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origin precisely similar. To what conclude that even the glorious in. but the sanctifying influences which fluences of this redemptive system grow out of the single life of Jesus, can ever entirely counteract the do they attribute all that has eleva. pernicious effects of sin. Who shall led our nature in the past ? all that say that a soul long subjected 10 a promises farther elevation in the process which tends powerfully to future? And if the obedience of enfeeble it in all those elements of one man, amid all human corrup- its nature which must constitute the tion, holds so efficient a recupera. strength of holy principle, will ever tive influence over the race forever, secure the harmonious and vigorous why need we shrink from attribu. development of a perfectly sinless ting a similar efficiency of preserva. being. Who shall say that this protion to the obedience of our first an. tracted and extreme conflict with cestor ? Surely they who find such evil will not leave scars to mar the reclaiming efficacy in the life of the beauty, and wounds to impair the second Adam, may not forbid us to efficiency, even of those who are suppose that the sinless life of the victorious in it; as the ordeal by first would have wrought those im- fire, of old, left its ineffaceable measurable results of blessing which marks in the scathed and callous the evangelical faith ascribes to it. flesh of those who successfully en.

The principle on which these dis. dured it. cussions of Mr. Bellows proceed, Still farther; it may be alledged seems evidently to be, that the ex. as a decisive fact of consciousness, perience of sin affords to a moral that all the discipline we are conbeing an element of useful culture. scious of having received, has been We have heard the idea from other gained not only without the aid of sources. For ourselves, we discern sin, but in actual and vigorous opnot the smallest argument to relieve position to all that would lead to it. it of the repulsive aspect in which It is in resisting temptation, not in it must present itself' 10 a mind of yielding to it, that the soul confirms any religious sensibility. On the itself in good. It is the great law contrary, it seems at utter variance of our nature that affections and im. with much of our most familiar ex- pulses of whatever kind grow by perience. What valuable discipline acting, not by being trampled on. have we ever derived from this un. Benevolence strengthens with each clean source ? What benefit ac- act it is allowed to dictate, and dicrues to our voluntary faculty from minishes in power on each occasion having learned to act in defiance of that it is overruled and suppressed all truth and all authority? What by selfish or covetous passion. Am. improvement do the fine sensibili- bition towers higher and stands ties of our nature derive from having stronger with each victory that it been accustomed to pass by all that gains over the love of justice or the is grand and ennobling, and fasten sense of duty. It is not therefore on despicable and impure things? by sinning that the soul ever gains What conceivable addition is made the least of the valuable discipline to our intellectual wealth, or our in which this probationary scene fur. tellectual power, by acts the very nishes. Transgression tends only essence of which is to cast con- to future weakness and blindness : tempt upon all true wisdom? The leaves only a mist before the eye whole tendency is plainly in the op. and a palsy upon the arm of him posite direction, to stultify and de. who ventures beyond the sphere base the mind.

which wisdom and love assign as So far is this idea from the truth, ours. All the development which that in fact we have no reason to the present system affords, is due to trial, not to sin. “We count them so interesting, as that which exhibits blessed which endure." How en- Deity assuming our nature, and tirely would sin have destroyed the guarding it from all corrupting conbeneficent results of a trial like that act with the evil which is in the of Abraham ; and become an occa- world, for the purpose of showing sion of everlasting regret!

to the race and the universe, a spe. But it is the life of Christ which cimen of what human nature was lends the highest confirmation to the "originally framed” to be ;—and view we advocate. On the theory thus, of manifesting the value of the of those with whom we argue, here original law of holiness, the ear. was the passage of a purely human nesiness with which that law was being through this world utterly un- given, and the odiousness in every stained with sin. And who will aspect of the sin which has caused stand up to maintain that his affec. actual human nature, even in the tionate and ingenuous childhood, - glory of its redeemed state, lo fall his thoughtful and auspicious youth, so far below the divine ideal of it. -bis lovely and most perfect man. That system of influences then, hood, had been improved in aught under which our nature receives its that lends beauty or dignity to hu- development, owes no part of the man character by the smallest ex- benign culture it confers, no one of perience of moral evil? It were ig. its glorious fruits, to the moral evil nominious to say it. Yet he shared which it contains. Admitting all each simple impulse of our common that can justly be claimed for it on nature, and “was tempted in all the score of its tendency to illumi. points like as we are ;' that he who nate and establish the soul, we con. would hold up before his mind the tend that precisely in proportion to highest ideal of moral discipline and the prevalence of sin in it, is the its benign results, might see that in system deteriorated. The present all that process of culture which thus has then simply taken the place of sanctifies and adorns our nature, sin a more perfect and beautiful scheme, has literally no part.

