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course is constrained and checked a moral element there which can by foreign violence or obstruction. only belong to a moral creator and The bending willow sweeps grace. disposer; and furnishes an incomfully because it seems to move un. parably higher evidence to every constrained and in perfect freedom. cultivated spirit of his being and his The gambols of the frisking lamb, nature, than any arguments of fitthe curvetings of a frolicsome steed, ness or of adaptation. are graceful because they betoken Grace, as thus the expression of suppleness of joint, flexile muscle, the highest element of our nature, in short, freedom from all constraint the peculiarly and strictly moral elearising from outer force or inner ment, is the highest form of beauty. weakness.

And the artist who would rise in The same is true of all instances his landscape to the most pleasing, of the other department of grace- most impressive exhibitions of beauthe grace of repose. The grace of ty, must apprehend firmly this elerepose differs from the grace of mo- ment and give it expression whertion only in this—that it fixes the ever it may find a place. It can eye on the effect of free motion, not everywhere appear. Freedom while the latter turns the attention must be controlled by rule and law; on the motion itself. It ever, con- and grace must submit to the prinsequently, implies motion, and, ac. ciples of propriety and fitness that cordingly, ever suggests freedom. rule with absolute sway all things We awaken the sentiment of grace rational. Architecture must have in repose, when we contemplate, straight lines and angles. Streets for instance, the delicately turned and roads must minister to their features of supple infancy; and if proper end and design-convenwe suffer our gaze to penetrate be- ience, and must be often direct ; yond the mere picturing surface to while grace rejects straight lines the actual substance imaged upon it, and angles, inasmuch as they imply we shall find that it is the free mo- constraint. Yet grace can find ad. tions of innocence, unperverted and mission, at least to some extent;undistorted, put forth in the yielding particularly in private, domestic muscle of infancy.

landscape, is it capable of entering All expressions of grace, thus, in perfect conformity with all the even in the physical world, are but rational elements to be expressed, images of freedom; and to the soul of unity, fitness and proportion; and that has been trained in a true there, above all, should the great æsthetic culture, ever speak forth lesson of man's moral nature everythis high element of a rational na. where be inscribed, that the image ture. To such a soul the great ar- may be stamped by ever continued tist reveals himself in all the forms repetition on the forming spirit of of grace that the visible creation unconscious childhood, and so ever wears. With true unerring vision, in maturing life recall and foster as truly as the elevated spirit sees the substantial truth itself. peace and purity imaged in the still, The answer that has been given deep azure of the sky, or majesty in to the question, What are the guiding the shore-clasping ocean, such a soul principles in the art of landscape, disceros in all these forms of grace, implies thus, that there are senti“ Tho unambiguous footsteps of the God

ments to be expressed which the Who gives its luster to an inseci's wing,

artist may and must firmly appreAnd wheels his throne upon the rolling hend, in order, confidently and inworlds."

telligently, to prosecule his work. All æsthetic grace reveals thus at This answer implies, moreover, once, a deity in nature, as it images that he, with equal firmness and in

tellectual clearness, apprehend the difficult, is the more pleasing effort materials and the mode of arrange- of a creative mind. ment, by means of which, and The expression of æsthetic elethrough which he is to express these ments by arrangement, requires a sentiments. The assumption, there. higher skill. Here forecast is necfore, of the possibility and the new essary. Here is needed that high cessity of this firm apprehension imaginative power, the most essenremains to be vindicated.

tial and most characteristic element Of the possibility, generally, of of artistic genius—the power to conexpressing æsthetic sentiments and struct proposed forms of beauty ideas in the forms of vegetable life, from materials, various, multiform, enough has already been said. and rude. Out of the countless And to him who has schooled him. possible forms which diverse ar. self in nature, who has been wont rangements of given materials may to throw himself under the influence furnish, he is to keep in his mind of the outer world, and to mark the steadily his own ideal expression, diverse character of those influen- and then pass before his view the ces as determined by diverse scenes successive possible groups and comand objects, little in addition need binations till the desired antitype be said to show the possibility of appear.

Yet this is the common expressing, in appropriate forms of labor of every artistvegetable life, the specific elements To arrest the fleeting images that fill of landscape expression that have the mirror of the mind and hold them fast, been enumerated. It is hardly po. And force thein sit, till he has penciled off etry, or if poetry, it is poetic truth Then to dispose his copies with such art to say, that every vegetable struct. That each may find its most propitious lighty ure and form, from the low creep. Than by the labor and the skill it cost.

