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to be Christians ? With only a the necessity, and hasten its reCatholic spirit, why may they not moval. with great advantage dwell togeth. It may be but a dream that such a er, as one family in Christ, in such catholic Christian body, as we have relations that they may approach been supposing, is possible on earth and confer, and modify and rectify that such a degree of tolerance among themselves, trusting the bet- can ever be attained among Chris. ter views to their better merits ? tians in the flesh, as would be requi.

Episcopacy boasts that it has dif- site to such a body. Certainly no ferences without divisions. With sanguine expectations of its speedy all the material for vastly more realization are authorized by the sects than are found in the dissent. present attitude and spirit of the ing world, she has no sects. From churches. Sectarianism has in it a Laud to Baxter, from Pusey to self-perpetuating power. Once par. Whateley, there is room and wel. cel off Christians into parties, with come for all things but non-conform their several peculiarities stereotyp. ity. Such power is there even in a ed in denominational creeds, and the form, when duly fostered. Now sub. whole tendency is to wider and stitute among Christians, for any deeper mischief. At once these such outward point of union, one peculiarities acquire an unnatural that is inward and vital-enthrone importance ; jealousy forbids the ap. evangelical goodness as alone indis. proach to one another in frank, un. pensable, and let grace be the sol- partisan discussion ; the like-mindvent of all minor diversities—and ed are set off together in unhealthy why may not the children of the isolation to brood over their nesispirit dwell together in virtue of egg, and nurse their zeal; predatotheir spiritual oneness, with the in- ry incursions are made in ali direc. finitely higher tolerance of love, as tions to carry off Christians over cer. well as the children of form on the lain lines; ihe sect spirit is instilled strength of a form?

into the children, and shows its first It pleases many to discourse of workings on the play-ground, and the present fragmentary condition thus, one generation moulding anof the Christian world as being, other in its own likeness, the evil after all, very well as it is. We seems interminable. And yet we hope it is only from a secret des do not despair of the future. There pair of anything better, and with are hopeful indications, at least of the amiable wish to reconcile them. a growing dissatisfaction among selves and others to what they deem good men with the present divided a remediless evil, that so many la- state. Among these indications is bor to extenuate its mischiefs, and the late Evangelical Alliance, or even praise the whole arrangement. the effort at such an Alliance, if Many ingenious euphemisms have that be all we have attained. Many been sought out for this purpose, such failures may lie between us and are doing much to content men and the future church catholic of with things as they are. But no the good. We may all leave our figures can disguise the fact, that the bones in the wilderness. Yet we effective force of the Christian reli- are persuaded there is coming a day gion is greatly diminished by these of completer unity to the Christian separations. It is needless to depict church, a day of long.deferred the workings of the system; but at beauty and prevalence, when Chris. least, let us not hear it commended. tians shall no longer be ruled by We may be compelled to submit to their diversities, but builded togeth. it as a necessity among such Chris. er in Christ on the broad identity of tians as we are ; but let us blush for evangelical goodness. It will, pero

haps, then be found that this denom. after; a period in which, as on inational era, this sect-age, was not, Mount Lebanon, the cedars are without its uses as a period of tui. hewn, that shall enter without sound tion and trial, preparing the way, it of hammer into a temple whither may be, in more ways ihan we see, all the tribes shall go up. for the better things that shall come

