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and ils reputation too well establish- fluence of Manufacturing Towns," ed, to need any commend ation. by the Rev. Henry M. Dexter, of

Manchester, N. H., contains many Notes Critical, Explanalory and just and weighty thoughts on a

Practical on the Book of the subject, of growing interest to this Prophet Isaiah. 2 vols. 8vo. By country. On one incidental point Albert BARNES. Second edition, we think his reasoning unsound. revised and corrected. New York: Speaking of the deficiency of church Leavitt, Trow & Co., 191 Broade sittings in our large manufacturing way.

towns, he gives it as his opinion,

that not more than one half the peo. The Author of this work has the ple in any of them can be brought merit of having done more ihan any under the appropriate influences of other man to disseminate among the the Sabbath. He instances Lowell mass of Christians in this country, and Manchester, where the number a critical acquaintance with the of church sittings is only equal to scriptures-critical in respect to a about one half the population ; and knowledge of the exact meaning of his inference is, " that about one the sacred text. His volumes upon half of the population must necessa: the New Testament have been for rily be excluded ;” and that “ great years in the hands of Sabbath school multitudes must be habitually absent teachers and scholars, most of whom from the salutary atmosphere of the would otherwise have had no ade: house of God,"-overlooking the quate helps to the thorough mastery fact, that a large number of the inof their lessons. Others, in other habitants are under the church.going relations, have derived an equal ben. age-others sick and superannuated efit from the possession of these and thousands attending but once cheap yet ample commentaries on a day, alternating with other mem. the word of God. The volumes be- bers of their families—besides an. fore us on the “ Evangelical Proph. other class who would not enter the et,” we regard as ihe Author's house of God were one erected in chef d'æuvre, on account of the crite every street. ical difficulties encountered, and the It may seem late in the day to acsuccess with which he has sur. knowledge the receipt of the spirited mounled them.

poem of Mr. Luzerne Ray, one of our

valued contributors, delivered at We find by us a number of the last anniversary of the Alpha pamphlets, some of which deserve of Connecticut. We advert to its a more extended notice than we are publication in the way of an adverable 10 bestow on them collectively. tisement to any of our readers who Prof. Porter's “ Plea for Libraries," who may wish to possess a copyhas been republished in this form having listened 10 its delivery with by “the Society for the promotion that high satisfaction which every of Collegiate and Theological Edu- one capable of appreciating poetic cation at the West ;” and is sent conception, harmony and sentiment, forth" in the hope that it may ar

must have experienced. rest the attention of many an indi.

We have also to acknowledge the vidual who has the ability and the receipt of two discourses, delivered heart to do a noble work for the before literary societies by the Hon. West,” by contributing to furnish George P. Marsh, M. c. from Ver. its infant colleges with ample libra. mont. Subjects: “The American ries—a hope which it is of the first Historical School,” and “ Human importance should be realized. Knowledge.” In the former, he

A discourse on “The Moral In- points out “the general character

of existing historical literature, the this great and vital question, can
uses of historical knowledge, and do it in no way more effectually
the conditions which the peculiar than by extending the circulation
character of our institutions requires of this pamphlet. Published by
in the American historical school ;" Chas. Whipple, Newburyport, Mass.
the latter, in despite of its unprom- 1848.
ising title, is the eloquent oration “ The Thirty-First Annual Re.
pronounced before the Massachu. port of the American Colonization
setts Alpha of the Phi Beta Kappa Society,” for 1848, is a document
Society at Cambridge, in 1847. of unusual importance, containing a
Both of these discourses display full history of the organization of
the erudition and philosophical spirit the colony of Liberia into an inde-
for which the author is distinguished. pendent republic, the national con-
It is no small honor to Vermont, stitution, the inaugural address of
reflecting honor also upon the whole the first President, and other papers
country, that she is represented in of deep interest. The government
the national legislature, by one of is not constituted upon the model of
the ripest scholars of the age. the United States, but bas features

