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that no other whatever should be neglect. The Irish parents, the taught or allowed.
more respectable of ihem, attend "3. That these schools should be the exhibitions of their children with placed, as respects the examination, great delight and pride. These sep. inspection and general supervision arate Irish schools, in point of disof the committee, on precisely the cipline, are admirable, and in attainsame footing with the other schools ments are quite respectable. of the town.
The number of Irish children "Oo the part of Mr. Conolly it (and all our immigrants are Irish alwas urged that to facilitate his ef- most) who have been members of forts, and to render the scheme ac. our public schools the past year, I ceptable to his parishioners, the in- estimate at 1800. I have not the structors must be of the Catholic means of giving you the number of faith, and that the books prescribed our Irish population : and doubtless should contain no statements of facts the number of children of Irish pa. not admitted by that faith, nor any rents who attend no school is large. remarks reflecting injuriously upon In every city, this is a fearful eletheir system of belief. These con- ment of danger 10 us, and can not ditions were assented 10 by the com- be viewed but with the greatest conmittee; the books in use in our oth. cern. We have, however, the coner public schools were submitted to solation of believing that incalculahis inspection, and were by him ble good is resulting to those who fully approved. On these princi- are drawn within the influence of ples there were established that year, this great safeguard of our liberties. three schools for the Irish.”
2. Are any, and how many de. I have judged it necessary to give terred from attending the public you these preliminary remarks, in schools, on religious grounds only? order to explain our present posi.
The number must be extremely tion. By this mutual conciliation, small: and if any, I could have no we easily secured incalculable ad. means of enumerating them. vanlages; and from these small be. I am, dear sir, respectfully and gionings have grown up a class of gratefully yours, large and highly respectable schools,
JOHN O. GREEN. gathered from our most degraded Hon. HORACE MANN. population. The Irish children may The second communication is from now be found in every school in the Fall River, Mass. We give the sub- . city in considerable numbers, even stance of it. There are in that in our high school, while at the same place fourteen public day-schools. time the separate Irish schools are The average atiendance of each of crowded to overflowing, chiefly be, these, for a week in March, 1848, cause the latter are in the vicinity of is given, in figures approximating our densest Irish population. the truth as near as practicable, and
We have had occasionally a Cath. likewise the attendance, in each, of olic priest who has tried to interfere, Roman Catholic children. The sum but without success. It is now years of the former is 1139. The sum of since these schools have been for a the latter is 209. Two hundred moment disturbed. All jealousy and nine Roman Catholic children, seems so to have disappeared, that out of eleven hundred and thirtyI find now that we have but four nine children in the public day. Catholic teachers in our employ, and schools. these females, while we have nine There are in the saine town two schools of Irish children exclusively. Roman Catholic schools ; one taught The original condition has gradually under the eye of the priest, and and undesignedly been falling into partly charitable; the other entirely
of a private character. The fornecessary books, &c. to enable them mer averages sixty, the latter thirty to do so. He has been, or sent, to pupils. These are all who are me many times for tickets of adknown by our informant to be “ de mission ; and I presume I have ad. terred from attending the public mitted thirty or forty children at his schools on religious grounds." request within three months. I have
The third communication is from to-day admitted five. He also oco Boston. We quote the following. casionally goes into the schools, and
“I can not say what portion of sees that they attend, and appears our foreign population attend our 10 lake much interest in their atiendpublic schools, not knowing how ing. He tells me that the Bishop many there are in the city. But of and their clergy feel friendly to our 9838 children in the primary schools schools.” on the last day of January, 1848, To this information we need not 4644 were reported as of foreign add any comments. It fully sus. parentage. This is by no means tains our position, and is filled the whole number, as many teach. greatly to gratify the friends of pop. ers do not report how many they ular education and of our country. have, but sny a few,'' a great ma. We are happy 10 be able to give it, ny,'' a large proportion,' I can not and express hereby our obligations say how many,' &c.
to those who have communicated it “Some of the children are Ger. to us. The statements in the last mans, English, &c., but the greater communication require us to qualify, number are undoubtedly Irish. as we do with great pleasure, an ob
“I am not aware that any are servation in the first part of our arkept away from our schools on re- ticle, respecting the general opposie ligious grounds. I know one Ro- tion of the Roman Catholic priestman Catholic priest who not only hood to the aliendance of Roman encourages the attendance of his Catholic children upon the public children at our primary schools, but schools. provides them with clothing and the
The Germania and Agricola of Ca. such deviations from him as were sugo ius Cornelius Tacilus, with notes
gested by other critics and approved by
his own judgmeni; and for "noles" has for Colleges. By W. S. Tyler, endeavored - to embody in small compass Professor of the Greek and Latin the most valuable results of the labors of Languages, in Amherst College. such recent German editors as Grimm, New York and London: Wiley & Ruperi and Walther." This was a labo.
