by-laws, not in future admits and encourages the consistent with them, may be law. intercourse of the various local fully adopted. These principles churches of all truly Christian sects. were regarded in the first organiza. The interchange of ministerial sertion of the church,“ each part of vices, fellowship in the ordinances which came when it was wanted, of the gospel, mutual advice and and was based on the reason of each admonition, sympathy and assistparticular case, and was confirmed ance in distress, with tokens of reby the assent of the whole multi- spect for the

opinions of sister tude.” They would have been dis. churches ; all indeed that constitutes regarded and transgressed, if, as in the visible communion of saints, both after ages, the church had been between individuals and churches ; constituted with a hierarchy, invest- are provided for in this platform. ed with the supreme legislative and If these views of the churcb “ as executive power. For such a con- it ought to be" are sound, the “new stitution conflicts with all these prin- birth” is indispensable to every step || ciples, being utterly subversive of of progress toward its realization.

« PreviousContinue »