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of speaker. For a part of this period, from the 18th of May unexpected event, his popularity was restored at a bound. 1704, he combined with the speakership the duties of a principal A French refugee, the ex-abbé de la Bourlie (better known by the secretary of state for the northern department, displacing in that name of the marquis de Guiscard), was being examined before the office the Tory earl of Nottingham. In 1703 Harley first made privy council on a charge of treachery to the nation which had use of Defoe's talents as a political writer, and this alliance with befriended him, when he stabbed Harley in the breast with the press proved so successful that he afterwards called the genius a penknife (March 8, 1711). To a man in good health the of Swift to his aid in many pamphlets against his opponents in

s in wounds would not have been serious, but the minister had been politics. While he was secretary of state the union with Scotland for some time indisposed a few days before the occurrence Swift was effected. At the time of his appointment as secretary of had penned the prayer “Pray God preserve his health, every. state Harley had given no outward sign of dissatisfaction with thing depends upon it”-and the joy of the nation on his rethe Whigs, and it was mainly through Marlborough's good covery knew no bounds. Both Houses presented an address to opinion of his abilities that he was admitted to the ministry. the crown, suitable response came from the queen, and on For some time, so long indeed as the victories of the great English Harley's reappearance in the Lower House the speaker made an general cast a glamour over the policy of his friends, Harley | oration which was spread broadcast through the country. On continued to act loyally with his colleagues. But in the summer of the 23rd of May 1711 the minister became Baron Harley of 1707 it became evident to Godolphin that some secret influence Wigmore and earl of Oxford and Mortimer; on the 20th of behind the throne was shaking the confidence of the queen in her May he was created lord treasurer, and on the 25th of October ministers. The sovereign had resented the intrusion into the 1712 became a Knight of the Garter. Well might his friends administration of the impetuous earl of Sunderland, and had exclaim that he had a grown by persecutions, turnings out, and persuaded herself that the safety of the church depended on the stabbings.” fortunes of the Tories. These convictions were strengthened With the sympathy which this attempted assassination had in her mind by the new favourite Abigail Hill (a cousin of the evoked, and with the skill which the lord treasurer possessed duchess of Marlborough through her mother, and of Harley on | for conciliating the calmer members of either political party, her father's side), whose soft and silky ways contrasted only too he passed through several months of office without any loss of favourably in the eyes of the queen with the haughty manners | reputation. He rearranged the nation's finances, and continued of her old friend, the duchess of Marlborough. Both the duchess to support her generals in the field with ample resources for and Godolphin were convinced that this change in the disposition carrying on the campaign, though his emissaries were in com. of the queen was due to the sinister conduct of Harley and his munication with the French king, and were settling the terms of relatives; but he was for the present permitted to remain in his a peace independently of England's allics. After many weeks of office. Subsequent experience showed the necessity for his dis- vacillation and intrigue, when the negotiations were frequently missal and an occurrence supplied an opportunity for carrying on the point of being interrupted, the preliminary peace was out their wishes. An ill-paid and poverty-stricken clerk, William signed, and in spite of the opposition of the Whig majority in Gregg, in Harley's office, was detected in furnishing the enemy the Upper House, which was met by the creation of twelve nes with copies of many documents which should have been kept peers, the much-vexed treaty of Utrecht was brought to a confrom the knowledge of all but the most trusted advisers of the clusion on the 31st of March 1713. While these negotiations court, and it was found that through the carelessness of the head were under discussion the friendship between Oxford and St of the department the contents of such papers became the John, who had become secretary of state in September 1710, common property of all in his service. The queen was thereupon was fast changing into hatred. The latter had resented the rise informed that Godolphin and Marlborough could no longer serve in fortune which the stabs of Guiscard had secured for his in concert with him. They did not attend her next council, colleague, and when he was raised to the peerage with the on the 8th of February 1708, and when Harley proposed to title of Baron St John and Viscount Bolingbroke, instead of proceed with the business of the day the duke of Somerset drew with an earldom, his resentment knew no bounds. The royal attention to their absence, when the queen found herself forced favourite, whose husband had been called to the Upper House (February 11,) to accept the resignations of both Harley and as Baron Masham, deserted her old friend and relation for his St John.