Günther, Gruber, Kiessling. Dronke, Roth, Putnam. 1847.
rious undertaking. Indeed, it would be This book has already been favorably no sliglit task thoroughly to digest the noticed by several other journals, and the condensed yet voluminous commentaries commendations which it has received, of Ruperti alone on this author. But though generally too indiscriminale, have when to this is added the similar study of nevertheless not been bestowed without each of the commentators named above, reason. The aim of the editor has been as well as the others, still more numer to furnish the students of our colleges ous, whose naines appear on page 75, the with the most approved text of these two whole to be followed by a careful compar. trealises of Tacitus, ingether with such ison of them all, one with another, the explanations and illustrations of the same, Tabor becomes well nigh formidable. If as, in bis judgment, were needed. He therefore, in executing his plan, the edi. has accordingly adopted, “in the inain," tor is found sometimes to have misapprethe text of Walther, introducing a few hended his authorities, or to have attri.
buted to one what belonged to another, it widely from Walch in his construction of should not in all cases be necessarily a the words paratu-ignotis. The latter matter of surprise. Nothing, however, makes majore agree with fama. Walther is more important in a work of this kind, makes it agree with paratu, and thus than accuracy; for, as it derives value, to gives an entirely different turn to that a great extent, from the authority of great part of the sentence, so that it must be names, it is desirable that we know that translated : after great preparation, which their opinions are truly reporied.
was exaggernted by report, as things unBesides the derived notes, there are known are wont to be. We do not mainmany furnished by the editor himself, lain that Walther's interpretation is to be which, with the others, form a comment- preferred to the other, but that they differ ary of more than a hundred pages, and widely, must, we think, be apparent. are destined, we doubt not, to render val. On the next page, we are told that uable aid to those for whom the book Quod, the first word of chapter 26, is the was particularly designed.
“ relative for the demonstraiive." But is As the editor has in his preface intima. this exactly true? Has not quod a use ted an intention of giving the public an and a significance here which the demon. improved edition of his brook, it may not strative would not have? It may be that in be amiss to illustrate the fault which we English, where we do not link together our have hinted at above, by remarking for a sentences and periods as it is customary to moment on a few poinis presenting them- do in Latin, we should use the demonselves within the compass of half-a-dozen strative to begin a sentence like this. But pages, taken as a specimen of the work, in saying this we assert something very presuming, however, that the errors dis. different from the proposition in the note. clissed are generally such as would have We allude to this comparatively uninpor. been corrected by the editor himself, had tant error, in onder to make our objection he once more carefully revised his manu. to ibe use of such phraseology in general. script before sending it to the press.
We believe that learners are often misled If we turn to page 163, we find the fol- by being told that this or that word, or lowing note. “ Auctus Oceunus, swelling case, or tense, or mood, is used for anocean, Walch) says : ocean buasi- other, as if the substitution could be made fully described, but not so well." Now without some change, greater or less, in so far is Walch from translating auctus by the thought expressed, or some violation the words boustfully described, that be re- of the rules of the language, while the jeris auctus froin the text, and adopts and truth is, that it can very rarely be done. defends the conjecture of Lipsius, who We find the same nole repeated in es. substitutes dictus, and gives the sentence planation of the first word cujus, of the as follows: hinc terra et hostis, hinc dictus next chapter. Oceanus militari jacluntia compararentur.
