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from the ordinary pursuits of busi. the year must plod at the rate of ness which can not be spared with two to four miles an hour.* We out injury. But very many rail. will refer, to show some of the benroads have been built, both in this efits of railroads to a thinly settled country and in Great Britain, in country, to the Michigan Central which one or both of those condi. road. This road is about two hun. tions have been violated. Disregard dred miles long, extending from of the latter is universally regarded Detroit directly across the state. Beas one of the principal causes of fore it was built, it was necessary the financial convulsions in Eng. for the farmer residing fifty or a land; and our own expenditures, hundred miles from that city, 10 though comparatively very small, carry his wheat or flour by wagons have combined with other causes in over very bad roads; and as the producing much embarrassment in soil of ihe central parts of the state, the commercial business of this though productive, was not exubercountry. We hope that this embar. anily fertile like a great part of Ill. rassment may have a favorable ef- inois and Wisconsin, the ride of em. fect in checking what is in danger igration seemed likely to be divertof becoming among ourselves a rail. ed from the state. By building the

way mania, to illustrate and prove road, a belt of land a hundred and • which danger we will state only two sixty miles long and furiy broad, is

facis ; that railroads are now being brought within iwenty miles of a built in the state of Vermont, which market, and we do not consider it will cost about ten millions dollars, an extravagant estimate, to assume and that more than sixty applications that this tract, embracing more than for railroad charters have been made four million acres of land, will with. to the legislature of Massachusetts in ten years be worih on an averat its present session. We ought, age, iwo dollars an acre more than also, to remember that in Great Brit. if the road had not been construct. ain, no money is sent out of the ed. Similar calculations might be country when a railroad is built, presented, respecting roads which that the material and labor are whol. are chartered or proposed, and which ly British, while in our own case, will traverse the immense prairies we often purchase English iron with of the northwestern states or the American gold.

colton fields of the south. WhethBut we shall take a very superfi- er the project for a road to the Pacial view of the comparative bene. cific should be regarded as an obfits of railways to the two countries, ject of serious consideration for the if we do not consider the relative present generation, we will not say: size, and previous advantages of the we would remark, however, that it two nations. In England, owing might have been built for a smaller to the excellent public roads, and 10 amount than the Mexican war has canals, every part of the country cost. was accessible at a moderate ex. Regarding England as the home pense of time and money. The of Cromwell, and Shakspeare, and railway was therefure a

Milton, as the birth-place of our pil. ience, not an article of prime ne. grim fathers, as the bulwark for cessity. In our own land, notwith many generations of our holy Prostanding our rivers, canals and lakes, testant religion, as the pioneer in there are vast regions from which the great work of subduing this re. the expense of transporting produce

In October last, the writer of this ar. 10 market greatly exceeds the cost ticle, passed fifteen hours in going forty of producing it, and where the trav. miles in the mail stage, on the most im. eler during a considerable part of portant public road in Mlinois.

conven

volted world to the obedience of ures that her ignorant and degraded Christ; we can not but contemplate population may be enlightened, that her future prospects with deep and her poor may be fed, and that the anxious interest. We earnestly de- light of the gospel may shine forth, sire that she may adopt such meas enlightening all her dwellings.

PEACE- AND WHAT NEXT?

So we

are to have peace with conveniently contiguous to our own Mexico. The form of a treaty has as Naboth's vineyard was to Abab's been agreed to by the President and palace grounds. We draw a line Senate ; and it only remains for our upon the map, marking with " red General-in-chief and our diplomatic ink” from ocean to ocean ; and ascommissioners to find at Queretaro, suming that line for our frontier, or elsewhere—or to set up if they we undertake to defend it. Beyond can not find some shadow or pre- the line which we have drawn, there tense of a government from which may be pronunciamentos, revolu• that treaty, as we call it, shall re. tions, diciatorships ; and we give ceive some sort of ratification. Ourselves no concern. But this side Then the war which is said to have of the line, we hold the sovereignty, been begun“ by the act of Mexico," and we will keep it. Along that will be declared to be ended, “ byline we will maintain whatever milie the act of Mexico."