“ The Position and Duties of the suggested by the experience of our
North with regard to Slavery," from country, and is well adapted to the
the pen of the Rev. Andrew P. Pea- condition of that people. We may
body, of Portsmouth, N. H., which mention as among the most pe.
first appeared in the Christian Ex. culiar features, the probibition of
aminer, is now published by itself slavery, the exclusion of all but per-
for general circulation-a distinc. sons of color from citizenship, and
tion of which it is eminently worthy. the exemption of the property of
It exposes the sophistical arguments married women from responsibility
by which interested parties have for the debts of their husbands.
endeavored to suppress the agitation The population of the new Repub-
of the subject of slavery-showing lic, now more than eighty thousand,
that the people of the free states are together with the progress already
responsible, to some extent, for its made by the people in all that con:
existence, and pointing out the meas- stitutes national greatness, is pro-
ures which it is incumbent on them phetic of a splendid career of social
to pursue. Whoever wishes to pro- prosperity.
mote the diffusion of sound views on

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PostScript.—The note on page 211 is not from the pen of the writer of the article, but editorial. Our design, was merely to express our re. gret that Mr. Secretary Mann, by making, in an official report, an offensive statement of the views entertained by a portion of his fellow-citizens on an important point of religious doctrine, has given occasion for the suspicion that he intended to use the influence of his office for a sectarian purpose. If however the effect shall be to lead some of the editorial guardians of orthodoxy in Massachusetts, to renounce and denounce the dogma of physical depravity, the churches of that Commonwealth will be in some sense indebted to the Secretary.

THE

NEW ENGLANDER.

No. XXIII.

JULY, 1848.

COMMON SCHOOLS AND THEIR RELATIONS TO

HIGHER SEMINARIES.

The system of common or free Fully aware that their systems of schools so generally prevalent in civil and church polity implied as this country is mentioned with praise an absolute condition of success, the in all lands. It has conferred a most existence of great“ maturity of honorable distinction on that section reason” and a high standard of pubof the American Union, where pri- lic morality, they aimed both to inmary schools for the training of all struct the people and the teachers the children and youth of the state, of the people in the best manner at the public expense, were first es. possible. Thus would the comtablished, and where, from the first, monwealth be furnished with wise they have been sustained with a counselors and the churches with constantly increasing interest in the learned pastors, and the people popular mind.

would be able to appreciate the inIt is to the lasting honor of New structions of their public teachers, England that along with so many of and judge for themselves of the the elements of her most ancient conduct of all their public servants. institutions, infused into the national Their efforts grew out of their character, this principle especially firm convictions ihat the truth for of universal popular education, has which they had suffered so much, already become a national sentiment and contended with so much suc

The fathers of New England cess, would make free, even were fortunate, not only in their ef- they themselves were free, both forts to found a new empire which their descendants and all who shoặld should be the home of a free people, embrace it. They were familiarly but they were fortunate also above acquainted with all the forms and all other founders of new states, results of European civilization, and that they apprehended clearly from they were willing to abandon them the first, the grand features of a in the hope of “a better country.” policy which must prevail, when They most highly prized the schools their infant institutions should be- and universities of the old world, come vigorous and mature. They for their leading stalesmen and pasfounded a new and noble empire, tors had enjoyed all the advantages and designated the true methods of of those seats of learning, and it making that empire immortal. was by means of the mental trainVol. VI.

40

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ing thus enjoyed, that their own wants of the people in the first gen. views of civil polity and religious erations, but it was wisely adapted doctrine were formed, and they to all the changes of growth and were thus enabled afterwards to es. progress from the feeblesi beginnings tablish, wisely and judiciously, the to the full vigor and maturity of the foundations of a new state.

national life. In the year 1647, Knowing that they themselves eleven years after the founding of must pass away, and leave to others Harvard College, and more than two their labors unfinished, they saw hundred years ago, it was ordered, that their own great conceptions and to the end that learning may not their own far-sighted policy would be buried in the graves of the fath. be poorly transmitted to fulure ages ers, that every township, after the by tradition. They knew the utter Lord hath increased them to the impossibility of maintaining a com- number of fifty households, shall monwealth after their model, if the appoint one to teach all children to people were ignorant or swayed by read and write, and when any town brute passion. Their rulers must be shall increase to the number of one men of enlightened wisdom, while hundred families they shall set up both the rulers and the people were a grammar school, the masters to be alike submissive to the re- thereof being able to instruct youth straints of Christiao morality. And so far as they may be fitted for the therefore, as the author of the first university.” writen history of Harvard College The general outlines of this sys. has told us,