more vivacious rival. The Jacobites found that, although the Harley went out of office, but his cousin, who had now become lord treasurer was profuse in his expressions of good will for their Mrs Masham, remained by the side of the queen, and contrived cause, no steps were taken to ensure its triumph, and they do to convey to her mistress the views of the ejected minister. longer placed reliance in promises which were repeatedly made Every device which the defeated ambition of a man whose and repeatedly broken. Even Oxford's friends began to come. strength lay in his aptitude for intrigue could suggest for hasten- plain of his habitual dilatoriness, and to find some excuse for ing the downfall of his adversaries was employed without scruple, his apathy in ill-health, aggravated by excess in the pleasures and not employed in vain. The cost of the protracted war with of the table and by the loss of his favourite child. By slow France, and the danger to the national church, the chief proof of degrees the confidence of Queen Anne was transferred from which lay in the prosecution of Sacheverell, were the weapons Oxford to Bolingbroke; on the 27th of July 1714 the former which he used to influence the masses of the people. Marlborough surrendered his staff as lord treasurer, and on the ist August himself could not be dispensed with, but his relations were dis- the queen died. missed from their posts in turn. When the greatest of these, On the accession of George I. the defeated minister retired Lord Godolphin, was ejected from ofhce, five commissioners to to Herefordshire, but a few months later his impeachment was the treasury were appointed (August 10, 1710), and among decided upon and he was committed to the Tower on the 16th them figured Harley as chancellor of the exchequer. It was the of July 1715. After an imprisonment of nearly two years the aim of the new chancellor to frame an administration from the prison doors were opened in July 1717 and he was allowed to moderate members of both parties, and to adopt with but slight resume his place among the peers, but he took little part in public changes the policy of his predecessors; but his efforts were affairs, and died almost unnoticed in London on the 21st of May doomed to disappointment. The Whigs refused to join in an 1724. He married, in May 1685. Edith, daughter of Thomas alliance with the man whose rule began with the retirement from Foley, of Witley Court, Worcester. She died in November the treasury of the finance minister idolized by the city merchants, 1691. His second wife was Sarah, daughter of Simon Middletoa, and the Tories, who were successful beyond their wildest hopes at of Edmonton. His son Edward (1689-1741), who succeeded the polling booths, could not understand why their leaders did to the title, married Henrietta (d. 1755), daughter and beiress not adopt a policy more favourable to the interests of their party of John Holles, duke of Newcastle; and his only child, a daughier The clamours of the wilder spirits, the country members who met Margaret (1715-1785), married William Bentinck, and duke of at the “ October Club," began to be re-echoed even by those Portland, to whom she brought Welbeck Abbey and the London who were attached to the person of Harley, when, through an property whicb she inherited from her mother. The earkdom

then passed to a cousin, Edward, 3rd earl (c. 1699-1755), and flanked on one side by a branch of the Thames. From the castle eventually became extinct with Alfred, the 6th earl (1809-1853). the southern wall ran east, along the modern Brewers' Street;

Harley's statesmanship may seem but intrigue and finesse, the south gate of the city was in St Aldate's Street, where it is but his character is set forth in the brightest colours in the poems joined by this lane, and the walls then continued along the north of Pope and the prose or Swift. The Irish dean was his discrimin. side of Christ Church meadow, and north-eastward to the east ating friend in the hours of prosperity, his unswerving advocate gate, which stood in High Street near the junction of Long in adversity. The books and manuscripts which the ist earl Wall Street. Oxford had thus a strong position: the castle of Oxford and his son collected were among the glories of their and the Thames protected it on the east; the two rivers, the age. The manuscripts became the property of the na

walls and the water-meadows between them on the south and 1753 and are now in the British Museum; the books were sold east; and on the north the wall and a deep ditch, of which to a bookseller called Thomas Osborne in 1742 and described vestiges may be traced, as between Broad and Ship Streets. in a printed catalogue of five volumes (1743-1745), Dr Johnson An early rivalry between the universities of Oxford and writing an account of the library. A selection of the rarer pam. Cambridge led to the circulation of many groundless legends phlets and tracts, which was made by William Oldys, was printed respecting their foundation. For example, those which

History in eight volumes (1744-1746), with a preface by Johnson. The connected Oxford with “ Brute the Trojan," King best edition is that of Thomas Park, ten volumes (1808-1813). In Mempric (1009 B.C.), and the Druids, are not found before the the recollection of the Harleian manuscripts, the Harleian library 14th century. The town is as a fact much older than the uniand the Harleian Miscellany, the family name will never die. versity. The historian, John Richard Green, epitomizes the BIBLIOGRAPHY.-- The best life of Harley is by E. S. Roscoe (1902). I

relation between the two corporations when he shows that Articles relating to him are in Engl. Hist. Rev. xv. 238.250 (Defoe

| “Oxford had already seen five centuries of borough life before and Harley by Thomas Bateson); Trans. of the Royal Hist. Soc. xiv, N.S. 69-121 (development of political parties lemp. Q. Anne

a student appeared within its streets. ... The university found by W. Frewen Lord); Edinburgh Review, clxxxvii. 151-178, cxciil. Oxford a busy, prosperous borough, and reduced it to a cluster 457-488 (Harley papers). For his relations with St John see Walter of lodging-houses. It found it among the first of English municiSichel's Bolingbroke (1901-1902, 2 vols.); for those with Swilt, consult the Journal lo Stella and Sir Henry Craik's Life of Surfi

palities, and it so utterly crushed its freedom that the recovery (2nd ed., 1894, 2 vols.).

