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all derived from the volume we every thing that may seem to bor. have been reviewing,) shall long der on religious cant, as to shrink live in these pages,* embalmed in back from the prayer meeting, and unfading youth, io win and to guide from active personal efforts for the many to Him, at whose feet she sat salvation of others. Her cheerful and learned to “choose the better piety shall persuade us that "il is part." Her pleasant voice will be indeed the simplest, the easiest, the heard in our homes, assuring our most blessed thing in the world, to daughters that “there is no sphere give up the heart to the control of of usefulness more pleasant than God, and, by daily looking to him theirs ;" bidding them believe that for strength to conquer our corrupt " it is a comfort to take the weight inclinations, lo grow in every thing of family duties from a mother, to that will make us like him."* Her soothe and cheer a wearied father, bright smile is worth volumes to and a delight to aid young

brother prove that “ Jesus can indeed sat. in his evening lesson, and to watch isfy the heart,"+ and that if the ex. his unfolding mind.”+ They shall perience of most of us has taught catch her alacrity and cheerful in- us to believe, that there is far more dustry, and her facility in saving of conflict than of victory in the the fragments of time, and ma- Christian warfare,-more shadow king them tell in something tangi. than sunshine resting upon the path ble” accomplished in them. They of our pilgrimage, most of the fault shall be admonished not to waste lies in our own wayward choice. feeling in discontented and romantic The child-like simplicity and serene dreaming, or in sighing for oppor. faith of this young disciple, shall tunities of doing good on a great often rise to rebuke our anxious scale, till they have filled up as tho- fears, and charm away our disquis roughly and faithfully as she did, etudes with the whisper—" that the smaller openings for usefulness sweet word TRUST tells all.Her near at hand.

early consecration of her all to the She shall lead them by the hand great work of advancing the Re. to the Sabbath school teacher's hum. deemer's kingdom, shall rouse us ble seat, on the tract distributor's who have less left of life to surrenpatient circuit, or on errands of der, to redouble our efforts in spreadmercy into the homes of sickness ing like “ love and joy and peace" and destitution,-into the busy sew. over the earth, lest when it shall be, or the little group gath. said of her, “She hath done what ered for social prayer. It is well she could,” it should also be added, too that they should have such a “She hath done more than they all." guide, for the offense of the cross There has been no waste here, has not yet ceased, and the exam- no sacrifice, but that by which, in ple of an accomplished and highly oriental alchymy, the bloom and educated young female will not fail beauty of the flower of a day is of its influence upon others of the transmuted into the imperishable same class, who wish to be Chris. odor, and its fragrance concentra. tians, and yet are so much afraid of ted, in order that it may be again

diffused abroad to rejoice a thousand A second edition of the work, issued hearts. If any ask again, “To since the above was prepared, is indica- what purpose was this waste :"-we tive of the hold it has on the public. The references in this article are all to answer,“ The Lord had need of it." the first edition. 1 Page 51. Ibid.

* Page 161. 1 Page 322



This pamphlet of forty pages is between East and West Virginia on from the pen of the Rev. Henry the subject of representation, deRuffner, D.D., President of Wash- pends on connecting with it the ington College, Lexington, Va. The abolition of slavery. He says to substance of the argument was first his fellow citizens : delivered in debate in " the Frank

" You claim the white basis of reprelin Society," connected, as we supsentation, on the republican principle that pose, with the College under the the majority shall rule. You deny that

slaves, who constitute no part of the presidency of the author, who was

political body, shall add political weight afterwards induced by the urgent to their masters, either as individual vosolicitation of a number of gentle. ters or as a mass of citizens. But the men, to throw it into its present in the East, is also powerful in some parts

slaveholding interest, which is supreme shape for general circulation. It is of the West. Let this be considered as an argument, as the title page shows,

a perpetual and a growing interest in our in favor of the abolition of slavery part of the state, and it may throw so in West Virginia, not immediate, much weight on the side of the eastern

principle of representation, when the but gradual-not affecting the con- hour of decision comes, as to produce a dition of the present slave popula. compromise, and to secure to the East a tion, but only of their posterity born part at leasi of what she claims on the after a certain date-not therefore ground of her vast slave property. But

let all the West, on due consideration, an act of sealty to justice, involving conclude that slavery is a pernicious ina pecuniary sacrifice, but saving stitution, and must be gradually removthe rights and interests of slave- ed; then, united in our views on all the holders.'