T'he last sentence of this chapter comThe note at the bottom of the same mences thus : Quod nisi paludes teris. page is on the following passage : Cule- sent. By a reference to chapter 12, we are doniam incolentes populi, paratu magno, told thal“ quod=propter quod, and means majore fama, uti mos est de iynotis, oppug. wherefore, so that." "Prof. Tyler is here, rasse ultro, castella adorti, metum, ut pro- we think, at variance with his best author. tocantes, addiderunt. In his note the ities. Does not Freund (see quod, VII) editor says : ** Oppugnasse depends on fa- point out the true use of this particle in this
So Gronovius), Dr[onke), passage as well as in the others alluded to ? Walch), etc. Waline)r would supply See also Zimpe's Latin Grammar, ş 807. before oppugnasse, uti nuntiatum est, as At the boltom of page 165, we find the implied in the context, which comes to nole, “ Fortium virorum, military men. the same result." This seems to us to be Dronke). This is not Dronke's internot only a very imperfect, but also an in- pretation, but Ernesti's, quoted by Dr., correct account of Walther's interpreta- to be sure, as also by the editor of the tion of this contested passage. In the Tacilus found in Lemaire's series, and first place, it represents that this critic probably by others. and Walch essentially agree, whereas they
" Quæ-faceret=ut ea fa. differ as widely as iwo intelligent com- ceret.” Why is this simple case of ihe mentators well could; and secondly, the subjunctive explained, while æstimaret in only point of difference which is men. chapter 5, and quaereretur in chapter 14, tioned, is stated incorrectly. For Wal- are passed by unnoticed ? ther does not supply nuntiatum est before But we have already exceeded the lim. oppugnasse, but after that word, and pa. its of a “short notice," and time and the renthetically. He makes oppugnasse de. prinier forbid us to enlarge. We will pend not on this supplied verb, nor on therefore turn but one leaf more, and fama, (which construction he maintains close our remarks with a word on two of would require adortos,) but notwithstand the notes on page 169. In the middle ing the iense of the infinitive, on the of the page stands the following: “ Quos participle adorti. He differs siill more - quod. Quod=quod attinet ad : whom,
as to the fact that you have at length found, at the University of Bonn, upon (il is not becuuse) they have resisted, but they were odertaken." If quod=quod at.
the Origin and Contents. Transtinet ad, what is the object of ad ? Quod
lated from the German; by Irau is said sometimes to combine in itself all Chase, D.D. New York: D. Apthat is expressed by quod attinet ad id,
pleton & Company, 200 Broad. quod. But is there any necessity of giving ihis word any other than its more ordinary
way. Philadelphia : George S. meaning in ihis passage? The text is as Appleton, 148 Chestnut Street, follows: quos quod tandem indenistis, non 1848.. restiterunt, sed deprehensi sunt. We do not see that a literal translation of these words will be any more obscure than that
The Apostolical Constitutions, of contained in the note, thus : and because which we have here an elegant you have at length found them, they have translation, is one of the most im• not resisted, but have been overtaken. Agricola apprehends that some of his sum portant relics of Christian antiquity
. diers may infer that the Caledonians have
have İts claim to an Apostolical origin is come to a stand to oppose them, because now universally rejected by the they (the Romans) have at length found learned, some assigning it to the them in their remote retreats. He denies third century, and others to a period this concisely in the words given. " Quinquaginta annis. So many years,
as late as the sixth. No work of a it might be said to be in round numbers, similar title is mentioned by any thougli actually somewhat less than fifty writer until the latter part of the years since the invasion of Britain by Ju fourth century, or early in the fifth, lius Cæsar." We know not how to account for the obvious and grave error of when Epiphanius quotes from the this note. Julius Cæsar invaded Britain “ Constitution of the Apostles," more than fifty years before Christ, and which, he says, though held of doubt. explain, was delivered by Agricola to his ful authority by many, is not to be soldiers more than eighty years after the condemned since it contains a true commencement of the Christian era; the account of the ecclesiastical disci. interval, therefore, in round numbers, was one hundred and forly, instead of tiny pline and laws.” No other distinct years. But Tacitus does not allude to the mention of such a work occurs in first expedition against Britain in this pas. any writer of the fourth century, sage. He himself informs us, in chapter nor until after the death of Theodo 13, that after Julius Cæsar's campaigns sius the Great, about a hundred in that island, its inhabitants enjoyed quiet from Roman vexation during the years later. This is all the evidence successive reigns of Augustus, Tiberius of the existence of the work which and Caligula, till Claudius renewed the the first five centuries furnish, ud. project of bringing them into subjection, less, as is conjectured by some, Eu. (A. D. 43.) From that year to the time when Agrícola is represented as speaking sebius and Athanasius refer to it unin the passage under consideration, was a der the title of the “ Teachings" or period of upwards of forty years; and “Doctrine” of the Apostles. ! this is the period which Agricola has in mind, calling it in round numbers filly