Wecj" of some of the commonest rights of self-government has only been OXFORD, a city,' municipal and parliamentary borough,

brought about by recent legislation." A poor Romano-British the county town of Oxfordshire, England, and the seat of a

village may have existed on the peninsula between Thames and

| Cherwell, but no Roman road of importance passed within lamous university.'. Pop. (1901) 49,336. It is situated on the river Thames, 51 m. by road and 63; m. by rail W.N.W. of London.

3 m. of it. In the 8th century an indication of the existence of It is served by the main northern line of the Great Western rail.

Oxford is found in the legend of St Frideswide, a holy woman

who is said to have died in 735, and to have founded a nunnery way, and by a branch from the London & North-Western system at Bletchley; while the Thames, and the Oxford canal, running

on the site of the present cathedral. Coins of King Alfred have

been discovered (though not at Oxford) bearing the name Oksnanorth from it, afford water communications. The ancient nucleus of the city stands on a low gravel ridge between the Thames and

forda or Orsnaíorda, which secms to prove the existence of a mint

at Oxford. It is clear, at any rate, that Oxford was already its tributary the Cherwell, which here flow with meandering

important as a frontier town between Mercia and Wessex when courses and many branches and backwaters through flat meadows. Modern extensions of Oxford cross both rivers, the suburbs of

the first unquestionable mention of it occurs, namely in the

English Chronicle under the year 912, when Edward the Elder Osney and Botley lying to the west, Grandpont to the south, and St Clement's to the east beyond the Cherwell. To the north

"took to himsell” London and Oxford. The name points to a is a large modern residential district. The low meadow land is

ford for oxen across the Thames, though some have connected bounded east and west by well-wooded hills, rising rather

the syllable "ox." with a Celtic word meaning "water," comabruptly, though only to a slight elevation, seldom exceeding

paring it with Ouse, Osney and Exford. The first mention of the soo ft. Several points on these hills command celebrated views,

Townsmen of Oxford is in the English Chronicle of 1013, and that such as that from Bagley Hill to the S.W., or from Elsfield to

of its trade in the Abingdon Chronicle, which mentions the toll the N.E., from which only the inner Oxford is visible, with its

paid from the uth century to the abbot of Abingdon by boats collegiate buildings, towers and spires-a peerless city.

passing that town. Notices during that century prove the Main roads from east to west and from north to south inter

growing importance of Oxford. As the chicí stronghold in the sect near the centre of ancient Oxford at a point called Carfax,?

upper Thames valley it sustained various attacks by the Danes, and form four principal streets, High Street (east), Queen Street

being burned in 979, 1002 and 1010, while in 1013 Sweyn took

hostages from it. It had also a considerable political importance, (west), Cornmarket Street (north) and St Aldate's (south).'

and several gemots were held here, as in 1015, when the two Cornmarket Street is continued northward by Magdalen Street,

Danish thanes Sigfrith and Morkere were treacherously killed and near their point of junction Magdalen Street is intersected

by the Mercian Edric; in 1020, when Canute chose Oxford as by a thoroughfare formed, from west to east, by George Street,

the scene of the confirmation of “ Edgar's law" by Danes and Broad Street, Holywell Street and Long Wall Street, the last of

| English: in 1036. when Harold I. was chosen king, and in 1065 which sweeps south to join High Street not far from Magdalen

But Oxford must have suffered heavily about the time of the Bridge over the Cherwell. This thoroughfare is thus detailed, because it approximately indicates the northern and north

Conquest, for according to the Domesday Survey (which for eastern confines of the ancient city. The old walls indeed (of

Oxford is unusually complete) a great proportion of the “manwhich there are many fragments, notably a very fine range in

sions " (106 out of 297) and houses (478 out of 721) were ruined

or unoccupied. The city, however, had already a market, and New College garden) indicate a somewhat smaller area than that defined by these streets. Their line, which slightly varied, as

under the strong hand of the Norman sheriff Robert d'Oili

(c. 1070-1119) it prospered steadily. He made heavy exactions excavations have shown, in different ages, bent south-westward from Cornmarket Street, where stood the north gate, till it reached |

on the townsfolk, though it may be noted that they withheld

from him Port Meadow, the great meadow of 440 acres which is the enceinte of the castle, which lies at the west of the old city,

still a feature of the low riverside tract north of Oxford. But I See also UNIVERSITIES. * This word, which occurs elsewhere in England, means a place

d'Oili did much for Oxford, and the strong tower of the castle where four roads mcet. Its ultimate origin is the Latin quadrifurcus,

and possibly that of St Michael's church are extant relics of his four-forked. Earlier English forms are carfuks, carrefore. The building activity. His nephew, another Robert, who held the modern French is carrefour.

