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whole revenue of the post-office. but mainly for the purpose of benWhat then should be the estimate of efiting great mercaniile houses. Bethe deficiency? He saw no other fore the franking privilege was lim. rational course but that which had ited, they had heard it was worth to been proposed.-p. 300.

a mercantile house from £300 to Mr. Warburton complained of the £800 a year; at present it could not manner in which the question had be worth less than £300. The great been treated. Nobody had spoken advantage, therefore, which his plan of postage, except as a part of the held out 10 mercantile houses, was

He denied that it had the cause of the nurnerous petitions ever, from the first statute creating which had emanated from them, and a post-office down to the last report, of the meeting at the Mansion House been treated as a mere malier of rev. two or three weeks ago. He would enue. The original act by which therefore resist this bill.ập. 626. the post office was created, the act He adverted to the abolition of of Charles 2d, stated that the poste the franking privilege, and said he office was established, not as did not see why, because a tax was branch of the revenue, but for the to be taken off others, a tax was to advantage of trade and commerce. be imposed on members. It would The public was therefore in the be, to those who had much corresright in the view which they took of pondence, at least £15 a year, at this matter-nainely, that the pri- the reduced rate of a penny a let. mary object of its institution was ter. To ihe revenue the saving to to contribute to their convenience. be obtained was so small, ihat he ho. The advantage of post-office com- ped the House would not consent to munications ought to be accessible rescind that privilege.—p. 627. to the whole community; and the On the true measure of postage subject was, in fact, one which ought he said, the real question before the not to be made matter of taxation at House was not, whether ihe govern. all.-p. 302.

ment could send the letters of the Viscount Sandon, a conservative, community from London to Edinthought it necessary to explain the burgh for one-twelfth of a penny vole he intended to give in favor of each, and therefore ought not 10 the motion. He had long been of charge a shilling, but what it would opinion that the post-office was not cost each individual to forward his a proper source of revenue ; it ought, own letters, if no such thing as a in bis opinion, to be employed in post-office existed.- p. 627. stimulating other sources of revenue. The Chancellor of the Exchequer He had expressed these opinions in said the sacrifice of the franking other places; they were not the privilege would be small in amount, result of pressure from without, but but at the same time, be it small or were the sincere feelings of his own great, he thought there would be not mind.-p. 304. The vote for the one feature in the new system which bill was, 215 to 113.

would be more palatable to the pubJuly 22, the bill came up on the lic, than this practical evidence of second reading. Mr. Goulburn com- the willingness of members of this plained of the boundless discretion House, to sacrifice every thing pergiven to the Treasury by the bill. sonal to themselves for the advan. Sir R. H. Inglis shared in the same tage of the public revenue.—p. 634. opinion. He also denounced the Sir Robert Peel did not think it scheme, as a plan in itself for the desirable that members of this House benefit of the great traders. He should retain their privilege of frank. thought it was introduced partly on ing. He thought if this were to be political grounds, to gain popularity, continued after this bill came into VOL. VI.



operation, there would be a degree that would result from this change. of odium attached to it, which would There was another matter which greatly diminish its value. Heagreed was made manifest in the evidence, that it would be well to restrict in as the result of the high charge for some way the right of sending by postage-the extraordinary contramail the heavy volumes of reports; band conveyance of lellers. It had and said there were many members become necessary to make reduce who would shrink from the exercise tions in the rates of postage to the of such a privilege, to load the mail extent contemplated in the bill, in with books. He would also require, order to proiect boih the revenue that each department should spe- and the morals of the people. For cially pay the postage incurred for it must be recollected, if only a small the public service in that department. reduction were made, it would not If every office be called upon to pay effect the object in view; for while its own postage, we shall introduce the modes of evasion had been or. a useful principle into the public ganized and put inio play, so that service. There is no habit connect they might be resorted 10 with ease, ed with a public office so inveterale, it had become almost a babit, and as the privilege of official franking. persons for the sake of small profit,

would be induced to follow the conÍ

stated on a former night, that traband trade of conveying letters; having deliberately protested against and above all, when it was the most this measure, I should not think it easy matter in the world to pursue necessary to meet its further progress it. He would therefore say that, so with any vexatious opposition.-p. far as this plan was for the general 636.

benefit, and also for the purpose of I do not deny that great social collecting the revenue, the reduction and commercial advantages will should be made to such an exlent as arise from the change, independent to ensure the object of stopping the of financial considerations. Even contraband trade.-p. 1208. if the scheme had not been propo.

