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the rude cabin of the peasant; the But we must postpone our reflec. kitchen, the chamber, and the sta- tions upon Irish reform till a future ble, will no longer be in one ; the number. We do this with the pain. oven will displace the iron pot, and ful thought, that while every steamer spoons and forks will supersede na- is bringing us fresh tidings of dis. ture's utensils. From the lowest order and distress from that un. point of depression we mark an up- happy land, our subject can not ward tendency. 'Time must develop grow old. and perfect it.

ENGLAND AND THE UNITED STATES:- AGRICULTURE,

MANUFACTURES AND RAILROADS.

The energy displayed by Great During the same period the inBritain during the latter years of the dustrial interesis of the nation, if war with Napoleon, the number of we may be permitted to make use men furnished to recruit her army of a word whose convenience has and navy, and the sums of money within a few years given it currency, raised to support her colonial estab. were in a state of great activity and lishment, were such as to excite the prosperity. Indeed this fact alone astonishment and admiration of the can explain how such exertions and civilized world. And the attentive such expenditures were possible. reader of history, when he remem. The commerce of continental Eubers the extent and natural advan- rope having been annibilated, and tages of the island of Great Britain, that of the United States having been compared with the resources of the fetiered by our foolish embargo, the dorninions of Buonaparte and his ships of England sailed through evedependent allies, which in the year ry sea without a rival or competi1812 embraced almost the whole tor. Her manufacturers supplied ihe European continent, when he calls world with their fabrics, obtaining to mind the genius and military pow. profits unreduced by the competition er of the French emperor, and when of foreigners; for the “continental be considers the progress and issue system” of Napoleon was hardly of the contest, will experience sim. more successful in excluding them ilar emotions in a still higher de. from Germany and Russia, than was gree. No where does the political the broom of the venerable lady economist find presented for his in. commemorated by Sidney Smith, in vestigation, matter which demands keeping the waves of the ocean out more serious and careful study. of her domicil. The supplies of Where in the annals of authentic food required by the government for history, is recorded a parallel to the the army and navy, added to the fact, that in the years 1813, 1814 usual wants of the country, enabled and 1815, Great Britain and Ireland the farmer to obtain high prices for with a population of eighteen mil. everything he had to sell. All lions, raised by loans and taxes five classes therefore were able to pay hundred and ten million pounds ster- taxes, which were imposed, in the ling, or $2,448,000,000.*

memorable language of Sydney

Smith,“ upon every article which * Porter's Parliamentary Tables, quoted in Blackwood's Magazine.

enters into ihe mouth, or covers the pound sterling is estimated ut $4.80, which back, or is placed under the footis ils average value.

upon every thing which it is pleasVol. VI.

36

The

ant to see, hear, feel, smell or taste increasing nor diminishing the na.

on every thing on earth, and the tional wealth; since if it were an. waters under the earth—on every nihilated by a simple act of repudithing that comes from abroad, or is ation, the amount of tangible actual grown at home-on the ermine property in the country would be which decorates the judge, and the precisely the same as at present. rope which hangs the criminal-on But this view would be exceedingly the poor man's sall, and the rich imperfect and superficial. The debt man's spice-on the brass nails of amounts to eight hundred million the coffin, and the ribands of the pounds sterling, and the annual in. bride."

terest is more than half the national Since the year 1815, the popula. income. It is impossible to say how tion of the United Kingdom has in. many persons receive from this creased more than thirty per cent.; source a sufficient revenue to main. but it does not appear that her resour. tain their families without their own ces have increased in an equal propor- exertions; but it is not improbation. To an attentive observer, it has ble that there are nearly half a been evident for some years that the million; and these with the landed great interests of the country were aristocracy, the pensioners of gove less healthy than heretofore, and ernment, the army and navy, and a that many things which to a super. multitude of smaller divisions, conficial eye seemed like vigorous stitute the class of non-producers ; growth, were in truth the result of —of those who contribute nothing diseased action. To most men this by their industry to the national statement would have seemed, a wealth, and who are supported by year since, almost paradoxical; at the labor of others. This class ex. ihe present time no one, we believe, isis in every country, but with us it would hesitate to admit its truth. is so small as hardly to produce any

In our last number we suggested perceptible effect upon our social to our readers some thoughts re. organization ; in Great Britain it is specting the causes of the financial very numerous and powerful, concrisis of England. That article be- trolling the legislation of the coun. ing limited both by time and space, try, and affecting every department was less thorough and minute in the of its industry. To support this examination than we wished. We class in idleness and luxury, all oth. propose at the present time to con. er members of the community are sider somewhat in detail, the situa. taxed to the extreme limit of endu. tion of Great Britain in several re