great interests of our West Virginia, we

shall meet the approaching crisis with inThis proposition, coming from a flexible resolution; and West Virginia highly influential source-ihe more can and must succeed in her approaching influential in the circumstances from struggle for her rights and her prosperity. the fact that the author is himself a

“The more you consider the subject,

the more you will be convinced that both slaveholder, sustained, as it is, by these questions—the white basis and the most irrefutable proofs of the slavery -are of vital importance, and so injurious influence of slavery upon

intimately connected, that to insure suc.

cess in either, we must unite them in our that part of the “O!d Dominion,"

discussions both among ourselves and is a token of good things to come, with East Virginia. On both should our in which we devoutly rejoice. It

views and our policy be firinly settled, can not but arouse the citizens of when the crisis of 1850 shall arrive." Western Virginia, long irritated by the selfish policy of the East, to a

The crisis of 1850, is the taking resistless effort to throw off the in- of the next census, when it will apcumbrance of slavery..

pear whether the political power of Dr. Ruffner opens his address by the state will for the first time be expressing his strong conviction, that transferred from the east to the west a successful issue to the struggle side of the Blue Ridge. Already

the West has a majority of the Address to the People of West Vir

white population, and we infer from ginia; shewing that slavery is injurious the confidence with which Dr. Ruffto the public welfare, and that it may be ner speaks, that in 1850 it will probgradually abolished, without detriment to ably have a majority over the East, By a Slaveholder of West Virginia. Les: notwithstanding the inequality of ington : Printed by R. C. Noel. 1847. representation, unless prevented by

pp. 5, 6.

its own slave interest. This inter. firm, that if East Virginia had pursued est is constantly growing, and un

that just and enlightened policy, West less it shall be arrested by measures

Virginia would, twenty years ago, bave

been more populous ihan she was by which look to free labor as the per 100,000 souls, and more wealthy in a still manent policy of the future, it is to greater proportion? No man who has be feared that it will give a prepon. roads, in promoting population and wealth

seen the effect of some lately-constructed derance to the East, in the approach can doubt it. And what shows more con. ing conflict respecting the basis of clusively the blindness or illiberality of representation. Dr. Ruffner makes this Eastern policy towards the West, is, use of this fact, to rouse his fellow that the public treasury would have been

remunerated, four fold at least, by the adcitizens to immediate action, re- ditional revenue which this early outlay minding them how incalculably for roads—had it been made-would have West Virginia has suffered from her produced from the tax payers of West weakness in the Legislature. He Virginia Here we have one notable in refers to two facts, out of many from her dependence on an eastern Lego which he says might be mentioned, islature. Though her growth in spite of • to confirm them in the purpose to

eastern neglect, has enabled her of late adhere inflexibly to their just claim made, she is still dependent for every

years to get some valuable improvements of representation on the white ba- boon of this kind, upon the will of those sis, without compromise.' His state

eastern people who are now a minority of ment of these facts we give at length

the commonwealth.

" The other instance to which we inin the following extract :

tended to refer, is of still greater impore “Fifty years ago, when the country

tance than the former. Many of you re beyond the Ohio began to be opened for member that in 1832, when a negro in settlement, Virginia had already been for surrection in Southampton county had years in full and undisputed possession of filled nearly all Virginia with alarm, and her extensive territory on this side. The

made every white man think of the evile country between the Alleghany and the

of slavery, a resolution was introduced Ohio, containing eighteen millions of into the Legislature, to adopt a system of acres, much of it excellent soil, and gradual emancipation, by which ihe state abounding in mineral wealth, was an als might, in the course of fifty years, get most unbroken wilderness, and almost in. rid of the evils of slavery. accessible to emigrants, for want of roads

“Whatever may be thought of such a through the mountains. The feeble and measure in reference to East Virginia, detached settlements applied, and for where the slaves are more numerous tban thirty years continued to apply, almost in

the whites; there can be no rational vain, for legislative aid to open wagon had it been carried fifteen years ago,

doubt that in West Virginia, the measure, roads from the eastern settlements into their valleys. Let the Acts of Assembly would by this time have wrought a most for these ihirty years of our infancy in

happy change in the condition and prosWest Virginia, be examined, and ihey pects of the country: and so the people will show how little, how very little, our

of West Virginia then thought, for they eastern mother was willing to do to pro

were generally and warmly in favor of it

, mote the growth of her nurseling in the

and zealously advocated it through their mountains. A few thousand dollars out

able and patriotic delegates. But in spite of her rich treasury-very few indeed

of their efforts, it was rejected by the all and now and then some arrearages of powerful eastern majority, though severtaxes due from the poor settlers in the al eastern delegates joined the West in wilderness, was all that the


government support. could be prevailed on to advance, for the

" We do not censure our eastern brethpurpose of opening this extensive territo- ren for opposing this measure so far as ry for settlement, and to accommodate its their part of the state is concerned. But secluded inhabitants.

