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slave is a freeman, a proprietor, a says, “ be colonized.” He makes husband, a father, a member of so- a calculation to show how easy it ciety. His time, his labor, his skill, would be to carry this proposal into his wife, his children, are his own; execution, so far as West Virginia and he has an interest therefore in is concerned, and thus “ remove the the maintenance of law, order and bugaboo of a free negro population, public tranquillity. He appropri- so often held up to deter us from ates a portion of his earnings to the emancipation.” The Doctor will education of his children, to the perhaps be surprised to learn, that support of his superannuated par. what he calls a “bugaboo," a new ents, and to the maintenance of pub. word to us, we consider the veriest lic worship. Depending as he does bugbear. A free colored populaupon his good behavior, carefulness tion may be a very valuable popu. and industry, for employment, and lation. The contrary opinion owes for the rate of compensation, he its origin to slavery itself, in con. strives to accomplish the greatest nection with which a free colored possible amount of labor, and to pro. population is an evil, both because mote the interests of his employer. it can hardly fail to be an idle, ig. The lands which grew barren under norant and vicious population, and a forced cultivation, now recover because it may infect the slaves their fertility. The master, relieved with discontent, and aid their efforts from the support of the sick, the to recover their liberty. But where maimed and the superannuated, and there are no slaves, free people of losing nothing by the wastefulness color may live without detriment to of his servants, and nothing by death any interest of society, and contriband desertion, and paying nothing ute their full share to the common for overseers, receives a larger in- wealth and convenience. This opincome from his estate than under the ion is supported by the experience old system. He has less care, less of New England. There are, it is trouble in the management of his true, among her colored inhabitants, affairs, and is a richer man than he worthless and vicious persons; but was when he owned a hundred not a greater proportion, perhaps, slaves. These considerations seem than of the whites. The mass of to us to be conclusive. There nev- them are industrious, intelligent and er was but one serious objection to honest; and in those states where immediate emancipation, namely, they are permitted to vote, their pothe danger to which it was supposed litical influence has occasioned no it would expose the peace of society evil. We are not disposed to reand the lives and property of the quire of foreigners a long residence masters. That objection has been in our country, before they may be effectually silenced by the success admitted to the privileges of citiof emancipation in the British colo- zens, but we consider the colored nies; and we are now only surpri- population of the north much more sed, that it should ever have been competent to exercise political rights, imagined, that the removal of all than the great body of recent imcause of discontent, and the gift of migrants. And if we wete citizens freedom to a people eminently capa- of Virginia, we should much rather ble of gratitude, could be otherwise employ emancipated slaves upon than safe.

our plantations, than introduce the There is another feature of Dr. degraded operatives of Europe. Ruffner's scheme, which will, we What then is the object of colonithink, be remembered in future zation? We have nothing to say times, as one of the errors of this against the republic of Liberia. We age. “Let the emancipated," he believe it is destined to become a

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great nation, extending, by a series upon the general abolition of slave. of purchases and conquests, over a ry. Many will emigrate to the south large part of the continent. But for the reasons just given; and not what advantage is Virginia to reap a few, to be school teachers and by expatriating the laboring class of preachers of the Gospel. her population, or any part of them? We predict that in that day which Would she be made by the meas. succeeds the abolition of slavery, ure either richer or stronger? Would there will be no constitutional or leher income be greater, or her taxes gislative prohibitions of immigration less? The very reverse. Her cols from any country or race. Every ored population, by whose labor she new laborer will be regarded, not as lives, would still, if free, be the pro. a nuisance, but as an addition to ducers of her wealth; and as they the productive power of the state. would all be subject to a poll tax, Population will be allowed to regu. for the support of government, and late itself, like articles of commerce, to taxes upon any property which by the wants of the market, increas. they mighi accumulate, the presenting or diminishing with the demand rate of taxation would be diminish. for labor and the means of subsis. ed. Virginia would therefore inflict tence. The surplus population of a an injury upon herself, if she were state will pass without force or fricto carry out this part of Dr. Ruff- tion, to supply the deficiency of la. ner's scheme. She would thereby bor in other quarters. We need not incur the expense of exporting to Li. say, that the true and established beria a population which she would policy of that day, ought now to be afterwards be glad to import. The admitted as a matter of principle. abolition of slavery would create a This country is manifestly designed demand for labor, which could not by Providence to be the refuge of be easily supplied; and instead of the oppressed of all lands. We wishing to expatriate her colored who first occupy it, would be guilty people, the South would offer high of barbarity, were we to throw any wages to tempt emigration from the barriers in the way of fugitives to north. This demand would increase our shores. This land is God's city as the emancipated became land. of refuge for the world, and wo be holders or mechanics, and withdrew to him who closes the gate against from the service of their masters to any of the unfortunate who would attend to their private business. flee into it. Equally barbarous are This has been precisely the course the laws which would prohibit the of things in the British West Indies, people of color from passing from into which the planters have sought one state into another. These laws to introduce laborers from abroad. are also in open conflict with that Every good, trustworthy and able- article of the federal constitution, bodied man whom Virginia may which secures to the citizens of send off, she will, after slavery is no each state the rights of a citizen in more, wish to recover. We think all the states. The colored citizens we can promise Dr. R., that in the of New England have a constituevent of the abolition of slavery in tional right to emigrate to Illinois, his state, the demand for labor in and make their home there, in spite East Virginia will empty West Vir- of the constitution of that state. ginia of the inass of her colored peo. But if this right were not secured to ple, who, attracted by high wages, them, it would still be theirs, on the and by a natural desire to congre- broad principle, that no man shall gate with their own color, will vol. be hindered in the pursuit of hap. untarily emigrate. The same effect piness so long as he respects the will be felt in the northern states, rights of others. This principle en. VOL. VI.