And shine by situation hardly less ing vine to the tall spreading oak, has its own expression; while the

It is to be borne in mind, more. unlimited permutation of groups over, that degrees in the richness and combinations, both in kind and of the expression are admissible, in place, shows a range and scope

even when the same sentiment is of diversified expression as unlimit- imaged in the landscape. The coled. It would almost be a reflection oring, so to speak, may be Rubenson the divine artificer of the uni- like, deep and strong; or in the verse, to suppose for a moment that manner of Guido Reni, little more the objects of the vegetable world than bare light and shade. The do not, in some sufficient degree, composition may vary from the excorrespond in variety of character tremest simplicity to the most crowd. with the variety of sentiments, that ed denseness in almost every kind in his constitution and investiture of of landscape expression ; and the nature, he has shown, may, and for artist may consult his own skill in man's benefit should be imaged in the degree of richness he will imlandscape.

part to his work. The æsthetic student of nature This department of his labor imhas without difficulty learned the plies and requires æsthetic culture. character of each form of vegeta. He who knows nothing of the ca. ble life, and to him it has become pability of expressing sentiment ru. an easy task to translate the pecu- siding in the vegetable world, who liar expression of each into its prop. has never felt the power of scenery er æsthetic sentiment. The reverse grave or gay, on his own heart, or act, 10 image forth the sentiment in when impressed has never followed tree and vine and shrub and flower, out the effect to its producing cause, if more uncommon, or even more may well decline the work of adapt

ing grounds to æsthetic expression. It is an art, moreover, that loves But he who would labor intelligently the light. The groping, tentative, and with confidence must certainly it scorns. Its work is in intelligence know beforehand, what materials throughout. From beginning to end

nd what arrangement will best ex- the true artist proceeds in distinct press the character of beauty he apprehension of his object and his desires.

way. He errs not, therefore, and

his result is sure. The exposition that has been It is an art, still further, self-sufgiven of the guiding principles officing and independent. Architectpractical landscape, will, it is hoped, ure it indeed embraces as a part of suffice 10 show that this is a true its own province. But the recourse, art in the highest sense ; that, if we so often made, to eke out its imagadopt the principle in the broadestined poverty and leanness, to the import, “ To spirit, can only spirit products of the chisel and the pen. speak; only where an idea shines cil, wrongs the art; and the wrong forih do we recognize true art,"'* is generally resented. In the lanlandscape is yet not excluded. The guage of the elegant Herder," where very soul of landscape is the expres. This beautiful art beautifies a land, sion of a rational sentiment or idea. no statues are needed on the way.

It is an art that may be cultivated In full life there meet us with their by all. The rudest peasant, as he gifts, Pomona, Ceres, Pales, Vermay feel the power of beautiful and tumnus, Sylvanus, Flora.” Where graceful form in landscape, is so we have the living original, inani. far endowed with the power of cre. mate copies are out of place. In ating it; while, from the very nature the manifold forms and products of of the art, its power may be exert- vegetable life, is supplied to the ined in beautifying the scanty garden- genious artist all the materials plot as well as in embellishing and which the fullest and richest exenriching the most extended park pression can require. Under the or field.

mild sun of Italy, arches and vases It is an art, like every other, re- and statues may possibly be introquiring study and labor. A half duced into the villa, as in harmony hour's effort with rule and measure with the general landscape effect. will not suffice to create expressive But even there the admiring traveler, landscape. Nor will the want of after passing out of the rich galleall care or thought, save only to ries of proper in-door art—of statshun the stiffness of geometrical uary and painting, feels no disposi. lines, of course secure the expres- tion to stop and study the sculptured sion of real beauty, such even as is forms which line his path to the sometimes found in nature unadorn: true and pure landscape. And ed by art. Mere irregularity is not when he gives up his spirit to the natural beauty. There may be full power of majestic forest and beauty in the individual tree or flower-enameled lawn, or winding shrub, while there is no beauty of stream, and sloping hill-side, various arrangement or combination-the yet harmonious, natural, yet breath essential thing in landscape expres- ing rational sentiment, he gladly sion. “ Elegance,” to quote still overlooks and drops from view again the garden-poet of our liter. the coarse, storm-pelted statuary ature,

which a prodigal, not a refined, "Elegance, chief grace the garden shows art has scattered here and there. And most attractive, is the fair result Of thought—the creature of a polished mind." forms of architecture alone can be

In ruder climes, the bolder, sterner * Ficker.

admitted ; and these only as propri. ety, fitness to end, shall evidently temple, and mark it off in yard and require.