THE RELATION OF EDUCATION TO THE WELL-BEING

OF STATES.*

We know of no public documents vice, crime and waste, and greatly more deserving the attention of wise increase the virtue and prosperity and philanthropic men, than the of the state ; and demonstrates the Annual Reports of the Massachu. pecuniary ability of the state to setts Board of Education. They make such improvement. In the contain statistics upon the subject course of our remarks we shall have of education which it is important occasion to refer to the kind of tes. for every citizen to know; and set timony brought forward in the arforth the bearing of systems of pub- gument, and show its application to lic instruction upon individual, so- other states as well as Massachu. cial and national welfare in the setts. For the present we proceed clearest and most impressive man. to offer a few thoughts upon the ner. As mere literary productions, main subject suggested by this Rethe Reports of the Secretary de- port :- The relation of education 10 serve the highest praise. His pow. the well-being of states. erful arguments, his incontroverti- Cause and effect are scarcely ble logic, his strong appeals in be. more closely connected in the nathalf of the cause of primary edu. ural than in the moral world. As a cation, he clothes in the most ap. general fact, it is as true, that a right propriate and beautiful language. education for an entire generation His diction borders on the poetical. of children and youth will result in He thinks in figures as Pope thought public happiness and prosperity, as in rhyme. Yet the imagery with that the right cultivation of a piece which his exuberant fancy supplies of land will result in good crops. him, is chastened by a highly culti

. In both cases, the amount of sucvated taste, so that he constantly cess will correspond with the thor. pleases and never offends.

oughness and efficiency of the His Reports, from year to year,

We have good authority to bring prominently to view some new believe, that a generation of chil. aspect of the great cause of educa- dren, no less than a single child, if tion. That before us shows, by the trained in the way they should go, most conclusive evidence of which will not depart from it. The power the nature of the case admits, that of early education to shape the futhe school system of Massachusetts, ture character and destiny of indi. without any change in its funda. viduals and nations, has been unmental principles, may be so im. derstood from the earliest ages. proved as greatly to diminish the History has preserved the systems

of training adopted by several anEleventh Annual Report of the Mas. cient nations, and we can discover sachusetts Board of Education, together with the Eleventh Annual Report of the in them a wise adaptation of the Secretary of the Board.

means to the ends which they had

means.

in view. That of Sparta was one their experiment shows their wis. of the most efficient ever adopted. dom. Public schools are esteemed The state regarded martial prowess among us as necessaries of life, and glory as the great object of am- and New England men carry them bition, and sacrificed for this end do wherever they go in their migra. mestic and social happiness, wealth, tions : so that they are established, commerce, learning, and every oth with various modifications, in all the er interest. All the male children northern and western states of the were taken at the age of eight from Union. their parents, supported at public Look now at the result of the expense, and trained to be expert, general education of the people in bold and invincible in the use of those states where the school sys. arms. The state educated them to tem has been in operation for the be soldiers, and was not disappoint- longest period? You behold a de ed. The valor and self-sacrifice of gre of order, thrift, enterprise, Leonidas, and his little band of he. wealth, virtue, and general comfort roes at Thermopylæ, were the nat• and happiness, unequaled in any ural product of this training, as nato country where the like cause has ural as any vegetable growth from not been operating. In Massachu. the seed and toil of the husbandman. setts and Connecticut this cause