48

titles the foreigner to a refuge and policy nor the right of Virginia, or home among iis; much more are of any other state, to remove her they entitled to a part in the coun- free colored population from their try, who are native Americans. We native soil, either by actual or concan therefore concede neither the structive force.

CHRONOLOGY.

We had hoped that any notice, we had made for our readers no ad. which Dr. Jarvis might take of our equate provision. That a produc article on chronology in the New tion like that to which we refer, Englander for October last, would should have been sent from the press, be of such a character, as to make we consider a remarkable phenomeit unnecessary to proceed further in non in the republic of letiers; and exposing his errors. Controversy our readers, we hope, will excuse is so little to our liking, that we us for attempting to bring into full should willingly have rested under light its errors and its fallacies. In no common load of misapprehension doing this, however, we shall study and even of misrepresentation, raih. brevity ; but aim at the same time er than have renewed a discussion to be so full and explicit, as to make which we are aware wiih some of what we have to say, in the lan. our readers, perhaps with many, can guage of some of the old books of have little or no interest. It was sup- instruction, "plain to the meanest posed, that what we had already capacities.” said, would furnish abundant mate- Without further preface we come rials to repel any ordinary or even directly to Dr. Jarvis's strictures. extraordinary atiack, which might These are addressed to the reviewer be made on our positions; and that personally. On page 94 we find if any one should find himself per. the following passage : plexed in consequence of what “ Elated by what you supposed to be should be subsequently written on an irreconcilable difference belwerp Vic. any topic which had come under re.

torius and Bianchini, you bare iriam. view, a recurrence to what we had phantly uttered the following truism :

Now as we see no good reason to doubt already published would remove his that the interval between the new and full doubts. But the course which the

moon in A.D. 28 was the same as in other displeasure of an author will lead years. (!) and are fully convinced that 14

added to 14 is 28 and not 26, the lwn com. him to take, can not be easily fore- putations can not stand together.' (N. E. seen; and the event, in the present P: 538.) This may be the arithmetic of instance, has proved our anticipa. if 14 was the first, we should have added

Yale College now; but in my days there, tions to be gronndless. In the first

13 to find the fourteenth day of the moon; number of the Church Review, a and if 13 was the first, then 13 added 10 periodical which began its literary 13 is 26 and not 28." - Review, p. 94. life in April of the present year, Here, with all proper deference Dr. Jarvis has commented on our to the learned chronologer, we shall second article in a manner which make an attempt to correct his Exer. we never imagined possible; and cise. The proposition " that the inhas pursued a course of reasoning, terval between the new and fullto meet which, it is acknowledged, moon in March, A. D. 28, was the

same as in other years," is not a Dr. Jarvis's Vindication. Church Re. logical truism ; nor is this one, view for April, 1848.

" that 14 added to 14 is 28 and not

26;” unless the multiplication table 13 days old, then why any addition is a tissue of truisms, and unless whatever ? He has the “ day of every dictionary is made up of no- the moon” already. If he does, or thing better. Dr. Jarvis has here does not, mean this, adding 13 or mistaken equality for identily. But, any other number to 14 as above, is be it so, that “ 14 added to 14 is 28 making not the least approximation and not 26,” is a Iruism; yet Dr. towards ascertaining the “ day of the Jarvis maintains, if we understand moon.” If the 14th day of the him, that, in the case under consid. month is the day of new moon, and eration, it is not true. He says, that the moon is afterwards 13 days old, at Yale College "in my days there, then 13 added to 14 will give 27, if 14 was the first, we should have the day of the month, when the added 13 to find the 14th day of the moon is 13 days old. If the moon moon." Here we say without hesi. is 14 days old, then 14 added to 14 tation, that if at Yale College be as before, will give 28, the day of had added numbers in this way to the month when the moon is 14 days find the “ day of the moon,” he old; nor can it possibly be other. would have been checked immedi. wise. As to adding 13, when the ately by his instructor, and his mis. moon is 14 days old, to find the day take would have been pointed out of the month when it is of this age, To see how utterly nonsensical this which possibly is what Dr. Jarvis is method of calculation is, the reader aiming at, it is an absurdity ;-for is requested to look at it for a mo. when the moon is 14 days old, it is meni. What, then, is meant by the 14 days old-a truism and true ; "day of the moon?" If ihese and 14 days should be added. Dr. words mean anything, it must be the Jarvis seems to be laboring under age of the moon; and this is the a strange hallucination respecting sense in which they are employed the distinction between cardinal and by astronomers. The 3d “ day of ordinal numbers. Our recommenthe moon” is the 3d day after the dation, therefore, is, that he take moon has passed its conjunction back as incorrigible the whole of with the sun, and the 10th “ day of the passage under examination ; that the moon” is the 10th day after it he rewrite it, and express his mean. has passed the same point; and sim. ing in more intelligible language. ilar language is used for any day till We feel that it is here necessary to the moon reaches its conjunction apologize to our readers for dwellagain. Dr. Jarvis himself uses the ing so particularly on what they phrase, “ day of the moon," in the may justly think obvious at a glance;