orchard and cultivated field and It is an art, moreover, of the pasture, the spirit of taste might highest moral value. All true art, breathe, and, as in the nature of the indeed, embodies a moral sentiment case is possible, shape each archior idea. The inner life and spirit tectural and rural labor into bright in every true æsthetic work, in forms of loveliness and grace that every true æsthetic object or scene, everywhere should woo to virtue. is this moral idea which inhabits and in crowded city and in sequestered animates it. But landscape is of country life, in the scant yard of all arts the most expressive of mor- the humble peasant and on the wide al truth. Even the unthinking child domains of wealth and fortune, in feels its elevating, grace-inspiring the rude hut and the princely palace, influence. The unfolding spirit un. everywhere, the art of landscape der the constant power of express. may work with all its pleasing, eleive landscape, will mould itself into vating power. the forms of beauty and grace Happy, indeed, for our country, which are ever impressed upon it. if what kind heaven has placed Abstract rule, cold precept, arbitra- within our power, if whai kiad ry authority, necessary as they are, heaven has seemed to devolve upon will yet yield, in power to form to us as our great mission-work and virtuous sentiment, to the force of destiny, neglecting and suffering to winning, subduing landscape, ever die the rude arts of violence and teaching, yet never obtruding, never war, our hands and hearts were irritating, drawing, not driving to turned to the great art of peacethe love and practice of what is pure the tasteful culture and investiture and graceful and lovely. That of our wide extended soil, seeking “ Heaven be near us in our infan- ever not merely to derive from cy,” need not be a poet's dream. It fruitful nature bare satisfaction of should be a common reality. In animal wants-mere shelter and the sense of whatever is pure and food for the body, the low aim to lovely, it may be planted around which necessity seems

to have every dwelling; may smile around bound down the people of other every rustic cottage as on every lands, but also, with this, to convert wide-spread park and lawn. No nature into a minister to the spirit's more effective moral teacher can be wants, spread over its expanded conceived. Happy for our land if face images of what is true and all over its wide extent, fast as its sacred, and make earth itself thus an swelling population dot it over with

ever present picture of heaven. dwelling and shop, with hall and


An eminent painter once said to tempt the portrait of a woman; it us, that he always disliked to at- was so difficult to give to such a

picture the requisite boldness of fea* Memoir of Mrs. Mary E. Van Lennep,

ture and distinctness of individual only daughter of the Rev. Joel Hawes, expression, without imparing its D.D., and wife of the Rev. Henry J. Van feminine character. If this be true Mother. Hartford Belknap & Mam- in the delineation of the outer and ersly.

material form, how much more true

is it of all attempts to portray the ing a monumental pile of historical female mind and heart! If the statistics, and maintaining for the words and ways, the style of think. friends of the departed the outlines ing and the modes of acting, all that of a character bright in their regoes to make up biography, have a membrance; but in shaping forth to character sufficiently marked to in- others a life-like semblance of somedividualize the subject, there is dan- thing good and fair, and distinct ger that, in the relating, she may enough to live with us thenceforseem to have overstepped the deco. ward, and be loved like a friend, rum of her sex, and so forfeit the though it be but a shadow. interest with which only true deli. Such has been the feeling with cacy can invest the woman.

which we have read and re-read the It is strange that biography should volume before us. We knew but ever succeed. To reproduce any- slightly her who is the subject of it, thing that was transient and is gone, and are indebted to the memoir for not by repetition as in a strain of anything like a conception of the music, but by delineating the emo- character; consequently, we can tions it caused, is an achievement of better judge of its probable effect high art. An added shade of color- upon other minds. We pronounce ing shows you an enthusiast, and it a portrait successfully taken-a loses you the confidence and sym- piece of uncommonly skillful biograpathy of your cooler listener. A phy. There is no gaudy exaggershade subtracted leaves so faint a ations in it, no stiffness, no incomhue that you have lost your interest pleteness. We see the individual in your own faded picture, and of character we are invited to see, and course can not command that of an- in contemplating it, we have all other. Even an exact delineation, along a feeling of personal acquisiwhile it may convey accurately a

tion. We have found rare treasure; part of the idea of a character, is a true woman to be admired, not capable of transmitting the more daughter whose worth surpasses esvolatile and subtle shades. You timation, a friend to be clasped with may mix your colors never so cun

favor to the heart, a lovely young ningly, and copy never so minutely Christian to be admired and reevery fold of every petal of the joiced over, and a self-sacrificing rose, and hang it so gracefully on missionary to be held in reverits stem as to present its very port ential remembrance. Unlike most and bearing, but where is its fra. that is written to commemorate the grance, its exquisite texture, and dead, or that unveils the recesses of the dewy freshness which was its the human heart, this is a cheerful crowning grace?

book. It breathes throughout the So in biography, you may make air of a spring morning. As we an accurate and ample statement of read it we inhale something as pure facts,-you may even join together and fragrant as the wafted odor in a brightly colored mosaic the fair. of est impressions that can be given of

old cherry-trees the mind of another his own re

Sheeted with soms." corded thoughts and feelings—and We stand beneath a serene uncloud. yet they may fail to present the in- ed sky, and all around us is floating dividual. They are stiff and glar. music as enlivening as the song of ing, wanting the softening transition birds, yet solemn as the strains of of the intermediate parts and of at- the sanctuary. It is that of a life tending circumstances.

in unison from its childhood to its And yet biography does some. close ; rising indeed like "an untimes succeed, not merely in rais.' broken hymn of praise to God.” VOL. VI.



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