The Duke of Wellington had nev. sed, I think the evidence laid before er addressed their lordships with the committee would warrant a con- more pain and anxiety than at pres. siderable reduction in postage. I ent. He admitted the force of the think we should have made the ex. argument urged by the noble Vis. periment of a partial reduction. It count as to the expediency, and inhas been said ihat the principal ad. deed the necessity of establishing a vantage of the measure will be felt uniform and low rate of postage. by the commercial interests. If so, He admitted the great inconvenienit will be a greater recommendation ces that resulted from the present to me, for whererer commercial in high rates of postage, tending, as terest is facilitated, the result must they did, to the contraband convey. be the general benefit of the coun. ance of letters. He was disposed try.-p. 639.

to admit that that which was called Opposition being thus abandoned, Mr. Rowland Hill's plan, was, if it the bill was read a third time and was carried out exactly as was pro. passed, on the 29th of July, and had posed, of all the plans, that which its first reading in the House of was most likely to be successful. Lords on the same day.

But he felt there was a great mistake August 5th, Viscount Melbourne in supposing that the reduced price moved the second reading of the of postage to one penny, 10 be paid bill. He said it was not necessary on the delivery of the letter, would to point out how great would be the induce a great deal of literary cor. advantages, commercial and social, respondence. For some years he had had some knowledge of the ad. months, only sent sixty-five letters vantage and operation of such a sys- by post. He had heard of similar tem in the army, and he could safely facts, but he had two answers in assure their lordships that it was point. In the first place, soldiers, if quite curious to observe the very he might use the expression with all small quantity of correspondence possible respect for the military char. carried on by soldiers, notwithstand- acter, were not letter-writing ani. ing they had the utmost facilities af. mals. They were not naturally wri. forded them for correspondence at ters of letters. They fought, para. a penny a letter. Here, he con- ded and obeyed orders very natu. tended, was a fact which showed rally; habit had made it second na. that the people of this country would lure: but they were not in the con. not be so ready to correspond, if stant habit of taking up a pen and they had a cheap postage.-p. 1216. getting a sheet of paper and writing

He then went into an examination a letter. They did not correspond of the finances, found much fault upon military subjects; it was not with the proposed method of meet. always permitted, and indeed they ing the financial difficulty, and clo. did not correspond much upon any sed by declaring that, as the reform subjects, except indeed upon amaof the post-office, which it is the ob. tory subjects, and those not so much ject of this bill to effect, and which with persons at a distance, as by is desired should be carried into ex- word of mouth. But this argument ecution, must altogether lie over, un. proved too much-it proved that this less you agree to some such meas. regiment wrote no letters at all; ure as this, I shall, although with only one man in twenty-five ever great reluctance, vote for the bill, wrote, and the rest could not write and I earnestly recommend you to at all, more than if they were hor. do likewise.—p. 1221.


1229. Another answer The Earl of Ripon could not see was the fact, that in February, 1838, where in the world they could get the number of military letters that any more taxes, to supply the defi. went through the General Post:office ciency of the revenue which this in London was 2,410, whilst the to. would create, though he quile con- tal number of letters was 188,000; curred in thinking that the post-office so that one-eightieth of the whole revenue ought not to be raised with number of letters were written by a mere view to revenue, but they soldiers, who were not naturally lethad got involved in a different poli. ter-writers, but who were tempted cy, and might embarrass the gov. to correspond by the extremely low ernment by trying to get out of it rate of postage, [ld. for soldiers' in too hasty a manner.-p. 1227. letters.]—p. 1230.

Lord Brougham commended the He adduced some facts as to the candor of Lord Melbourne's state. effect of low prices. In Dublin a ments; he bad more confidence in reduction made in the postage, from the noble Viscount when he saw him iwo pence to a penny, was calcula. take that calm, rational, deliberate ted to create a loss of £20,000 in view of the question, and it would £100,000; but so far from that, it give the country more confidence.-- had produced a gain or £10,000 in p. 1228. The noble Duke had said £100,000. A similar reduction in that extravagant calculations were Edinburgh to a penny rate, had caus. made of the increase of the number ed no loss, and was al present be. of letters to be sent by post, and he ginning to produce an increase. In gave a remarkable instance, which fact, people did not care about a was, of course, quite certain, that a penny rate. The Penny Magazine, regiment of a thousand men, in six with which he in common with ma.

p. 1231.


ny of their lordships was connected, uniform charge of postage should sold in one week 220,000 ; but he be 2d. ; but he found the mass of had no doubt that if raised one half- evidence so strongly in favor of ld., penny in price, the sale would fall that he concluded her Majesty's min. off one half. An instance of the isters were right in coming down to kind took place in the sale of the the uniform rate of ld.-p. 1234. Spectator, Addison's paper, to which The Earl of Lichfield, Postmas. the addition of halfopenny in price ter General, said that the leading caused an immense fall in the cir. idea of Mr. Rowland Hill's bill culation. He had no doubt the same seemed to be the fancy that he had rule would apply to the reduction hit a scheme for recovering the proposed in the bill before their lord. £2,000,000, which he thought the ships, and that here as in most cases post-office had lost by the high rates relating to revenue, the lowering of of postage. His own opinion was, the tax would increase the income. that the recovery of that revenue