In his Introduction, but it should be recollected by those (p. 432,) we read, “the 14th day disposed to complain, that Dr. Jarvis of the moon-would fall-on the appears to have unaccountably lost 25th of March." Here he must the mathematical and astronomical mean the 14th day after the change knowledge acquired by him in his of the moon. But he says, in the collegiate days. For his special passage just quoted, “if 14 was benefit, therefore, we are obliged to ihe first, we should have added 13 be extremely elementary in our to find the 14th day of the moon. statements. If by the expression “ 14 was the We now come to the consideration firsi," he means, what he should of the time of new and full moon seem to mean, that the 14th day of in March, A. D. 28. It will be recolthe month is the day on which the lected by our readers that Dr. Jarnew moon occurs, then why add 13 vis supposes the Crucifixion to have to find the day of the moon?” If taken place in this year; which by 13, he means that the moon is opinion he undertakes to confirm

same sense.

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from two sources, historical and as- chal new-moon in March, A. D. 28, tronomical. It is the testimony of was on the 1lth day. We learn antiquity, he says, that Christ suffer from him likewise,* that according ed on the cross in the consulship of to Bianchini, by the mean motions the two Gemini; which consulship of the sun and moon, the Paschal he places in A. D. 28, one year, new-moon took place at Jerusalem, however, earlier than it has been “the 14th of March, 3h. 17m. 10sec. placed by most, if not by all, of the P.M.; and that the time of true con. older writers, who have been looked junction was eleven hours later;" to as standards in chronological that is, at 2h. 17m. 10sec. A. N., science. In this same year, accord- March 151h. Dr. Jarvis, as we have ing to the Canon of Victorius, an before observed, seems to have authority to which he pays great brought forward this astronomical deference, the new-moon in March calculation of Bianchini 10 confirm was the 11th day, and the mean the correctness of the Capod of Vicfull-moon on the 25th, and the true torius; but as there is a difference full-moon on the 26th of the same of about three days between the month. The 26th day was Friday, two, we ventured, in our last article, the day before the Jewish sabbath, to represent them as irreconcilable. and the day of the week on which, He now says, that there is here a according to the evangelical history, "typographical error;" and that Christ was crucified. This time of the mean conjunction of the sun and new and full-moon he supposes to moon was on the 13th day of March, be in some way confirmed by the and the true conjunction on the calculations of Bianchini, an Italian 14th. This he undertakes to prove astronomer. •From these consider.

from other parts of Bianchini's ations he maintains, that the true statements. To us it appears a time of the Crucifixion is established much more direct way of ascertainbeyond reasonable doubt.

ing whether there is here any error, Here we would premise, that in to recalculate the time of the mean questioning this conclusion, we have and true new.moon in question. no object but to ascertain historical Bianchini made use of the astrotruth. The point of inquiry is purely nomical tables of De la Hire. By literary, and has nothing about it of the modern tables the time of mean a theological character. Whichever new-moon, March, A.D. 28, at Jeru. way it should be decided, the story salem, was the 14th day, 3h. 20m. of the Crucifixion as told in the four 53sec. P. M., and the time of true Gospels remains the same ; and the new-moon, the 15th day, Ib. 47m. mode of determining the time of Eas. 41sec. A. M. The difference be. ter, and of the other movable feasts, tween the two sets of results is too is undisturbed. It can interfere not small to be of any importance in at all, as we believe, with any man's the present discussion. 'The time, religious faith or practice. It would therefore, of mean and of true newhave been to us a literary gratifica. moon as stated by Bianchini, is suftion, to be satisfied of the soundness ficiently correct; and the supposi of Dr. Jarvis's reasoning; but as tion of a

typographical error" is we are not satisfied, it has seemed groundless. From extracts, hom. neither unkind, uncivil, nor inexpe. ever, furnished by Dr. Jarvis from dient to point out, what we think its Bianchini, it would at first appear, fallacy.

that this astronomer has not been By the Canon of Victorius, as uniform in noting the time of this we learn from Dr. Jarvis,* the Pas. new-moon; but from an examina.

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Introduction, p. 431.

* Introduction, p. 433, note.

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