still, we of West Virginia must deem “ Now can any man doubt, that if the ourselves not only unfortunate, but agLegislature had, in the prosperous days grieved, when an eastera majority in the of East Virginia, from 1794 to 1824, ap- legislature debars us from obtaining measpropriated only ten or twelve thousand ures conducive to our welfare, because dollars a year to make good wagon roads

these same measures may not suit the through the mountain districts, that West policy of East Virginia."--pp. 6, 7. Virginia would have increased in population and wealth far more than she did, or

Instead of proposing a division of could do without roads? May we nor af the state, and the erection of. West


Virginia into an independent state, being only one eighth of the population, à measure which has for a long time and the slaveholding population less than

one-eighth of the whites, the free interbeen contemplated, Dr. Ruffner sim

est predominates nearly as much as the ply asks for the enactment of a law, slave interest predominates in East Virif West Virginia shall call for it, ginia : so that we have in practical ope. "to remove slavery from her side ration, if not in perfection, that political

incongruity of slave interest and free in. of the Blue Ridge.”

terest, which is feared as a consequence u Heretofore,” he says,

is no such of the measure that we propose. scheme for West Virginia only has been

5. By allowing West Virginia her proposed among us; and no state has just share of representation, and if she abolished slavery in one part of her ter. call for it, a law for the removal of slaveritory and retained it another. For this ry, East Virginia will do more to bar. reason some persons may at first thought monize the feelings of the state, than she consider such a scheme as unfeasible. A

ever has done, or can do by a continued state composed partly of free, and partial- cured in her essential rights and inter

refusal. West Virginia being then sely of slaveholding territory, may seem to present a political incongruity, and 10

ests, will not desire a separation, nor be be incapable of conducting its public af- disposed to disturb the harmony of the fairs harmoniously. To relieve the minds

commonwealth. So far from aiding the of those who may feel apprehensions of designs of the abolitionists, either in Conthis sort, we offer the following sugges

gress or in our legislature, both her feeltions.

ings and her interests will make her "1. Free states and slaveholding states

more than ever hostile to that pernicious have, during fifty-eight years, lived peaceably and prosperously under one

“6. If East Virginia apprehend, that Federal government. Sectional jealous. the delegates from the free counties ies and occasional jars have occurred, but would often speak more freely about without evil consequence.

slavery matters, than she would like to * 2. Nothing in the nature of the case

hear in her central city of Richmond; Deed create difficulty, except the framing let her agree to remove the seat of govof laws that may affect the rights and in

ernment to Staunton, near the center of ferests of slaveholders. But an amend

our territory and of our white population, ment of the constitution could vasily and she will be free from all annoyancé provide for the security of slaveholders

of this sort. West Virginia would then in East Virginia against all unjust legisla- appear no more like a remote province of tion, arising from the power or the anti

East Virginia, and be no longer subject to slavery principles of the West.

the disadvantage of having all measures "3. After such an emancipation law affecting her interest, acied upon by a as we propose, should be passed for West legislature deliberating in the heart of Virginia, no immediate change would East Virginia, and exposed to the powertake place in the institation of slavery ful influence of a city and a people, among us; except that masters would

whose bland manners and engaging bosprobably choose to emancipate or remove

pitalities, are enough to turn both the from the state, a larger number of slaves

hearts and the heads of us rough mounthan heretofore. As only the next gen. taineers, whether we be legislators or eration of negroes would be entitled to

not."-pp. 10, 11. emancipation, the law would not begin its practical operation for

The remainder of the address is years at least, and then it would operate devoted mainly to the “facts and gradually for thirty or forty years longer, arguments which prove the expedibefore slavery would be extinguished in West Virginia. So that for many years Virginia, by a gradual process, that

ency of abolishing slavery in West the actual slave interest among us would not be greatly diminished.