castle after him, founded in 1129 the most notable building that in the common speech of the university some streets are never spoken of as such, but, e.g., as "the High,"'" the Corn" (ie. Corn. ' In his essay on "The Early History of Oxford," reprinted from market), " the Broad." St Aldate's is pronounced St Olds, and Stray Studies, in Studies in Oxford History, by the Oxford Historical the Cherwell (pronounced Chrarwell) is called " the Char."

Society (1901).

Oxford has lost. This was the priory (shortly afterwards the become chancellor in 1630. Vestiges of these exaggerated abbey) of Osney, which was erected by the branch of the Thames powers (as distinct from the more equable division of rights next west of that by which the castle stands. In its finished between the two corporations which now obtains) long survived. state it had a splendid church, with two high towers and a great For example, it was only in 1825 that the ceremony of reparation range of buildings, but only slight fragments may now be traced. enforced on the municipality after the St Scholastica riots was About 1130 Henry I. built for himself Beaumont Palace, the discontinued. site of which is indicated by Beaumont Street, and the same king During the reign of Mary, in 1555, there took place, on a spot gave Oxford its first known charter (not still extant), in which in Broad Street, the famous martyrdom of Ridley and Latimer. mention is made of a gild merchant. This charter is alluded to Cranmer followed them to the stake in 1556, and the three are in another of Henry II., in which the citizens of Oxford and commemorated by the ornate modern cross, an early work of London are associated in the possession of similar customs and Sir G. G. Scott (1841), in St Giles Street beside the church of liberties. The most notable historical incident connected with St Mary Magdalen. A period such as this must have been in the city in this period is the escape of the empress Matilda from many ways harmful to the university, but it recovered prosperity the castle over the frozen river and through the snow to Abingdon, under the care of Elizabeth and Wolsey. During the civil war, when besieged by Stephen in 1142.

however, Oxford, as a city, suddenly acquired a new prominence It is about this time that an indication is first given of organized as the headquarters of the Royalist party and the meeting-place teaching in Oxford, for in 1133 one Robert Pullen is said to have of Charles I.'s parliament. This importance is not incomparable instituted thcological lectures here. No earlier facts are known with that which Oxford possessed in the Mercian period. How. concerning the origin of the university, though it may, with ever the frontier shifted, between the districts held by the probability be associated with schools connected with the king and by the parliament, Oxford was always close to it. ecclesiastical foundations of Osney and St Frideswide; and the It was hither that the king retired after Edgehill, the two battles tendency for Oxford to become a centre of learning may have of Newbury and Naseby; from here Prince Rupert made his been fostered by the frequent presence of the court at Beaumont. dashing raids in 1643. In May 1644 the earl of Essex and Sir A chancellor, appointed by the bishop of Lincoln, is mentioned William Waller first approached the city from the east and in 1214, and an early instance of the subordination of the town south, but failed to enclose the king, who escaped to Worcester, to the university is seen in the fact that the townsfolk were returning after the engagement at Copredy Bridge. The final required to take oaths of peace before this official and the arch-investment of the city, when Charles had lost every other deacon. It may be mentioned here that the present practice of stronghold of importance, and had himself escaped in disguise, appointing a non-resident chancellor, with a resident vice was in May 1646, and on the 24th of June it surrendered to chancellor, did not come into vogue till the end of the 15th Fairfax. Throughout the war the secret sympathies of the citizens century. In the 13th century a number of religious orders, were Parliamentarian, but there was no co which here as elsewhere exercised a profound influence on The disturbances of the war and the divisions of parties, however, education, becamc established in Oxford. In 1221 came the had bad effects on the university, being subversive of discipline Dominicans, whose later settlement (c. 1260) is attested by and inimical to study; nor were these effects wholly removed Blackfriars Street, Preacher's Bridge and Friars' Wharf. In during the Commonwealth, in spite of the care of Cromwell, 1224 the Franciscans settled near the present Paradise Square. who was himself chancellor in 1651-1657. The Restoration In the middle of the century the Carmelites occupied part of the led to conflicts between students and citizens. Charles II. held present site of Worcester College, but their place here was taken the last Oxford parliament in 1681. James II.'s action in forcing by the Benedictines when, about 1315, they were given Beaumont his nominees into certain high offices at last brought the univer. by Edward II., and removed there. The Austin Friars settled sity into temporary opposition to the crown. Later, however, near the site of Wadham College; for the Cistercians Rewley Oxford became strongly Jacobite. In the first year of George I.'s Abbey, scanty remains of which may be traced near the present reign there were serious Jacobite riots, but from that time the railway stations, was founded c. 1 280. During the same century city becomes Hanoverian in opposition to the university, the the political importance of Oxford was maintained. Several feeling coming to a head in 1755 during a county election, which parliaments were held rere, notably the Mad Parliament of 1258, was ultimately the subject of a parliamentary inquiry. But which enforced the enactment of the Provisions of Oxford. George III., visiting Oxford in 1785, was well received by both Again, the later decades of the 13th century saw the initiation parties, and this visit may be taken as the termination of the of the collegiate system. Merton, University and Balliol were purely political history of Oxford. Details of the history of the the earliest foundations under this system. The paragraphs university may be gathered from the following description of below, dealing with each college successively, give the dates and the colleges, the names of which are arranged alphabetically. circumstances of foundation for all. As to the relations between All Souls College was founded in 1437 by Henry Chicheley (...). the university and the city, in 1248 a charter of Henry III. archbishop of Canterbury, for a warden, 40 fellows, 2 chaplains, ents considerable privileges at the expense of and clerks. The charter was issued in the name of