tary force shall be necessary to keep This whole matter of making a invasion at a distance. One faction treaty, is little else than a sham. after another-ascendant for the All men know—the President and hour at the city of the Aztecs, may Senate not excepted--that there is swagger about the honor of "the not in Mexico any government that magnanimous Mexican nation," and is competent to make a treaty in be. may swear to restore the integrity half of the Mexican people; much of the republic. But along the line less is there in that unhappy coun. which we have made our boundary, try, any government which is com our forts and stations, commanding petent to keep a treaty. How is it all the passes, and garrisoned with ihen, that we are to have peace ? a standing force of twenty thousand Setting aside the formalities of ne. men, shall keep the territory we gotiation and ratification, those thin have conquered, so that no Mexi. pretenses under which the arrange. can shall dare to show himself in ment is set forth, and looking simply arms, till it shall be occupied with a at the arrangement itself as an ar. population of our own citizens able rangement having all its validity to keep it for themselves. Nobody from the will of our government, supposes that the paper called a what is it? Simply the arrange treaty, whatever pretended ratifica. ment which recommended tion it may receive at Queretaro or eighteen months ago by Mr. Cal. elsewhere, can give us any right to houn, by Gen. Taylor, by Com. those provinces which we had not Perry, and indeed by every man before, or can enable us to hold who looked at the case with even those provinces with one soldier less half an eye. We announce our de. or one gun less than if the farce of termination to keep a certain portion negotiation and ratification had ner. of the Mexican territory which we er been enacted. We get peace not have conquered and which is as by a compact with any actual Mes.

was

ican government, not by a compact than seven times as large as the to which the Mexican people are in “ empire state” of New York. All any sense a party, or which they the public lands this side of the will regard as of any binding force, Rio Grande, from its mouth to its but only by ceasing from the ac- source and thence due north to the live prosecution of the war, while 42° north latitude,” are the public we content ourselves with holding lands, not of the United States, but by mere strength just as much of only of the state of Texas. What the Mexican territory as we choose else have we gained ? “ We, the to keep.

people of the United States,"'And what have we got? Peace, what have we gained for ourselves such as it is. Peace, guarded with by this lavish expenditure of treasa standing army of twenty thousand ure and of blood

We have gainmen, and a line of military stations ed Upper California and that part of stretched across the continent. And New Mexico which lies beyond the what else? We were to have “in- Rio Grande. Is this our indemnity demnity for the past and security for the past? No, we pay for it, for the future," and nothing less not only the hundred or hundred " the whole or none." “Indemnity and fisty millions which the war has for the past,” as the past was at the cost us, but fifteen millions more. commencement of the war, was es- For Upper California and half of timated to be some five millions of New Mexico, with their wild moundollars due from the Mexican gov- tain ranges and their vast deserts, ernment to citizens of the United which is all that we get, we giveStates. “Security for the future," besides renouncing our claim for five was security against any depreda- millions of indemnity-no less a tions on our citizens hereafter by price in money than we gave for Lou. Mexican functionaries,—security in isiana including the Mississippi and other words, that in all time to come all that lies beyond it. No man there shall be in Mexico a govern. will pretend that we give Mexico a ment not only able and willing to dime less than all the real value of, pay its just debts, but able and wille whatever we retain beyond the Rio ing to restrain its functionaries from Grande. Where then is that “in. all injustice towards our citizens. demnity,” for which the war was to be This is what we were to get. Have prolonged indefinitely? And where we got it? We have expended a

security for the future ?" hundred millions of treasure,-per. Will any man tell us that the treaty, haps it will turn out to be a hundred so called, affords us any security ? and fifiy millions when the accounts What guarantee have we that henceare all settled. We have lost some forward there shall be in Mexico a twenty thousand lives. We give up government more honest or more all our claims against Mexico in be. capable than the government which half of our citizens, and become they have had heretofore ? All bound to pay those claims ourselves. our security against Mexican aggresAnd what do we get ? We have sion lies in our power to defend the conquered for Texas a boundary line which we have taken—a securiwhich she could never have con. ty identical with what we should have quered for herself, and which she had if we had taken that line a twelve. dever claimed but in the merest gas. month ago, and had then announced conade. We have gained not for our purpose to defend it against the Union, but for that one state, an whatever government or whatever area of three hundred and twenty. anarchy might dare to assail it. four thousand square miles. We Such, then, according to present have made that state of Texas more appearances, is to be the termination of the war in which we involve it after the tweuty millions shall ed ourselves by admitting Texas have been paid. But we pay at a into our confederacy. The gain, as magnificent rate for all we take. was expected, and as was probably Instead of doing as the British did intended, redounds to Texas and to in China-instead of taking what the holders of Texan scrip. For we think will be convenient for our all this addition to her territory—for use, and then exacting an indemnity the acquisition of millions of acres of twenty millions from those whom to which she had no more shadow we have conquered, we pay the of a right than she has to the island twenty millions ourselves, and the of Cuba, Texas pays nothing. The indemnity goes—as of right it should "man in the blanket,” that rene. go-o the party that has suffered gade from civilization, Sam House most, and is most in need of it. All ton, has outwitted and cheated not this, we claim, is really crediiable only President Tyler and Mr. Cal. to our country. In the long history houn, but President Polk also, and of conquest and national robbery, all the democracy of the Union. since the days of Nimrod, we do not The whole operation, from the first remember any thing half so gener. appeal to Mr. Tyler's vanity down ous. Alexander of Macedon had to ihe present moment, shows that some heroic traits ; but the thought Houston is sharp in a bargain--too of paying for any of the countries sharp for those with whom he has which he overran with fire and sword, been dealing. Through his adroit seems not to have occurred to him. ness, the quarrel between Mexico The Romans were a remarkably and Texas, which Texas could not "progressive” people, and they had settle, has been settled by the resist. a “manifest destiny" to fulfill; but less weight of our power and our when did the Romans pay, or promresources. We have taken up the ise to pay, for any of the countries quarrel as our own; the common which they conquered and annexed treasure and the common blood of to their widening dominion? When all the United States, have been the Huns, the Goihs and the Van. squandered in the conflict; and the dals, came down from the North on result is, that Texas is to be the the decaying Roman empire, as our greatest, and erelong the most pow. armies have come down upon enerful state in the Union.