Who that that would have conducted the race, compares regenerate character in through processes of trial pursued the fairest forms it assumes among under betier auspices, to happier re. men, with the character of Chrisi, sulis. Even as now each earnest can fail to see that, precious as are and devout co-worker with God, io. the spiritual economies which sur. troduces into the system, influences round us in this system of fall and of good which seem never to die redemption, they fail utterly to ele. out of it, we believe that Adam, had vate human character to any thing he but stood in his uprightness, might like that eminence of glory, to which have made it one of unfailing power it might have attained ? Who can to develop the soul through scenes fail to see in the light of such an of more than Eden's loveliness, to example, thai sin only deforms our a piety 'nobler, and more beautiful, nature, only obstructs its fair and than ever can bless it now. We do fine development, and causes the not indeed attribute any such results education which abounding grace 10 a single act in its isolation; but yet achieves, to advance toward per. we believe that the act in which he fection with a slow and halting move. fell might have become the turning

ment, and reach it at last on a far point of his characier, and bound · lower level, thun that on which un- him 10 holiness as it really did to fallen nature might have sped its sin : that his character, once conrapid and graceful course io the firmed, might have become then as same bright goal. Indeed there are now, the model of character in his to us few aspects of the incarnation immediate offspring, and through

them have been perpe! uated 10 un- tems seem to have conspired to mis. known generations. All ihis is cer- lead, we should not do justice to our tainly possible ; and though we may most deliberate and cherished con. not affirm that precisely these re- victions, did we not declare that; sults would have taken place, it is both in judgment, and in feeling, not 10 be questioned that some apo

we stand at ihe widest remove from proximation to them would have the views which he has felt at liberty been actually realized. In the assu. to promulgate. red conviction that obedience would But our remarks have extended have brought to him, as to us, far beyond our design, and we must strength and blessedness; and that bring them 10 a conclusion. We obedience then, before the gigantic have sought 10 show, because we power of sin had enslaved the world, sincerely believe, that from investi. would have been far more full than gations pursued in the direction of now of auspicious and delightful re. those which have furnished us our sulis, we contemplate the introduc subjects of remark, little good result tion of evil with unmingled pain. is to be looked for. It would doubt. We think that no act which history less be too much to expect that our records, is to be “ deplored" like reasonings should beget any such that which dropped this deadly drug conviction in Mr. Bellows himself; into ihe very fountain of our being and we have only to say therefore, With no wish, and no willingness, that we shall await with interest and to denounce the errors of one whose examine with respect the farther de. candor both ancient and modern sys. velopment which he promises.

IRELAND: HER SUFFERINGS AND THEIR REMEDY.*

We approach this subject with isle, though the "white boy” of pain and diffidence. Our sympa. Tipperary, or the wild boy of Con. ihies are strongly excited for ihe naught, would hardly acknowledge miserable, degraded, starving peo. the remotest kin with a descend. ple of Ireland. Not only are we ant of the covenanting Scotchmen drawn toward them by the common of Derry and Coleraine. Famine, ties of humaniry, but we (the wri. which we have hitherto known only ter) confess also the fellow-feeling from the page of history, is a presof consanguinity with the emerald ent reality. A nation of more than

M. P.,

pp. 41.

* Ireland in 1847: its present state and

&c. London: James Ridgway. prospects. . By J. Wilson Browne. London: Seeley, Buroside & Seeley. pp. Paddiana : or Scraps and Sketches of 93.

Irish life, present and past. 2 vols. 12mo. Thoughts on the Poor-relief Bill for London, 1847. Ireland : together with reflections on her Ireland's Welcome to the Stranger : miseries, their causes, and their remedies. or an excursion through Ireland, in 1844 By Jolin, Earl of Shrewsbury. London: and 1845, for the purpose of personally Chas. Doiman. 1847. pp. 84.

investigating the condition of the poor. Irish Sufferers, and Anti-Irish Philoso. By A. Nicholson. New York: Baker & phers; their pledyes and performances. Scribner. pp. 456. By Eneas MacDonnell, Esq., Barrister-at- A Lecture on the antecedent causes of law. London: John Ollivier. pp. 60. the Irish Famine in 1847, by the Ri. Rev,

Reply in the Speech of the Archbishop John Hughes, D). P. of Dublin, against the Poor-relief (Ire. Impressions of Ireland and the Irish. land) Bill. By G, Poulett Scrope, Esq., Philadelphia : Zieber & Co. 1845.

