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Electoral Rules and Party Strategy
Demographics and Policy
Political Structure and Bureaucratic Incentives
agency slack agents banks branch office budget bureau bureaucrats cabinet campaign career cartels competition constituents constrain court judge delegate Diet majority Eisaku Sato election electoral rules electoral system faction leaders family court favors firms Hanrei jiho High Court implement incentive institutional Iwai Japan Japanese bureaucrats Japanese politics judicial independence judiciary Justice Kakuei Tanaka koan LDP backbenchers LDP candidates LDP Dietmembers LDP leaders LDP leadership LDP legislators LDP members LDP politicians LDP's League members legislature Lower House manipulate ministries MITI MOF bureaucrats monitor multi-member district Nagara River Ohira organization parliamentary system party leaders party leadership party members party's percent personal-vote policymaking positions president Prime Minister problems programs regulations Saihan Sato scholars Secretariat shifts Socialist statutes Supreme Court Table Takeo Fukuda Tanaka tion Tokyo D.C. Tokyo District Court Tokyo High Court University of Tokyo Upper House voters ZSKS