Coberts townsfolk, in the way of personal and financial protection. Henry VI., and it has been held that Chicheley wished, cusu Moreover, the chancellor already possessed juridical powers; | by founding the college, to expiate his own support of the even over the townsfolk he shared jurisdiction with the mayor. disastrous wars in France during the reign of Henry V. and the Not unnaturally these peculiar conditions engendered rivalry ensuing regency. Fifty fellowships in all were provided for by between “ town and gown"; rivalry led to violence, and after the modern statutes, besides the honorary fellowships to which many lesser encounters a climax was reached in the riot on St men of eminence are sometimes elected. Some of the fellowships Scholastica's and the following day, February roth and uth, are held in connexion with university ofhces; but the majority 1354/5. Its immediate cause was trivial, but the townsmen are awarded on examination, and are among the highest honours gave rein to their long-standing animosity, severely handled the in the university offered by this method. The only under. scholars, killing many, and paying the penalty, for Edward III. graduate members of the college are four bible-clerks, so that gave the university a new charter enhancing its privileges. the college occupies a peculiar position as a society of graduates. Others followed froin Richard II. and Henry IV. A charter | The college has its beautiful original front upon High Street; given by Henry VIII. in 1523 at the instigation of Wolsey | the first quadrangle, practically unaltered since the foundation, conferred such power on the university that traders of any sort is one of the most characteristic in Oxíord. The chapel has a might be given its privileges, so that the city had no jurisdiction splendid reredos occupying the whole easiern wall, with tiers of over them. In 1571 was passed the act of Elizabeth which figures in niches. After the original figures had been destroyed incorporated and reorganized the universities of Oxford and during the Reformation the reredos was plastered over, but Cambridge. In 1635 a charter of Charles I. confirmed its privi- 'Here and in some other colleges this title is connected with the leges to the university of Oxford, of which William Laud had | duties of reading the Bible in chapel and saying grace in hall.

when the plaster was removed, Sir Gilbert Scott found enough | Christ Church, in point of the number of its members the remains to render it possible to restore the whole. The second largest collegiate foundation in Oxford, is also eminent owing quadrangle is divided from Radcliffe Square by a stone screen to its unique constitution, the history of which involves that and cloister. From the eastern range of buildings twin towers of the see of Oxford. Mention has been made of the priory rise in graduated stages. On the north side is the library. The of St Frideswide and its very early foundation, also of the later whole is in a style partly Gothic, partly classical, fantastic, but but more magnificent foundation of Osney Abbey. Both of not without dignity. The architect was Sir Christopher Wren's these were involved in the sweeping changes initiated by Wolscy pupil, Nicholas Hawksmoor; the building was spread over the and carried on by Henry VIII. Wolsey projected the foundation first half of the 18th century. The fine library originated in a of a college on an even grander scale than that of the present bequest of Sir Christopher Codrington (d. 1710), and bears his house. In 1524-1525 he obtained authority from Pope Clement name. One of the traditional customs surviving in Oxford is VII. to suppress certain religious houses for the purpose of found at All Souls. Legend states that a mallard was discovered this new foundation. These included St Frideswide's, which in a drain while the foundations were being dug. A song occupied part of the site which Wolsey intended to use. The (probably Elizabethan) on this story is still sung at college new college, under the name of Cardinal College, was licensed gaudies, and later it is pretended to hunt the bird. With such a by the king in 1525. Its erection began immediately. The loundation as All Souls, a great number of eminent names are monastic buildings were in great part removed. Statutes were naturally associated (see Montagu Burrows, Worlhies of All issued and appointments were made to the new offices. But Souls, 1874).