is our

feebled and decaying Mexico, exeBut afier all the case is not as bad cutiog the vengeance of God, they as it might be. In one respect the did not pay for the fair provinces peace-supposing that it turns out they conquered. The Saracens were to be a peace in the manner propo- an enterprising people in their day ; sed—is even honorable to our coun. they went on annexing for several try. We might have taken from ages ; but they never paid for Egypt Mexico much more of her territory or the Holy Land, or for the pos. than we have taken ; for we had sessions which they held so long in much more in our undisturbed pos. Spain. The Turks 1ook Constantisession, and some other frontier, nople four centuries ago ; but to this still more advanced, might have day they have never paid for it. In been defended as easily as that more modern times, Napoleon seems which we assume for our boundary. always to have thought that the ex. But we content ourselves with com. pense of conquering was enough, paratively little, when we might without assuming the additional ex. have had much. Nor is this all. pense of paying for what he conWhat we have determined to keep, quered. Nor have the British ever we might have kept without paying had a thought of taxing themselves for it, just as easily as we can keep to pay for a single acre of all their

conquests in India. So far as our who choose to retain their allegiance reading informs us, this paying for to Mexico, will be allowed freely to these Mexican provinces, and pay- do so and to sell their property and ing for them so magnificently, after remove, or to remain where they having conquered them, and while are ; while such as do not avail still holding them and expecting to themselves of that privilege, will hold them only by mere force, is become citizens of the United Siates; the first instance of the kind in the and that these territories asier a suf. history of the world. The paying ficient pupilage, and after having for these provinces, when we might become sufficiently populous and just as well have them without pay. properly organized to be invested ing, is certainly creditable to our with sovereignty, are to be admilled country ; though our taking them as sovereign stales of this great and hulding them, in the old way Union. Assuming all this as de. of conquest and armed strength, is termined, we look 10 see what is to decidedly vulgar, puting us on a be the result of it in respect to our level, in that respect, with other ag. public affairs, and how it affecis our gressive and conquering races, the interests and duties as citizens. British, the French, the Turks and It is obvious, in the first place, Saracens, the Goths and Vandals, that certain great and grave ques. and the old Romans. It is to be tions which have agitated the minds hoped that our example, so far as of good citizens, are disposed of. it is creditable, will noi be lost upon Certain great issues have been be. the world. If other nations who fore the country, but are now no may hereafter pursue the career of longer to be debated. It is no long. conquest, will do as we have done, er a question what shall be done io this Mexican war of ours will be bring this most mischievous and decome quite an epoch in history. moralizing war to a conclusion. One improvement inay lead to an- The war is to be ended. It is no other; and who can tell that ulti- longer a question whether our memmately there may not be found some bers of Congress ought to vole supway of conducting wars of invasion plies for the prosecution of the war. and conquest “ upon Christian prin. All the supplies now needed on acciples?"

count of the war, are supplies to But it is not our purpose to dis. pay the debts already contracted, cuss in detail the programme of a and supplies to keep the peace upon peace which has been published un. our new Mexican frontier. It is no der the name of a treaty. The ac. longer a question whether the war tion of the President and Senate on shall end in the acquisition of territhat paper, may be taken as evi- tory beyond the western boundary dence of a purpose on their part to of Texas. The territory is acqui. bring the war to a close. We may red and will never be given up. It assume therefore, that the war, so would be as wise to expect that Florfar as active hostilities are implied ida will be ceded back to Spain, and in the word, is virtually ended ; that Louisiana to the French republic, our armies are to be withdrawn from as to expect that the provinces now their present advanced positions ; acquired will pass again into the that the boundary between the ter: possession of Mexico. All these ritory which we claim and hold as questions belong now to the past. our own, and that which we ac- So far as parties have been organiknowledge as belonging to Mexico, zed upon these questions, the paris to be as described in the paper ties must find some other issues or referred to; that those Mexicans re- must be disorganized. Neither the siding this side of the new boundary war question in any of its forms,

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