was formally condemned as spuri
ous by the Trullan council, A. D., We had intended to comment on some 692. The reader will perceive other points, which we think call for from these facts that this work de. criticism on the few pages to which we have confined our remarks; but we have
serves no credit as an exponent of said enough to indicate the nature of the the doctrines and discipline of the inaccuracies of which we complain. For primitive church. Even if it had and will receive the ihanks of the public. as early an origin as the third cen:
tury, it was no doubt subsequently CHASE'S APOSTOLICAL Constitu• interpolated, and the character of it
TIONS.— The work claiming to be essentially altered. In doctrine, it the Constitutions of the Holy is Arian; in church government, Apostles, including the canons ; Episcopal; and in support of both Whiston's Version, revised from it is of about equal authority—that the Greek; with a Prize Essay, is, of no authority whatever. Al.
though the main body of the work, duct of the bishop, but is principal. came from one hand, yet it mani. ly devoted to an exhibition of the festly underwent alterations during subordinate relation in which the latwo or three centuries to suit the ity stand to the bishops. exigencies of the reigoing influ- whole aim is to exalt the dignity ence in the church. It came into and honor of the bishops above all, existence in a corrupt age, after and in them to set forth the reprethe doctrine had become current sentatives, not only of the church, that deception may be lawfully but of God.” It distinctly exhibits practiced for the cause of religion, the germ of that hierarchical princiand after the want must have been ple on which rested, at a later perifelt for apostolic authority to sup- od, the whole sovereign power of port the new ecclesiastical ideas and the priests, not over the church usages. The age which produced only, but also over the state. The it gave birth also to a multitude of bishop is to be supreme, but all other other forgeries which were easily church officers are represented as imposed on the world as the genuine worthy of great honor. The reworks of the authors, whose names maining books contain precepts conthey bear. Whoever reflects upon cerning all the relations of ecclesithe success of some modern authors astical life, both internal and exter. in imposing their works upon the nal; concerning festivals and fasts, public as the productions of former divisions and schisms, and ritual times, can easily see with what fa- and liturgical regulations. The cility the fraud might be commit- eighth or last book contains the ted in an age destitute of critics and apostolical canons, eighty-five in printing presses, especially if the number, many of which undoubtedbooks were adapted to strengthen ly date back as far as the second the interests of the heads of the century, others as late as the fourth. church, into whose hands copies The prize essay of Dr. Krabbe of the would first fall, and who alone University of Kiel, p. 236, is a very would be competent to detect and lucid and able exposition and disexpose the forgery. In such an age cussion of every point of interest a book might be written with the connected with these ancient wri. name of an ancient author attached, tings, and adds immensely to the with no design to deceive ; yet af. value of the volume. We have spoterwards, when its real authorship ken of the “ Constitutions,” includ. had died out of mind, it might be ing the “Canons," as one of the most received without question as the important relics of Christian antiquiwork of him whose name it bears. ty. For although they can not boast Such, on one or the other of these of apostolic authority, they throw suppositions, was the origin of the much light on the ecclesiastical usawork before us. It was designed to ges of the early centuries, to which realize the ideas which at the time they must be referred, and also on of its composition had begun to the spirit of Christianity in those prevail, of a Catholic church, under times. We can not better express a hierarchy, constituted after the this judgment than in the following pattern of the Levitical priesthood. words of the translator's preface : The first book which is short, is occupied mainly with rules for moral Canons of the Apostles, the Christian of
"In reading these Constitutions and conduct and gives but few precepts the present day will be likely to exclaim, respecting discipline. The second a splendid specimen of pious fraud! A which is the central point of the strange mixture of good and of evil! He whole work, contains some precepts has before him documents exceedingly
will readily perceive, however, that he respecting the character and con- important for illustrating the ecclesiası VOL. VI.