in 1529 Wolsey fell from power. Cardinal College was supBalliol College is one of the earliest foundations. About pressed, and in 1532 Henry VIII. established in its place another 1263 John de Baliol (see BALIOL, family) began, as part of a college, on a reduced foundation, called King Henry VIII.'s penance, to maintain certain scholars in Oxford. Dervorguila, College. Oxford had been, and was at this time, in the huge his wife, developed his work after his death in 1269 by founding diocese of Lincoln. But in 1542, on the suppression of Osney the college, whose statutes date from 1282, though not brought Abbey, a new see was created, and the abbey church was made into final form (apart from modern revision) until 1504. There its cathedral. This arrangement obtained only until 1545, are now twelve fellowships and fifteen scholarships on the old when both the new cathedral church and the new college which foundation. Two fellowships, to be held by members already took the place of Wolsey's foundation were surrendered to the holding fellowships of the college, were founded by James Hozier, king. In 1546 Henry established the composite foundation second Lord Newlands, in 1906, in commemoration of Benjamin which now (subject to certain modern alterations) exists. He Jowell, master of the college. The buildings, which front upon provided for a dean and eight canons and 100 students, 10 Broad Street, Magdalen Street and St Giles Street, are for the which number one was added in 1664. The church of St Frides. most part modern, and mainly by Alfred Waterhouse, Anthony wide's foundation became both the cathedral of the diocese Salvin and William Butterfield. The college has a high reputa- , and the college chapel. The establishment was thus at once tion for scholarship. Its master and fellows possess the unique diocesan and collegiate,' and it remains so, though now the right of electing the visitor of the college. In 1887 Balliol | foundation consists of a dean, six canons, and the usual cathedral College absorbed New Inn Hall, one of the few old halls which staff, a reduced number of students (corresponding to the fellows had survived till modern times. In the time of the civil wars of other colleges) and scholars. Five of the canons are university a royal mint was established in it.

professors. The disciplinary administration of the collegiate Brasenose College (commonly written and called B.N.C.) part of the foundation is under the immediate supervision of was founded by William Smith, bishop of Lincoln, and Sir two students who hold the office of censors. Queen Elizabeth Richard Sutton of Prestbury, Cheshire, in 1509. Its name, established the connexion with Westminster School by which however, perpetuates the fact that it took the place of a much not more than three scholars are elected thence each year to earlier community in the university. There were several small Christ Church. There is also a large number of valuable exhibihalls on its site, all dependent on other colleges or religious tions. The great number of eminent men associated with Christ bouses except one-Brasenose Hall. The origin of this hall is Church can only be indicated here by the statement that its not known, but it existed in the middle of the 12th century. books have borne the names of several members of the British lo 1334 certain students, wishing for peace from the faction-fights and other royal families, including that of King Edward VII. which were then characteristic of their life in Oxford, migrated as prince of Wales and of Frederick VIII. of Denmark as crown to Stamíord, where a doorway remains of the house then occupied prince; also of ten prime ministers during the 19th century. by them as Brasenose Hall. From this an ancient knocker in The stately front of Christ Church is upon St Aldate's Street. the form of a nose, which may have belonged to the hall at The great gateway is surmounted by a tower begun by Wolsey, Oxford, was brought to the college in 1890. It presumably but only completed in 1682 from designs of Sir Christopher Wren. gave name to the hall, though a derivation from brasinium | Though somewhat incongruous in detail, it is of singular and (Latin for a brew-house) was formerly upheld." The original beautiful form, being octagonal and surmounted by a cupola. foundation of the college was for a principal and twelve fellows. It contains the great bell "Tom" (dedicated to St Thomas of This number is maintained, but supernumerary fellowships are | Canterbury), which, though recast in 1680, formerly belonged added. Of a number of scholarships founded by various bene- to Osney Abbey. A clock strikes the hours on it, and at five factors several are confined to certain schools, notably Manchester minutes past ninc o'clock in the evening it is rung 101 times by Grammar School. William Hulme (1691) established a founda hand, to indicate the hour of closing college gates, the number tion which provides for twelve scholars and a varying number of being that of the former body of students. The gate, the tower, exhibitioners on entrance, and also for eight senior scholarships and the first quadrangle are all commonly named after this open under certain conditions to members of the college already bell. Tom Quadrangle is the largest in Oxford, and after in residence. The main front of the college faces Radcliffe various restorations approximates to Wolsey's original design, Square, the whole of this and the first quadrangle, excepting though the cloisters which he intended were never built. On the upper storey, is of the time of the foundation; and the the south side lies the hall, entered by a staircase under a magnifi. gateway tower is a specially fine example. The hall and the cent fan-tracery roof dating from 1640. The hall itself is one chapel, with its fine fan-tracery roof, date from 1663 and 1666, of the finest refectories in England; its roof is of ornate timber. and are attributed to Sir Christopher Wren. In both is seen a work (1529) and a splendid series of portraits of eminent alumni curious attempt to combine Gothic and Grecian styles. Modern of the house adorn the walls, together with Holbein's portraits buildings (by T. G. Jackson) have a frontage upon High Street.