Modern nations have adopted sys- has been at work for two hundred tems of education differing in char. years; and although we can not acter, according to the reigning say precisely what proportion of ideas of the people. But all aim influence is to be attributed to the to repeat themselves in their pos. public schools of these states, and terity by some kind of educational what 10 other influences which have institutions. Whether the mass of tended to the same resulis, yet wise the people shall be educated or not, men never hesitate to assign them and what shall be the kind of edu. a prominent place among the causes cation imparted, depends upon the which have made these states so object which the leading minds of prosperous. The great mass of the the nation have in view. The ear. people have been so educated in ly colonies of New England open. These schools, have acquired such ed the fountains of knowledge to an amount of knowledge, and been all. The first system of free schools subjected to such mental and moral in the history of our was discipline, that their skill and effi. adopted on these western shores. It ciency in all kinds of productive was a new measure, a most radical labor, and the facility with which step, an innovation beyond all for they turn their hands to all sorts of mer innovations. Our fathers rea- business, are mentioned to their soned--and nobody now questions credit throughout the world. They the soundness of their logic—that if have thus been qualified, beyond all were trained aright, intellectual- any other nation, to be a self-suply and morally, the people would porting and self-governing people. be able to take care of themselves, Whence the contrast between them and save the enormous bill it had in respect to character and condi. always cost the world to be civilly tion and those states and nations and ecclesiastically governed. They which have no similar system of denied that God created a few men public education ? Whence their with better blood in their veins, on wealth? Not the opulence of the purpose to be the monopolists of few scattered amidst a thousand all the wealth, and learning, and poor; but the abundance and indepower of the world. And they act- pendence of the masses ? the wealth ed consistently. The success of that enables them to sustain their numerous churches, their civil, char. Make the system what it ought to itable and literary institutions ? to be, what it is within the ability of invest millions in public works at the people to make it, and what home and abroad ? to meet the calls proportion of the children enjoying of benevolence which come so fre. its blessings, would fail to become quently from the East and the useful members of society? This West ? to add ornament and luxury interesting inquiry occupies a promto the comfort and competence of inent place in the present Report tens of thousands of happy homes ? of the Secretary of the Massachu. Did our ancestors unlade upon these seri's Board of Education. That shores the riches of England ? Did it might be settled upon the best ev. the mother country, in her mater. idence, he sent out a circular ad. nal kindness, give her daughter a dressed to several of the most disprincely dowry? Did it not rather tinguished and experienced teachers costus millions to get ourselves in the country, asking for an answer safely out of this mother's grasp ? to the following question : Since we can not find the cause in

race

“Should all our schools be kept by any superior advantages of soil or teachers of bigh intellectual and inoral climale, we must seek ihe answer in qualifications, and should all the children intellectual and moral influences ;

in the community be brought within these

schools, for ten months in a year, from and of these, none is more funda- the age of four to that of sixteen years; mental, indispensable and peculiar, then, what proportion.—what per-cent: and none less unquestionable than age ;-of such children as you have had

under your care, could, in your opinion, our system of primary schools.

be so educated and trained, that their es. Each rising generation has receive istence, on going out into the world, ed in the family, the school and the would be a benefit and not a detriment, church, the moral and mental train.

an honor and not a shame to society? ing that has made the people frugal, if all children were broughi within the

Or, to state the question in a general forin, temperate, industrious, dexterous in salutary and auspicious influences I have adapting means to ends, provident here supposed, what per-centage of them of the future, and skillful in turn

should you pronounce to be irreclaimable

and hopeless ?"-pp. 56, 57. ing every thing to the best account ; which is a sufficient explanation of

To this circular answers were their unparalleled prosperity. They returned the tenor of which may be have ga!hered wealth from their learned from the following extracts : hard soil, from their granite bills, "My belief is that, under the conditions from their lakes of ice, from every

mentioned in the question, not more than water-fall, more abundant than the

two per cent. would be irreclaimable

nuisances to society, and that ninety-five golden dust of the fabled Pactolus.

per cent. would be supporters of the more They have turned the desert into a al welfare of the community in which garden, the wilderness into a fruit they resided. ful field, and spread the sails of normal schools, and with such a popular

“ With teachers properly trained in commerce to every breeze. All disposition towards schools as wise legis. this they owe to their common lation might effeci, nineteen twentieths school system; at least as one of of the immoralities which afflict society

might, I verily believe, be kept under the necessary conditions.

haiches, or eradicated from the soil of But is this all that could have our social institutions. been accomplished ? Have the best “ Every step in such a progress renders possible results been realized ? Has the next more easy. This is proved not

only on the grand scale of comparing the system of public education, even

country with country, and state with in New England, effected the great. state, but district with its adjacent disest possible good ? Might not the trict, and neighborhood with neighbor.

hood. system be improved so as to confer

" Finally ;-In the predicament last sta. still larger blessiogs on society? ted in the circular, and supposing the VOL. VI.