shall not cause any inconvenience “4. There is and long has been, in either to society in general or to different parts of Virginia, every degree slaveholders in particular." The of difference, from the least to the est, between the slaveholding and the outlines of this scheme, with the au. pon-slaveholding interests of the people. thor's explanations, are thus given In some parts, the slaves are two or three times as numerous as the whites, and the

on pages 38–40. slaveholding interest overrules and ab- ). Let the farther importation of slaves sorbs every thing. In other parts, not one into West Virginia be prohibited by law. man in a hundred owns a slave, and the “ The expediency of this measure is plaveholding interest is virtually nothing. obvious. In West Virginia at large, the slaves “ 2. Let the exportation of slaves be free

ly permitted, as heretofore; but with this “4. Let masters be required to have the restriction, that children of slaves, born heirs of emancipation taught reading, after a certain day, shall not be exported writing and arithmetic: and let churches at all after they are five years old, nor and benevolent people attend to their relithose under that age, unless the slaves of gious instruction. Thus an improved the same negro family be exported with class of free negroes would be raised up. them.

No objection could be made to their liter. “When the emancipation of the after- ary education, after emancipation was deborn children of slaves shall be decreed, creed. many slaves will be exported, from vari- 5. Let the emancipated be colonized.ous motives. The restriction is intended This would be best for all parties. Supto prevent slaveholders from defeating posing that by exportation, our slave the benevolent intentions of the law, by population should in twenty-two years be selling into slavery those entitled to free. reduced to 40,000. Then about 1000 dom, and old enough to appreciate the would go out free the first year, and a privilege designed for them. Young gradually smaller nunber each successive children are allowed to be taken away year. The 1000 could furnish their owa with their parents and older brothers and outfit, by laboring a year or two as hiresisters, but not to be sold off separately to lings: and their transportation to Liberia evade the law.

would cost the people of West Virginia “3. Let the existing generation of slaves 25,000 dollars : which, as population remain in their present condition, but let would by that time have probably reachtheir offspring, born after a certain day, ed a million, would be an average contribe emancipated at an age not exceeding bution of two and a half cents a bead. twenty-five years.

This would be less and less every year. “ By this measure slavery will be slow- -So easy would it be to remove the ly but surely abolished, without detri- bugaboo of a free-negro population, so ment or inconvenience to slaveholders. ** otien held up to deter us from emancipa.

“If any man among us have many tion. Easy would it be, though our calcuslaves and little or no land, he can easily lations were not fully realized. profit by the law as well as others; let "Finally, in order to hasten the exhim sell negroes and buy land.

tinction of slavery, where the people de“Will any man argue, that the rights sired it, in counties containing few of slaveholders will be violated, because slaves : the law might authorize the people those rights extend to the offspring of of any county, by some very large majori. their slaves ?

ty, or by consent of a majority of the " Now the slaveholder's right of prop

slaveholders, to decree the remoral or erly extends to the offspring of his slaves, emancipation of all the slaves of the cunso far as this, that when the offspring ty, within a certain term of years, seven, comes into existence, the law at present ten or fifteen, according to the number allows him to claim it as his. But when of slaves. the law of the land shall in this particu- 6. This as an auxiliary measure, would lar be changed, his right is at an end; for be safe and salutary ; because the only it is founded solely on human law. By question then in a county, would be the nature all men are free and equal; and question of time, which would not be human laws can suspend this law of na- very exciting. But it would be inexpeture, only so long as the public welfare dient as the chief or only measure ; for requires it; that is, so long as more evil then the people of the same county, or than good would result from emancipa- of neighboring counties, might be kept tion. When the law of slavery is chang. embroiled on the subject for years, and ed for the public good, all that the slave

the influence of East Virginia, operating holder can claim, is that in some way, he on counties here and there, might defeat shall be compensated for the property ac- the whole measure, by a repeal of the quired by sanction of law, and taken law. Let us move as a body first, and away by a change of the law. By our determine the main point. Then the scheme nothing is absolutely taken from counties might decide the minor point the slaveholder. It gives him an option, for themselves. Let West Virginia deterto remove without loss a nuisance which mine to be free on a general principle, he holds in the country, or to submit, Then let the counties, if they will, mod. with a very small loss of value, to anoth: ify this principle, for more speedy relief." er mode of abating that nuisance. We say that the people have a right to remove this pest; and that our scheme gives

We shall refer to this scheme, slaveholders double compensation for with some remarks on several of what they will suffer by the measure.

the most important points, before We have no doubt that before ten years, nearly every slaveholder would acknowl.

we close. The reader's attention is edge himself doubly compensated.

first invited to a synopsis of the

-pp. 38-40.

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