"As a whole it is therefore properly to be spoken of as Christ Robert Burton, author of The Anatomy of Melancholy, became

Church, not Christ Church College. In the common speech of the an undergraduate of the college in 1593; Reginald Heber in university it has become known as The House, though all the 1800; Walter Pater became a fellow in 1864.

colleges are technically " houses."

of Henry VIII. and Wolsey. With the hall is connected the bishop of Exeter, foresaw the dissolution of the monasteries
great kitchen, the first building undertaken by Wolsey. An and advised against this. Fox had especially in view the object
entry through the eastern range of Tom Quadrangle forms the of classical education, and his foundation, besides a president,
west portal of the Cathedral Church of Christ.

20 fellows and 20 scholars, included 3 prosessors-in Greek,
| The cathedral, of which the nave and choir serve also as the

Latin and theology-whose lectures should be open to the
college chapel, is the smallest English cathedral, but is of high whole university. This arrangement fell into desuetude, but
architectural interest. The plan is cruciform, with a northward was revived in 1854, when fellowships of the college were
extension from the north choir aisle, comprising the Lady chapel | annexed to the professorial chairs of Latin and jurisprudence.
and the Latin chapel. It has been seen that probably in the 8th
century St Frideswide founded a religious house. In the east end

The foundation now consists of a president, 16 fellows, 26
of the north choir aisle and Lady chapel may be seen two blocked scholars and 3 exhibitioners. The college has its front
arches, rude, narrow and low. Excavations outside the wall in 1887 | upon Merton Street. The first quadrangle, with its gateway
revealed the foundations of three apses corresponding with these

tower, is of the period of the foundation, and the gate.
two arches and another which has been traced between them, and
in this wall, therefore, there is clearly a remnant of the small Saxon

way has a vauhed roof with beautiful tracery. In the centre of
church. with its eastward triple-apsidal termination. In. 1002 the quadrangle is a curious cylindrical dial in the form of a
there took place the massacre of the Danes on St Brice's day at column surmounted by a pelican (the college symbol), constructed
the order of Athelred II. Some Danes took refuge in the tower of

| in 1581 by Charles Turnbull, a mathematician who entered the
St Frideswide's church, which was fired to ensure their destruction.

college in 1573.

There
In 1004 the king undertook the rebuilding of the church.

The hall has a rich late Perpendicular roof of
on to believe that he had assistance from his brother-in-timber; the chapel, dating from 1517, contains an altar-piece
law, Richard II., duke of Normandy, and that much of his work | ascribed to Rubens, and the small library includes a valuable
remains, notably in some of the remarkable capitals in the choir.

collection of rare printed books and MSS. The college relains
About 1160, however, there was an extensive Norman restoration.
The arcades of the choir and of the nave, which was shortened by

its founder's crozier, and a very fine collection of old plate, for
Wolsey for the purpose of his collegiate building, have massive

| the preservation of which it is probable that Corpus had to pay
pillars and round arches. Within these arches, not, as usual, above a considerable sum in aid of the royalist cause. Behind the
them, a blind arcade forms the triforium, and below this a lower set main quadrangle are the classical Turner buildings, erected during
of arches springs from the outer side of the main pillars. The
Norman stone-vaulted aisles conform in height with these lower

the presidency of Thomas Turner (1706), from a design attributed
arches. Over all is a clerestory with passage. The east end is a to Dean Aldrich. The picturesque college garden is bounded
striking Norman restoration by Sir Gilbert Scott, consisting of two by the line of the old city wall. There are modern buildings
windows and a rose window above them, with an intervening arcade. (1885) by T. G. Jackson on the opposite side of Merton Street
The choir has a Perpendicular fan-tracery roof in stone, one of the

| from the main buildings. Among the famous names associated
finest extant, and the early clerestory is here altered to conform
with this style. The nave roof is wood work of the 16th century,

with the college may be mentioned those of four eminent
and there is a fine Jacobean pulpit. The lower part of the tower, theologians-Reginald Pole, afterwards cardinal (nominated
with internal arcades in the lantern, is Norman; the upper stage is fellow in 1523), John Jewel, bishop of Salisbury (iellow 1543-
Early English, as is the low spire, possibly the earliest built in