eight millions has been deprived of year, there is in Ireland at this moits great staple article of food, and ment an amount of destitution and thousands and tens of thousands have distress which we can hardly estiperished with hunger, or with the mate. Evicted coitiers, discharged diseases consequent upon extreme laborers, and a shiftless, ragged, fanprivation. We have heard the cry ished peasantry, crowd the streets of the famishing ; our ears have and highways of town and country, caught the distani wailing of a once presenting a picture which we can blithe and mirthful land; and we not look upon even at the distance have even encountered in the streets of three thousand miles, but with of our own cities, the gaunt, hag sadness and horror. Riots and mur. gard forms of men, women and ders have become frequent in some children who had Aed from the jaws districts, indicating the extremity of famine at home to die of sever to which a people naturally docile in a foreign alms-house. Our first and patient under suffering, have duty on being informed of this dis. been reduced, while the commer. tress, was to relieve it. It was no cial embarrassments of England, time to philosophize when men were the insufficiency of all the measstarving. The citizens of the Uni- ures hitherto proposed for the relief ted States, from Maine to Louisiana, of Ireland, the crippling of the envied with each other in prompt and ergies and resources of the country liberal contributions of food and by forced measures of relief in clothing for the poor of Ireland. It her extremity, the physical debility was nothing that those poor are em- which famine has induced, and the igrating by thousands to our own general apprehension among medishores; it was nothing that New cal men of the return of the cholYork is called to share with Liver. era, cause us to fear that the day pool the burden of Irish pauperism of Ireland's calamity has not yet and crime; it was nothing that those passed. miserable, starving creatures, were It is difficult to take a sober reof another nation, and under a gov: view of a subject in which our symernment which is in part responsible pathies are so deeply involved. It for their condition, and of another is difficult also for us at a distance, to and an uncongenial religion, which solve the complicated problem of has its part in the same fearful re- the present condition of Ireland, or sponsibility ; it was enough that they to suggest a remedy for its evils were men, and that they were starv. which may possibly commend itself ingShip loads of breadstuffs were to those who are called to legislate sent with the utmost despatch to re- upon them, as judicious and practi. lieve those whose necessities were cable. Yet there is no question most urgent; and every thing was in which we, as Americans and as done which sympathy and kindness philanthropisis, can have a deeper could suggest to alleviate misery interest. In Ireland we may study under the embarrassment of dis. the workings of civil, social, and ectance from the scene of suffering. clesiastical systems, which we in

A year has elapsed, and the con- this country have discarded; we dition of Ireland is but little im- may there irace not only in history, proved. Notwithstanding the abun. but in passing events, the effects of dant crops of 1847, notwithstanding feudal ienures, of a non-resident govthe uninterrupted flow of charity eroment, of an established church, from England and the United States, and of the Roman Catholic religion. notwithstanding that famine, and But it is not only as a field of phipestilence, and emigration, have de- losophical inquiry, that Ireland incimated the population in a single vites attention. Her superabundant

to

population is discharging itself upon being few manufactures, and comour shores to such an extent, that paratively little commerce and trade the improvement of the condition to employ her surplus, it has come of the poor of Ireland is with us a pass that there are at least practical question of vital impor. “double the number of persons in tance. There is no people of Eu. Ireland that, with its existing means rope in whose welfare we have such of production, it is able either fully a direct personal concern.

to employ or to maintain in a mod. The actual condition of the coun. erate state of comfort.*"' Yet this try, in respect to population and re- population, by dint of pigs, potasources, mus: be ascertained, before toes, and the poor-house, has mainwe can form an intelligent opinion tained not only its existence, but its as to the causes and the remedy of rate of increase ; has supported a its present evils. The population of burdensome religious establishment, Ireland is about eight millions, which and the more expensive church of is, upon an average, two hundred its own preference; and has paid and fifty 10 every square mile, or its weekly “rint” with exemplary one individual for every two and patience, for O'Connell and “rea half acres. The number of fam. pale.” But now the potatoes are ilies in the kingdom may be com- gone, and with them the pigs, and puted at one million and a half, iwo. the

poor

laws serve only to perpetthirds of which live in what are uate the misery which they can not called third and fourth class houses; relieve. Happily, taxes levied at i. e. “ in mud cabins having only Conciliation Hall have gone with one room, and a better description O'Connell himself. of cottage, still built of mud, but Nothing could so strikingly ex. having from two 10 four rooms and bibit the extreme poveriy of the peowindows."* About fourteen million ple as their dependence upon a sin. acres are under cultivation, which gle root for subsistence. The loss is but little more than one half the of one crop, and that by no means extent of soil under cultivation in the most valuable, has reduced England, and yet the proportion of thousands of families to starvation. agricultural laborers in Ireland to They have no resources out of their those in England is as five to two. potato pits, and these can yield them We have here the phenomenon of a no more sustenance than their peat dense rural population-a popula. bogs. They have not been accus. tion more dense than that of Eng. tomed to labor for wages, or to land with her vast commercial and supply their wants through the usumanufacturing interests, and with al channels of trade. The pig, ihat her numerous great towns—upon a universal domestic animal among territory two-thirds of which is in a the Irish, which furnished manure very imperfect state of cultivation, for the little patch of potato-land, and the rest almost entirely unim. and was then sold or killed to pay proved. This density, for reasons the rent, lived like his owner upon which shall be given hereafter, is the product of the soil to wbich he the result of a recent and rapid in- contributed so much, and now that crease ; the population having more his “occupation's gone,” he has than trebled in sixty years. Agri- thrown up his perpetual lease, and cultural improvements and develop- abandoned his domicil.t What must ment of the natural resources of the country not having kept pace with

· McCulloch. the growth of population, and there

+ " Your pig has the best part of the

cabin." "Faith, and why should'nt he," • Census of 1841.

quoth Pat," when he pays the rint.VOL. VI.

34

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