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teachers to be imbued with the gospel You ask for my own experience. This spirit, I believe there would not be inore is my apology for alluding, with freedom, than one half of one per cent. of the chil. to myself. Permit me to say that, in dren educated, on whom a wise judge very many cases, after laboring long with would be compelled to pronounce the

individuals almost against hope, and doom of hopelessness and irreclaima- sometimes in a manner 100 whicb I can bility.'John Griscom.

now see was not always wise, I have “ I should scarcely expect, after the first

never had a case which has not resulted generation of children submitted to the in some degree according to my wishes. experiment, 10 fail, in a single case, to

The many kind and voluntary iestimoni. secure the results you have named. als given, years afterwards, by persons “ With my views of human nature, I

who remembered that they were once should not expect to succeed, in every my wayward pupils, are among the pleas. case in securing for each young heart

aniest and most cheering incidents of any what I understand to be a truly religious life. So uniforın have been the results, character. This is not, as I think, wholly when I have had a fair trial and time a work or eduration,--for . neither is he enough, that I have unbesitatingly adoptthat planteth any thing, neither he that ed ibe motto, Nerer despair. Parents watereth, but God that giveth the in. and teachers are apt to look for 100 speedy crease ;' still, I am firmly of the opinion results from the labors of the latter. The that the right of expectation of a religious moral nature, like the intellectual and character would be increased very much physical, is long and slow in reaching the in proportion to the excellence of the full maturiiy of its strength. I was told, training given, since God never ordains a few years since, by a gentleman who means which he does not intend 10 bless; knew the history of nearly all my pupils and he has said, • Train up a child in the for the first five years of my labor, that way he should go, and when he is old he

not one of them had ever brought rewill not depart from it.' But I should prvach upon himself, or morification not forgive myself, nor think myself lon. upon friends, by a bad life. I can not ger fit to be a leacher, if, with all the now look over the whole list of my po. aids and influences you have supposed, I pils, and find one, who had been with should fail, in one case in a hundred, to ine long enough to receive a decided imrear up children who, when they should pression, whose life is not honorable and become men, would be honest dealers, useful. I find them in all the learoed conscientious jurors, true witnesses, in professions, and in the various mechanicorruptible voters or magistrates, good cal arts. I find my female pupils scatter.. parents, good neighbors, good members ed as teachers through half the states of of society ;' or, as you express it in an.

the Union, and as the wives and assistother place, who would be temperate,

ants of Christian missionaries, in every industrious, frugal, conscientious'in all quarter of the globe. their dealings, prorapt to piry and instruct So far, therefore, as my own experience ignorance, insiead of ridiculing it and goes, so far as my knowledge of the es. taking advantage of it, public spirited, perience of others extends, so far as the philanthropic, and observers of all things statistics of crime throw any light on the sacred ;' and, negatively, who would not subject, I should confidently expect that be drunkards, profane swearers, detract. ninety-nine in a hundred, and I think ors, vagabonds, rioters, cheats, thieves, even more, with such means of educa. aggressors upon the rights of property, of tion as you bave supposed, and with person, of reputation or of life, or guilty such divine favor as we are authorized to of such omissions of right and commis expect, would become good members of sions of wrong that it would be better society, the supporters of order, and law, for the community had they never been and iruth, and justice, and all rights born."-D. P. Page.

eousness, “I confess I do not see how our differ ent theological views can essentially alter “Another difficulty, greatly magnified our modes of instruction. We are all to by the zealots of different religious sects, train the young in the way in which they is the apprehension that some one of should go, 'giving line upon line, precept these secis will get an advantage over upon precept, here a little and ihere'a

the rest. Our constitutions of gnyernlittle,' waiting for, and expecting, pre- ment, and our laws, recognize no privilege cious fruit. The fruit may ripen slowly. ed sect, but extend equal protection to all. From day to day you may not be able to Good sometimes comes of evil. This see any progress. This holds true both

very jealousy is a guaranty that this proin moral and intellectual training. But vision of our constitution and laws will by coinparing distant intervals, progress not be infringed. Majorities can not is perceptible. Al length a resuli comes, rule conscience. As a mere matter of which repays all the teacher's labor, and policy, aside from all higher considerainspires new courage for new efforts. tions, the only way I can think of, for

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