1553), Richard Hooker (scholar, 1573) and John Keble (scholar,
England. St Lucy's chapel in the south transept aisle contains a
rich flamboyant Decorated window. In the north choir aisle are

1806). Thomas Arnold, the famous headmaster of Rugby
the fragments which have been discovered and roughly recon school, was a scholar of the college (1811).
structed of St Frideswide's shrine, of marble, with foliage beautifully Exeler College was founded, as Stapeldon Hall, by Walter
carved, representing plants symbolical of the life of the saint. The

Stapeldon, bishop of Exeter, in 1314, but by the middle of the
Latin chapel is of various dates, but mainly of the 14th century.
The north windows contain contemporary glass; the east window

century it had become known as Exeter Hall. The foundation
is a rich early work of Sir E. Burne-Jones, set in stonework of an was extended by Sir William Petre in 1565. Stapeldon's original
inharmonious Venetian design. There are other beautiful windows foundation for 12 scholars provided that 8 of them should
by Burne-Jones at the east ends of the aisles and Lady chapel, and

be from Devonshire and 4 from Cornwall. There are still
at the west end of the south nave aisle. The corresponding window
of the north aisle is a curious work by the Dutch artist Abraham

8 “Stapeldon " scholarships confined to persons born or
van Ling (1630). There are many fine ancient monuments, notably educated within the diocese of Exeter. The foundation
those of Bishop Robert King (d. 1557), and of Lady Elizabeth consists of a rector, 12 fellowships and 21 scholarships or
Montacute (d.' 1355). The so-called watching-chamber for St

more.
Frideswide's shrine is a rich structure in stone and wood dating

There are also a number of scholarships and exhibitions
from c. 1500. The peculiar arrangement of the collegiate seats in

on private foundations, several of which are limited in various
the cathedral, the nave and choir being occupied by modern carved ways, including 3 confined to persons born in the Channel
Dews or stalls running east and west, and the position of the organ Islands or educated in Victoria College, Jersey, or Elizabeth
on a screen at the west end, add to the distinctive interior appearance

College, Guernsey.
of the building. Small cloisters adjoin the cathedral on the south,

The college has its front, which is of great
and an ornate Norman doorway gives access from them to the

length, upon Turl' Street. It has been extensively restored,
chapter-house, a beautiful Early English room. Above the cloisters and its gateway tower was rebuilt in .1703, while the earliest
on the south rises the “old library," originally the monastic re- part of the quadrangle is Jacobean, the hall being an excellent
sectory, which has suffered conversion into dwelling and lecture-

example dating from 1618. The chapel (1857-1858) is an ordate
rooms.

structure by Sir Gilbert Scott; it is in Decorated style, of great
To the north-east of Tom Quadrangle is Peckwater Quadrangle, height, with an eastern apse, and has some resemblance to the
named from an ancient hall on the site, and built from the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The interior contains mosaics by
design of the versatile Dean Henry Aldrich (1705) with the Antonio Salviati and tapestry by Sir E. Burne-Jones and William
exception of the library (1716-1761), which forms one side of Morris. Scott's work is also seen in the frontage towards
it. The whole is classical in style. The library contains some Broad Street, and in the library (1856). The college has a beauti
fine pictures by Cimabue, Holbein, Van Dyck and others, and ful secluded garden between its own buildings and those of the
sculpture by Rysbrack, Roubillac, Chantrey and others. The divinity school or Bodleian library.
small Canterbury Quadrangle, to the east, was built in 1773 Hertford College, in its present form, is a modern foundation.
1783, and marks the site of Canterbury College or Hall, founded | There were formerly several halls on the site, and some time
by Archbishop Islip in 1363, and absorbed in Henry VIII's between 1283 and 1300 Elias of Hertford acquired one of tben,
foundation. To the south of the hall and old library are the which became known as Hert or Hart Hall. In 1313 it was sold
modern Meadow Buildings (1862-1865), overlooking the beautiful to Bishop Stapeldon, the founder of Exeter, and was occupied
Christ Church Meadows, whose avenues lead to the Thames and by his scholars for a short time. Again, some of William of
Cherwell.

Wykeham's scholars were lodged here while New College was
Corpus Christi College (commonly called Corpus) was founded building. The dependence of the hall on Exeter College was
in 1516 by Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester (1500-1528). maintained until the second half of the 16th century. In 1710
He at first intended his foundation to be a seminary connected ?" The Turl" takes its name from a postern (Turl or Thorold
with St Swithin's priory at Winchester, but Hugh Oldham, I Gate) in the city wall, to which the street led.

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