was totally impossible, and thai by Lord Ashburton thought the in the proposed reduction, a considerstances cited by his noble friend of able loss to the revenue would acreduction in the revenue were not He, therefore, supported the analogous, the reduction being in the present measure on entirely different present case of an extraordinary na- grounds from those on which Mr. ture. He expected the cost of the Hill proposed il. He assented to department, under the new system, the bill on the grounds on which it would amount to a million of money. had been proposed by his noble This amount must be made up out friend-on the grounds on which it of several pence before they could had been proposed in the House of touch one farihing of the present Commons. In neither house had it income of £1,600,000. He could been brought forward on the ground not help thinking it altogether a mat. that the revenue would be the gain. ter of much uncertainty. There er, or that, under il, the rerenue could be no doubt that the country would be equal 10 that now derived at large would derive an immense from the post office department. benefit; the consumption of paper HE ASSENTED TO IT ON THE SIMPLE would be increased considerably ; it GROUND THAT THE DEMAND FOR IT appeared by all the evidence most WAS UNIVERSAL, after three years' probable that the number of letters consideration-after public meetwould be at least doubled.-p. 1232. ings, at which the matter had been

It appeared to him ihat a tax upon fully discussed, and the voluminous communication between distant par. evidence which showed a material ties, was of all taxes the most ob. loss to the revenue from the change, jectionable. He referred to the con. had been published, petitions from all dition of emigrants in Canada, and paris of the country crowded the taof the poor at home, and to the ben. bles of both houses of Parliameni, and efits of communication in all the the people, through their representabranches of commerce. If men tives, were strong in their expresengaged in business were precluded sions in its favor; and iherefore he froin that free discussion which was was entitled to come, with his noble necessary to the successful transac- friend, to the conclusion that it was tion of their affairs, business must highly expedient that this measure become crippled and contracted, and should pass into a law. So obnos. many excellent speculations must ious was the lax on letters, that the lie dormant, in consequence of in. people had declared their readiness sufficient information.-p. 1233. At to submit to any impost ihat might one time he was of opinion that the be substituted in its stead ; and on

these principles he agreed to the plan, parted to trade, the aid given to assuring the House that he would every movement of philanthropy, use his best exertions in carrying it the power it has conferred on the out.-P. 1938.

people to control the government, With this, the debate closed, and the stability it has given to the gov. the bill passed. The results, the ernment by its new hold upon the benefits to the country, the vast in- affections of the people, are topics crease of correspondence, the friend- of reflection on which our limits for. ships cultivated, the social affections bid us to expatiate at this time. gratified, the great advantages im


The age of Louis XIV. is mark. Fenelon into banishment from his ed by two apparently inconsistent high position at the palace, and perfacts--the unusual prevalence of secuted poor washerwomen for prepersecution by the authorities of suriing to pray in their own houses, the Romish church in France, and in any words not prescribed in the the unusual manifestation of piety liturgy. And yet not all were per: among its members. Whether it secuted. Many private persons, was the extension to another scene whom circumstances did not bring of the powerful work of the Spirit into collision with the ecclesiastics, which was then going forward in were allowed to enjoy their piety in Great Britain, whether it was owing peace; while Fenelon was banish. to the reaction of the persecutions ed, the Duke de Beauvilliers, holdproducing awe and solemnity in the same sentiments and imbued many minds, or whatever is the ex. with a similar piety, was retained planation, ihe fact is indisputable. in office; while Michael de Molinos We need name only Pascal and and Father La Combe were worn Fenelon. But the minute examina- out in prisons, Francis de Sales, tion of the history of that period who taught the same doctrine, was shows a great number who trusted but a little while before (1665) canwith more or less distinctness in a onized. crucified Savior, and led lives of To those who are accustomed to sincere and humble piety. The think that the corruptions of the piery, however, which prevailed Romish church must adhere to every among individuals was a foil 10 set individual in its communion, it may off those anti-christian elements, seem strange to talk about piety which are incorporated into the among Romanists in any age. If Romish church. For, while the to be a member of that church is church was persecuting the Hugue necessarily to be an idolater, 10 be nots, it spared not pious persons ignorant of the truths of the Bible, within its own communion ; il sent to lean on the priest for pardon, 10

trust to penances and human works, Life and religious opinions and expe- then it is indeed impossible to be a rience of Madam de la Mothe Guyon; Roman Catholic and, at the same together with some account of the personal history and religious opinions of time, a Christian. But history shows Fenelon, Arrhbishop of Cambray; By it is not so.

We thank God that we Thomas C. Upham, Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy in Bowdoin Col

are not compelled to believe that lege. In two vols. New York: Harper & the vast portion of the history of Brothers. 1647.

Christendom occupied by the Catho

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