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absorption abuse acid action potentials activity addiction administration alco amphetamine antidepressants antipsychotics arousal axons azepines barbiturates basal ganglia behavior benzodiazepines block blood levels brain caffeine cannabinoids cause cell body Chapter cigarettes cocaine coffee conditioned consumed cortex crease decrease depression developed diazepam digestive system disease dopamine drinkers drinking drug effects of alcohol enzyme excretion experiment fects functioning GABA given hallucinogens heroin high doses humans increase injection ion channels ionized known laboratory animals lever lipid-soluble liver marijuana membrane mesolimbic metabolism methadone methylxanthines molecules monkeys morphine motor nervous system neurons neurotransmitters nicotine nonhumans normal opiates opium orally overdose pentobarbital percent physical dependence placebo positive reinforcement rats receptor sites reported response resting potential result schedule self-administration sensitization shown similar sleep smoking stimulants studies subjective effects substance synapses therapeutic tion tive tobacco tolerance transmitter treatment users usually withdrawal symptoms