" For some little while tem, thus early completed, have rethere were very hopeful effects of mained to this day essentially unthe pains taken by certain men of changed. The division into three great worth and skill, to bring upgrades of schools, arose naturally some in their own private families from the wants of the community; for public services. But much of each claiming the popular sympathy uncertainty and of inconveniency and support according to their rela. in this way was in that little time tive importance ; each contributing discovered; and they soon deter- essentially to the efficiency of the mined that set schools are so neces- entire system of public instruction. sary, there is no doing without them. The fathers of New England Wherefore a college must now be paid but little regard to the forms thought upon-a college, the best of European society when they thing New England ever thought formed their civil constitutions. upon.” Thus did they found their They looked with still less favor university, and every where in all upon most of the systems of church the settlements, as soon as comfort- poliiy belonging to the old world. able habitations had been provided They thought the tri-fold distinction for themselves, the house of public of orders and officers in the Chrisworship and the house for public in- tian church, though ancient, was struction arose simultaneously, thus yet unscriptural. They merged the showing the inseparable connection titles and duties of bishop, presbyter in the minds of the earliest colonists and deacon into that of a pastor of between their religious and educa. a laity church. But in their system tional institutions and the life of their of public education, we find three infant commonwealths.

grades of offices and three orders The system of popular education of teachers clearly developed. We in New England, was one which think these distinctions will be likely was designed, not only to meet the to remain so long as the genuine

Puritanism of New England con* Mather's Magnalia. Book 3. tinues in a thriving condition.

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The New England system of honorable to adopt improvements, popular education may well claim, let them come from what source therefore, the admiration of the they may. At the same time let world, as being the earliest ever de. not a blind admiration of foreign vised, as well as one of the most systems of education cause us 10 successful. It is yet in the full vigor forget that we have a system of our of youth, though it be among the own, with features strongly marked oldest of our ancient institutions. as American ; a system long tried It has contributed very much to and successful. Especially should make us what we are, as a free and the aims and tendencies of the vamighty people. It is that on which rious systems be compared. The we must still depend for all we hope most complete educational processes to be.

applied under the most favorable la very recent times systems of circumstances, will not transform in popular instruction have been form- a single generation, the manners and ed in other lands, and much has sentiments of an entire people into been said in praise of their success. those of a people different in tem. They have been introduced into perament and accomplishing a differ. countries where the manners of the ent destiny. The forms of governpeople and the whole social organi- ment throughout Europe may be zation has differed entirely from revolutionized; the thrones of every our own. These efforts to elevate monarch may share the fate of that the condition of the lower classes of Louis Phillippe, but the French in Europe, claim the respect and or German republican will not sympathy of America. Their

Their sys- therefore resemble a citizen of the tems of education should be men- United States, save only in the feels tioned to the lasting renown of the ing of hostility to monarchy. Politi. enlightened statesmen who formed cal revolutions may affect greatly and introduced them. In these days the foreign relations of a people ; when the eyes of the world are but when an entire change is made watching with such interest the pop. in all the educational influences ular revolutions of Continental Eu- which form the character of the tope, the influence and results of rising generation, then the very life popular education should be noticed of the nation is affected. The old in those countries where so much nation dies and a new empire is has been done to disseminate ele. born. mentary instruction during the last In this transition period, theretwenty years. They should be at fore, when we know not what a day tentively examined by such as would may bring forth as 10 the stability seek to improve the schools of our and character of the oldest and most own land. Whatever illustrates the influential European nations, it bephilosophy of popular education; comes us to watch with jealousy, the whatever pertains to the best meth- tendencies of these new movements ods of teaching and school manage. on the character and fortunes of ment; whatever contributes to the our own people. And when modes elevation of teaching as a useful and systems of education are preand honorable profession, should be sented for our adoption, with the greeted with entire liberality, though asurance that they have worked coming from a foreign land. As well in foreign countries, we should the Romans when masters of the look at the ultimate designs of those world, hesitated not to imitate the systems where they originated, and arms of their vanquished foes ascertain whether they conflict with wherein they surpassed their own, the great ends of the American so should we never deem it dis. system of popular education. Noth

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