In a time of general prosspects, and particularly in respect perity their numbers and influence to the great interests of agriculture, attract comparatively little alienof manufactures, and what has re- tion ; but now, when the pressure cently begun to rival these in impor- of every burden seems augmented tance-of railways; and to com tenfold, the most ignorant and un. pare her situation and prospects as reflecting laborer can hardly fail to to these particulars, with those of realize that were there nol so many our own country.

who eat but do not work, his own The national debt of Great Brit. labor would secure for him a more ain is too important an element of adequate support; and the political her political organization, and exerts economist will not hesitate 10 say, too great influence upon her pros. that the national debt of England is perity, not to demand careful exam. among the most efficient of the ination in an enquiry of this nature. causes which have embarrassed the Were it due wholly to her own citi industry and impaired the prosper. zens, it might be regarded as neither ity of the people.

rance.

acres.

or

It is stated in a recent number of which the land is tilled, would exBlackwood's Magazine, that the cite extreme astonishment in an yearly value of the real or heritable English farmer. In England, the property in England and Scotland, average value of an acre of land as ascertained by official documents, may, we are informed, be roughly is ninety million pounds sterling, or estimated at fifty pounds, or nearly four hundred and thirty-two million two hundred and fifty dollars; in dollars ; and this at twenty-five Wisconsin, our President will sell years purchase, which we believe to for the same price iwo hundred be the usual estimate, gives the absolute value, £2,250,000,000, From this comparison we infer, $10,800,000,000. This vast amount, and we believe thai our readers will so far as it consists of land for cul. allow that the inference is not unlivation, is almost without excep- warranted, that unless the policy of tion leased by the owner to the cul. the British government with respect tivalor; the exceptions, where the to the admission of bread stuffs from occupant is the owner of the land, foreign countries should be modi. being hardly more numerous, or fied, ihe value of their land is des. more important in a general esti- tined to a steady and permanent de. male, than are cases of an opposite cline. Previous to the recent change character in our own country. in the English corn laws, the "sli.

We can not, perhaps, better pre- ding scale" prevented the importasent our views respecting the con- tion of wheat from abroad, except dition and prospects of the agricul. in times of scarcity and extreme tural interests of Great Britain, than high prices, and the price in the by contrasting them with those of London market was rarely so low the youngest member in our con- as a dollar and a half, and usually federacy of states-Wisconsin. The exceeded two dollars a bushel. The island of Great Britain contains farmer in Wisconsin will be highly about eighty-five thousand square prosperous if he can sell his wheat miles, or almost fifty-five million at sixty cents a bushel, which is acres : Wisconsin is four-fisihs as about equal to two dollars and fifty large. The soil of Wisconsin is nat. cenis for a barrel of flour, and at urally more fertile, and a larger times it can be transported from portion of it, beyond doubt, is more Milwaukie to Liverpool for an equal susceptible of cultivation, than in amount. The British duiy, after England and Scoiland. These are March 5, 1849, is, we believe, to be the only particulars in which these less than twelve cents a barrel for countries can be compared : in eve four. How can the English farmer ery other we shall contrast them. buy or hire land valued at iwo or There are in England and Wales three hundred dollars an acre, pay more than three hundred inhabit the taxes, tithes and poor rales, ants to the square mile; in Scoto which press so heavily upon the land, about ninety ; iu Wisconsin, national industry, and compete suc. three. In the former countries every cessfully with his American rival. acre which promises a tolerable re- Nor can he cherish the hope that ward to industry, is cultivated with in equalization of prices, the value a degree of skill and care of which of land in Wisconsin will rise so as few of us form a conception; in to meet him half way. Should this the latter, the traveler often passes take place, he must sustain the len or twenty miles, through prairies competition of Nebraska, Minesota, of unsurpassed fertility, without and other districts streiching into meeting an inhabiiant, while the the far west, which will in a few imperfect and careless manner in years become populous states.

We have in our own country an ratio as for three years past, we illustration of the manner in which shall during the next ten years rethe causes we have suggested ope- ceive in this manner an average ac. rate. Soon after the completion of cession to our population of more the Erie Canal, lands in Western than half a million annually, most New York began to increase in of whom will be young and middle. price, and rose steadily in value aged. Whether so many of these until they were sold in many cases will come from Great Britain as in at from sixty to one hundred dole time to increase the rate of wa. lars an acre. But as soon as Ohio ges by diminishing the comparative and Michigan began to produce number of laborers, and whether so wheat in quantities greatly exceed. large an accession 10 our populaing their own consumption, and tion will not lessen the prices of la. were able to deliver in Buffalo sev- bor by occasioning an over supply, eral millions of bushels annually, it is not safe to predict, but it cer the value of these lands began to tainly is by no means impossible. decline. A year or two since we We do not wish to be understood were informed that the depreciation as expressing an opinion that the was so great, that lands which some change in the policy of Great Brityears before had been mortgaged ain respecting her corn laws, was for two-thirds or three-fourihs of unwise. On that point we shall their value, would not at that time not enter, as we have neither time sell for the amount of the mortgage. nor space for even a hasty examin. The same thing is strikingly evinced ation of the subject. We shall onby the fact, that the aggregate pop- ly quote the view suggested to us ulation of twenty-four counties in by a very intelligent Englishman, the State of New York, comprising when we stated to him some of the some of the most fertile in the cen- evils that might result from her tral and western parts of the state, present course. He told us that the was less in 1845 than in 1840. English goveroment were obliged

Though it may appear to our to sacrifice in part the interests readers a new and unwarranted either of the farmer or of the manuview of the subject, it seems to us facturer, and decided to protect the not impossible that an approxima. latter rather than the former. tion may take place in the value of From the agriculture we will labor in the two countries, which turn our attention to the manufac. would tend to the same result. It is tures of Great Britain. Previous universally known that in England to the peace which terminated the there has for many years been so long and desolating wars with Na. great a surplus of labor, that its wa. poleon, Great Britain was almost ges barely sufficed to support life. The only manufacturing nation in In this country, and particularly in the civilized world. Our own man. the new states, wages have, from the ufactures were in their infancy, opposite reason, been high ; so high, hardly extending beyond the coars. that few of us can realize, what is est fabrics, and the most common nevertheless true, that there has implements of agriculture. France been more than one instance with and Germany produced some arti. in the last quarter of a century, cles of prime necessity for the sup: when in the vicinity of New York, ply of their own wants, but with able-bodied men, in large numbers, little skill and success; and notwith. have applied for work, asking no standing the continental system of compensation except their food. If Napoleon, the wants of those coun. the emigration from Europe to this tries were principally supplied by country should increase in the same British artisans. Immediately after the close of the war, immense quan- trate the rapidity and extent of the tities of English goods were sold change, we would mention that fifto the different nations of the conti- teen years since about nine-lenihs pent, while the British corn laws of the hardware goods sold in this prevented the agricultural products country were imported, while we of those countries from being re- believe that at the present time about ceived in payment.

The conse

two-thirds are made at home. quent drain upon their resources Owing to the gradual growih of the was such, that the governments of manufacturing interesis of the conFrance and Germany soon perceiv. tinent and the United States, Great ed that, unless some remedy were Britain has been deprived of the applied, their subjects would be re- most wealthy and valuable customduced to ruin. They, therefore, by ers for some of her productions, the imposition of heavy duties, dis- and has experienced so severe comcouraged the importation of many petition with respect to others, that kinds of foreign goods, and thus her profits have been very seriously promoted their manufacture at home. reduced. Nor has ihe evil stopped And as manufactories of cotton and here. The Gerinan and American woolen goods, and hardware, were manufacturer has not only supplied established, and Aourished, the rate his fellow.citizens, with ihe goods of duty on foreign goods was in which they had been accustomed to creased, and the importation of ma. import from England, but he has ny descriptions virtually probibited. extended his operations, and carried

In our own country the same re- his hardware and coarse cottons to sult has been attained. The tariff Brazil, to the Levant, and to China. of 1816 can be hardly said to have It is owing to this cause, in conbeen framed for the protection of nection with some others, that the American manufactures, for these amount of cotton goods sent from were then so insignificant in extent England to the East Indies has so that they were scarcely deemed seriously diminished within the last worthy of protection by our gove three years. ernment. It is true that they had There are so many causes that excited the jealousy of our English affect differently the various branchrivals, as is evident from a celebra- es of the manufacturing interest of ted speech of Lord Brougham, and Great Britain, and modify their pros. that some of our statesmen, among perity, that we can not preseni at a whom Henry Clay was preeminent, single view a correct description of had even before this period deemed their present condition. The manthe establishment of a large manu: ufacture of pig and bar iron has facturing interest essential io the full been for several years past ex. developinent of the resources of the tremely profitable, owing to the imcountry. But the attention of our mense demand for the construction citizens, and especially of those of of railroads ; but at the present time, New England, being directed to in consequence of many of those manufactures by the lariff of 1816, roads being suspended, the price has the success of their efforts led to fallen below the cost of production. the imposition of higher duties in It was recently stated in the House 1824 and 1828: and though the of Commons, by Lord George Benpolicy of our country has since tinck, that cotion manufactured been luctuating, our manufacturers goods were exported cheaper than have acquired such skill and capi. ihe raw material from which they tal, that in many branches they are were formed could be imporied inindependent of tariffs and the pro- to the country.” Those who are tection of government. To illus. acquainted with the prices at which

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